National Museum of Nuclear Science & History
|Established||1969 (National Atomic Museum)
|Location||601 Eubank SE (at Southern Blvd)
Albuquerque, New Mexico
|Type||Aviation and science museum|
The National Museum of Nuclear Science & History (formerly named National Atomic Museum) is a national repository of nuclear science information chartered by the 102nd United States Congress under Public Law 102-190, and located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. "The mission of the National Atomic Museum is to serve as America's resource for nuclear history and science. The Museum presents exhibits and quality educational programs that convey the diversity of individuals and events that shape the historical and technical context of the nuclear age."
The Museum was originally sited in 1969 on the grounds of Kirtland Air Force Base in an old 90 mm anti-aircraft gun repair facility, and named "Sandia Atomic Museum". It was the result of a six-year effort to establish a museum to tell the story of the base and the development of nuclear weapons, and was staffed by United States Air Force (USAF) personnel with help from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). In 1973, the Museum name changed to "National Atomic Museum", but it did not yet have a national charter.
In 1985, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) became responsible for the Museum, and the staff became DOE employees. In 1991 the Museum received its charter as a national museum and its mission expanded to include aspects of nuclear science and history beyond the manufacturing of nuclear weapons. The Museum also became affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution. In 1992 the National Atomic Museum Foundation (NAMF) was created to act as a supporting organization for the Museum and reduce the financial burden on taxpayers. DOE transferred Museum operation to SNL in 1995, and Museum staff became SNL employees.
After the terror attacks in September 2001, increased security restricted public access to the Museum's on-base site and forced relocation to a former REI store in Old Town Albuquerque's museum district. In 2005, SNL transferred operational responsibility to NAMF. SNL employees working as museum staff moved to other positions within Sandia. The Museum hired new staff who became employees of NAMF.
When the Museum relocated to Albuquerque's museum district, the site had inadequate space for outdoor exhibits. In January 2005, NAMF asked DOE/NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) for 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land at the intersection of Eubank and Southern Boulevards in southeast Albuquerque for construction of a new museum. In October 2006 a formal Land Use Agreement was signed with SNL as Grantor and NAMF as Grantee. Ground was broken and construction was begun. Museum staff documented its construction project via a blog and a Flickr gallery where photos were posted weekly to show the building's progress.
The new Museum opened on April 4, 2009 in its new location under the new name National Museum of Nuclear Science & History.
Funding for construction came from multiple sources, including:
- $5 million in Federal funds for design and construction
- $1 million transferred from the State of New Mexico to the City of Albuquerque for infrastructure
- $2.63 million from corporations
- $25 thousand from foundations
- $500 thousand from individual contributions
The new facility incorporates 16 permanent indoor exhibit areas, two classrooms, a theater, library and conference room, a gallery for temporary exhibits, and the Museum's store in 30,000 sq ft (0.28 ha). of space. The site provides nine-acres (3.6 ha) of outdoor space for exhibits of military aircraft, missiles, vehicles, and the sail of the USS James K. Polk nuclear submarine.
Museum operating costs of approximately $1.8M annually are provided by NAMF through earned and contributed revenues associated with operation of the Museum, from admissions, NAMF memberships, grants, summer camps, events/rentals, and Museum store proceeds. A contract for services between Sandia National Laborbatories and NAMF exists as well.
Exhibits and displays
- Section source: NMoNSH
The Museum is dedicated to preserving and presenting information about scientific, historic, and cultural aspects of the Atomic Age. Permanent exhibits focus on:
Pioneers of the Atom —An interactive display that introduces the individuals who questioned and defined the matter which makes up the universe. Visitors can use the interactive kiosk to trace the study of the atom.
World War II —A display that teaches the history leading up to the creation and use of the atomic bomb and the countries that became involved.
Secrets, Lies & Atomic Spies — An exhibit where visitors experience the world of espionage, as secrets and spies infiltrated New Mexico during WWII and the Cold War.
The Decision to Drop — The dawn of the Atomic Age began with the design and testing of the world’s first atomic bomb during the Manhattan Project. Visitors are introduced to the daily lives of the scientists who lived at Los Alamos and journey with them to the Trinity site where the first explosion occurred in 1945. These exhibits include a series of displays striving for objective examination of the history leading up to, and the policy decisions regarding, deployment of the first nuclear weapons code-named Little Boy and Fat Man.
The exhibit includes text of comments by Manhattan Project staff (including a contentious Edward Teller statement advocating a high-altitude night-time demonstration detonation over Tokyo to precipitate Japanese surrender), text of statements by Japanese politicians and military leaders, a copy of the petition protesting use without warning submitted by nuclear physicist Leó Szilárd, and photographs from the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. The display also features video footage of the reminiscences of Col. Paul Tibbets (pilot of the Enola Gay, the B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan), and coverage of the emotion the surrender of Japan produced in the United States.
Cold War — An examination of the strategic conflict between the United States and the USSR in the second half of the 20th Century, through US nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands and at the Nevada Test Site, Soviet nuclear development, the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, and leading to the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union. This also includes the Palomares exhibition, an extensive accounting of the January 17, 1966 Palomares B-52 crash — a mid-air collision between two USAF aircraft (a B-52 bomber and a KC-135 tanker) over Palomares, Almería resulting in radioactive contamination following the accidental dropping of four hydrogen bombs.
Heritage Park —This 9-acre outdoor exhibit is complete with planes, rockets, missiles, cannons, and a nuclear submarine sail.
Nuclear Medicine — A display of early and modern medical equipment using principles of nuclear physics.
Little Al's Lab — An area presided over by an animatronic version of Albert Einstein, provides hands-on, family-friendly science activities for children.
Energy Encounter — A series of displays focusing on civilian use of nuclear power including:
- history of nuclear reactors and discussion of their engineering principles
- examination of nuclear power accidents, safety engineering, and waste treatment/storage
- models of the American Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and French Superphénix Fast breeder reactor
- a model of the NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered merchant ship
- nuclear energy as one part of a spectrum of alternative energy-producing methods
Radiation 101 — A display of everyday items and activities that expose people to ionizing radiation.
Atomic Pop Culture — Every visitor will be entertained while viewing how American popular culture reflected the dawning of the Atomic Age. This includes vintage movie memorabilia, comic books, accessories and more.
Nuclear Waste Transportation — The TruPact II container is on display in this exhibit - a type of transportation container used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to transport transuranic waste.
Uranium Cycle — An exhibit where visitors learn about the steps in the process required to change uranium into a usable form for nuclear power plants or weapons as well as options for disposal and recycling.
Nano —An interactive exhibition where visitors can imagine and discover a world they can’t see, and learn about big ideas that come from the small world of nanoscience.
Temporary Exhibit Hall — An area devoted to different temporary exhibits.
Both self-guided and docent-led tours are available.
- replicas of Little Boy and Fat Man
- assorted modern nuclear bombs and warheads
- a WE.177 bomb (British nuclear weapon deployed from the 1960s until 1998)
- a Norden bombsight
- two of the actual bomb casings from the Palomares hydrogen bombs incident
- a collection of items reflecting daily life at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project.
- an assortment of kitsch and products exemplifying the impact of the Atomic Age on US culture.
- an early fluoroscope X-ray device
- a PRISM 2000 XP Gamma Camera (example of more modern nuclear imaging technology)
- a display of nuclear and homeopathic medical quackery artifacts
- an extensive model collection of military aircraft and other vehicles
- a Lego model of Chicago Pile-1
Controversy arose  when the Museum relocated to the Old Town museum district and erected its Redstone rocket at the corner of 20th Street and Mountain Road NW. Some people saw the erecting of the rocket in an area of the city frequented by lovers of the arts and families with children as emblematic of pervasive military-industrial complex influence in Albuquerque and New Mexico. Others saw the rocket as relevant to accurate portrayal of New Mexico's involvement in the nuclear age. With the opening of the new museum, the Redstone rocket has been relocated to the Eubank site.
Aircraft on display
- TA-7C Corsair II Navy Bureau number 154407
- B-29 Superfortress USAF serial number 45-21748
- B-47E Stratojet USAF serial number 53-2280
- B-52B Stratofortress (originally RB-52B) USAF serial number 52-013
- F-105D Thunderchief USAF serial number 61-0107
- F-16A Fighting Falcon USAF serial number 78-0050
Science education and community activities
The Museum conducts year-round primary, secondary, and adult education programs both in-house and via outreach using the Up'n'Atom Mobile. Professional educator development programs support New Mexico school curriculum standards. The museum hosts guest speakers, annual special events, and week-long youth science camps in the summer. Rental space is available for birthdays and other occasions.
In popular culture
- Text of Public Law 102-190
- National Museum of Nuclear Science & History: Text of Museum's Mission Statement
- Powerpoint presentation on Museum history, Foundation funding, and new construction.
- Construction project blog
- Flickr gallery of Museum construction
- "Nuclear museum's new site set to open Sat.". New Mexico Business Weekly. 2009-04-02. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- National Museum of Nuclear Science & History: Exhibits Official site
- National Museum of Nuclear Science & History: List of available tours
- Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space, December 13, 2003 — Albuquerque War Missile Protest Alert!
- Google Map view of Museum — see street view showing base of rocket.
- Albuquerque Tribune editorial, 19 Feb 2008.
- National Atomic Museum Education & Outreach website
- Breaking Bad Locations: National atomic museum
- National Museum of Nuclear Science & History — official site
- Trinity [Atomic Test] Site: The 50th Anniversary of the Atomic Bomb (an e-book at Project Gutenberg) Works by National Atomic Museum at Project Gutenberg
- A Visitor's Pictorial Web Site of the old Museum at Kirtland AFB. National Atomic Museum Pictorial[dead link], Kirtland AFB.
- Works by National Atomic Museum at Project Gutenberg