National museums of Canada
The National museums of Canada are a system of national museums operated by the federal government of Canada consisting of: the Canadian Museum of History; the Canadian Museum of Nature; the National Gallery of Canada; the Canada Science and Technology Museum; the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21; and the Canadian Human Rights Museum. The museums operate as federal Crown corporations governed by Canada's Museums Act (1990).
The concept of a "National Museum" in Canada had its beginnings on May 16, 1856, when the government of the Province of Canada authorized the Geological Survey of Canada to establish a Geological Museum in Montreal (then, the capital of the province). Once moved to Ottawa, the museum's scope gradually expanded; the National Museum of Canada was officially created from the Museum Branch of the federal Department of Mines on January 5, 1927.
National Museums of Canada Corporations
The National Museums of Canada Corporation (NMC) was created in 1967. It included: The National Gallery of Canada Corporation, the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, the Canadian Museum of Nature Corporation, and the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation (now the Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation). The Canadian Conservation Institute, the Museum Assistance Program, The National Museum Library, and other miscellaneous museum and administrative offices were also under the NMC umbrella. The corporation was formalized under The National Museums Act which took effect on 1 April 1968. The NMC operated until 1988.
On July 1, 1990 by the Museums Act (1990 established the four national museums as crown corporations:
- Ingenium - Canada's Museums of Science and Innovation, which encompasses the, Canada Science and Technology Museum, Canada Agriculture and Food Museum as well as the Canada Aviation and Space Museum.
- Canadian Museum of Nature (formerly the National Museum of Natural Sciences).
- Canadian Museum of History, which encompasses the Canadian War Museum (formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization; and formerly the National Museum of Man|Canadian Museum of Civilization and the National Museum of Man).
- National Gallery of Canada, which encompasses the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography.
In 2011, the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 (formerly the Pier 21 Society) joined these institutions. In the fall of 2014, the Canadian Museum for Human Rights opened to become the newest national museum in the country.
- Bothwell, Robert (2009). "National Museums of Canada". Museums, Galleries and Archives. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Renewal Project: The Victoria Memorial Museum Building (VMMB): The Birthplace of Canada's National Museums". Canadian Museum of Nature. Government of Canada. July 29, 2004. Archived from the original on April 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-01.