National Organization for Marriage
|Motto||Protecting Marriage and
the Faith Communities
that Sustain It
|Headquarters||Princeton, New Jersey, United States|
|Brian S. Brown|
The National Organization for Marriage (NOM) is an American non-profit political organization established in 2007 to work against the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. It was formed in 2007 specifically to pass California Proposition 8 prohibiting same-sex marriage in California. The group has opposed civil union legislation and gay adoption, and has fought against allowing transgender individuals to use bathrooms that accord with their gender identity. Brian S. Brown has served as the group's president since 2010.
- 1 Leadership
- 2 Nonprofit status and funding
- 3 Activity
- 3.1 2007 Massachusetts constitutional amendment
- 3.2 California Proposition 8
- 3.3 Stand for Marriage Maine
- 3.4 Advertising campaigns
- 3.5 New York Congressional phone campaign
- 3.6 Summer for Marriage Tour
- 3.7 Campaign finance lawsuit
- 3.8 Civil union opposition
- 3.9 Iowa judge retention vote campaign
- 3.10 New York same-sex marriage opposition
- 3.11 North Carolina Amendment 1
- 3.12 2012 presidential pledge
- 3.13 Oregon intercession
- 3.14 March For Marriage
- 3.15 Transgender students
- 3.16 International activities
- 4 Disclosure violation convictions
- 5 Criticism and opposition
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
NOM's founding board of directors consisted of:
- Maggie Gallagher, President
- Brian S. Brown, Executive Director (former Executive Director of Family Institute of Connecticut)
- Robert P. George, Chairman of the Board
- Neil Corkery, Treasurer
- Chuck Stetson (Chairman of the Board, Bible Literacy Project)
- Ken Von Kohorn (Chairman of the Board, Family Institute of Connecticut)
- Luis Tellez (President, Witherspoon Institute Board of Trustees)
- Matthew S. Holland (President, Utah Valley University)
In April 2009, Holland was replaced on the board by Orson Scott Card (science fiction novelist and faculty member, Southern Virginia University), who then resigned in July 2013 after calling the battle against legalization of same-sex marriage in the US "moot" following a Supreme Court decision. In September 2011, law professor John Eastman replaced Gallagher as the Chairman of the Board.
Nonprofit status and funding
Groups and projects
The group operates two nonprofit arms: a 501(c)(4) political advocacy group called National Organization for Marriage Inc., established in January 2008, and a 501(c)(3) called NOM Education Fund established in July 2008. The latter arm is not entitled to influence legislation or political campaigns. The Firefighters' Defense Fund, which existed to fund a successful sexual harassment lawsuit by firemen who claim they were forced to participate in a gay pride parade, was a NOM Education Fund project.
The group also operates a number of state-based political action committees such as National Organization for Marriage PAC New York founded in June 2009, and National Organization for Marriage California PAC founded in February 2009. The state PACs receive funding from the main 501(c)(4) NOM arm.
NOM has said that it has a wide base of grassroots support, but the majority of its funding is from very few large anonymous donors. In NOM's IRS filing for 2009, three donations of $2.4 million, $1.2 million and $1.1 million made up 68% of NOM's contributions and grants income of a little over $7.1 million, and just five donations made up 75%.
In 2010, Jesse Zwick, then a reporter for the Washington Independent, said he uncovered a 2009 donation to NOM—$1.43 million from the Knights of Columbus—that reporter Luke Johnson later said was apparently not reported to the IRS by NOM.
In 2010, two donors provided $6 million, two-thirds of the total donations for the year.
On its 2012 tax return, NOM reported a roughly $2 million deficit. Three donors contributed nearly two-thirds of the organization's $9.3 million in donations.
Gay rights activist Fred Karger said in 2010 that NOM is connected to the Latter Day Saint movement, with large private donations coming from Mormon sources. Gallagher responded by denying any connection to the LDS movement "except that a Mormon serves on NOM's board." Former board member Matthew S. Holland is a Mormon as is his replacement Orson Scott Card, and Catholic board member Robert P. George has served since August 2010 as an editorial advisor to the Deseret News, a newspaper owned by the LDS Church.
NOM has been involved in ballot measures, legislative elections, judicial elections, and issue advertising in various states. NOM was involved in the successful Proposition 8 campaign in California in 2008, as well as a similar successful campaign in Maine one year later. NOM was also involved in unsuccessful efforts to pass an amendment eliminating same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2007. NOM participated in efforts to block same-sex marriage in New Jersey, and has unsuccessfully attempted to block same-sex marriage legalization in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia. On June 16, 2009, NOM announced the formation of NOM PAC New York, a political action committee with a goal of providing $500,000 to fund primary challenges against any Republican New York state senator who votes for gay marriage. NOM stated that they were "also looking to aid Democratic candidates who want to buck the establishment on the marriage issue, and to help in general election contests." In 2010, NOM was involved in successful efforts to oust three Iowa Supreme Court judges who had concurred in a decision that effectively legalized same-sex marriage there.
In 2009, Peter Montgomery of the progressive organization People for the American Way stated: "You have to take [NOM] seriously [...] They've raised a tremendous amount of money that they're funneling into various states."
2007 Massachusetts constitutional amendment
One of the group's first public acts was to campaign in support of a proposed 2007 Massachusetts constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage by restricting marriage to "the union of one man and one woman", in response to the Massachusetts court decision that legalized same-sex marriage in that state. The NOM-supported amendment failed to pass. The campaign included a billboard comparing representative Angelo Puppolo to Judas Iscariot and Benedict Arnold after he changed his position to oppose the amendment.
California Proposition 8
NOM was first formed to support the passage of California Proposition 8 in 2008, which amended the state Constitution to discontinue same-sex marriage ceremonies. The amendment defined marriage as the union between one man and one woman. NOM contributed $1.8 million to the Proposition 8 effort, and has been described as being "instrumental" in the success of the initiative. Proposition 8 was passed by voters 52% to 48%, and involved an estimated $83M by both sides of the issue. The amendment was in force until United States district court Judge Vaughn R. Walker overturned it in August 2010, in the case Perry v. Schwarzenegger, ruling that it violated both the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the United States Constitution. NOM chairman Maggie Gallagher expressed her disagreement with the ruling, targeting Walker's sexuality and accusing him of "substituting his views for those of the American people and of our Founding Fathers." NOM President, Brian Snow, also expressed dissatisfaction with the ruling, stating "With a stroke of his pen, Judge Walker has overruled the votes and values of 7 million Californians"  Walker did however place a temporary injunction on same-sex marriages to allow the defendants to bring their case before the United States Supreme Court. On June 26, 2013 the United States Supreme Court ruled the defendants in the case lacked standing to appeal earlier rulings in Federal Court. As a consequence, Walker's opinon striking down the law as unconstitutional stands as the final decision in the case. NOM addressed the Supreme Court's ruling on its website, asking the nation "show its displeasure" with the ruling, adding that "the Supreme Court ripped the legs out from under the institution of marriage." 
Stand for Marriage Maine
In 2009, NOM was the primary contributor to Stand For Marriage Maine, the organization that led the successful campaign for Question 1 in Maine, a voter referendum that repealed the law passed by the legislature to allow same-sex marriages in the state. Voters passed the referendum 53%–47% out of 567,057 votes cast. Out of the initial $343,000 in contributions, NOM provided some $160,000.
NOM has brought a number of lawsuits to prevent being required to release the names of its donors funding Stand For Marriage Maine.
On April 8, 2009, NOM began a "2 Million for Marriage" (2M4M) initiative with the intention of organizing two million activists nationwide. When NOM used the abbreviation "2M4M" for their "2 Million for Marriage" campaign, the media noted that in personal ads, "2M4M" is code for two men seeking a third male sexual partner. NOM did not secure the domain name and other net resources that use the "2M4M" term. Christopher Ambler, a consultant in rapid web development who characterizes himself as a "happily married straight guy", purchased the domain "2M4M.org" and branded it as "Two Men For Marriage," running material counter to NOM's 2M4M aims.
The 2M4M campaign used an advertisement, "Gathering Storm", in which actors, primarily Mormons from Arizona, standing against a dramatic storm-cloud background, voiced opposition to same-sex marriage.
The Human Rights Campaign, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) lobbying group and political action committee, described the ad saying that, in it, "actors make disproven claims about marriage for lesbian and gay couples."
New York Times columnist Frank Rich described the "Gathering Storm" advertisement as "an Internet camp classic", and it was parodied by Stephen Colbert, the website Funny or Die, and in the Futurama episode "Proposition Infinity".
On April 30, 2009, NOM and Carrie Prejean launched another ad campaign against gay marriage, called "No Offense". In the ad, they object to being characterized as "outright bigots" because of their stance. After semi-nude photos of Prejean were posted on the Internet, causing some to accuse NOM of hypocrisy, NOM issued a press release stating that Prejean had appeared with NOM as a private citizen and not as a spokesperson. In the wake of the revelation that Prejean had made masturbation videos, NOM removed reference to the video from the front page of their website.
On May 28, 2009, NOM rolled out an advertising campaign in New York, including a video spot. The Christian Science Monitor described the spot as listing a "litany of grievances" as an "ominous score" plays, with a potentially embarrassing error for a campaign based on education: misspelling marriage as marraige.
New York Congressional phone campaign
NOM spent over $112,000 on a get-out-the-vote phone campaign for Conservative Party of New York candidate Douglas Hoffman in the contentious 2009 House of Representatives campaign for New York's 23rd District. After pro-same-sex-marriage Republican candidate Dede Scozzafava withdrew from the race, Hoffman lost to Democrat Bill Owens, who also opposed gay marriage, by a 2.3% margin. State senators said that this congressional race had an impact on the New York State Senate's December 2, 2009 vote against same-sex marriage legislation; all 30 Republican state senators voted "no". Following her unsuccessful campaign, Scozzafava acknowledged that her name had begun being used as a verb: "scozzafavaed". When the gay Republican organization GOProud had a booth at the 2010 Conservative Political Action Conference, Brown commented, "[W]e have a message for GOProud on marriage: If you try to elect pro-gay-marriage Republicans, we will Dede Scozzafava them." In addition, Maggie Gallagher has used the phrase "the Dede effect" to describe Republican lawmakers' fear of alienating their constituents by voting for same-sex marriage legislation.
Summer for Marriage Tour
In 2010, NOM staged a 23-city tour holding rallies against same-sex marriage. The rallies attracted supporters and pro-gay marriage protesters. At many stops along the tour, NOM supporters were outnumbered by counter-protesters supporting same-sex marriage; in Atlanta, LGBT rights supporters outnumbered opponents of same-sex marriage by a ratio of ten to one. The tour ended with a rally at the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., while pro-gay marriage activists held a simultaneous event at the Freedom Plaza.
After Peter Yarrow and Paul Stookey, the surviving members of Peter, Paul and Mary, discovered that NOM had been using their recording of "This Land is Your Land" rallies in this tour, they sent a letter to Brown requesting that NOM cease using their recording, stating that NOM's philosophy was "directly contrary to the advocacy position" held by the group. Similarly, after John Mellencamp was informed that NOM had used his song "Pink Houses" at one of their events, his publicist wrote a letter (at his instruction) stating Mellencamp's support for same-sex marriage and asking that NOM stop using his music.
Campaign finance lawsuit
NOM filed a lawsuit in US district court, on free speech grounds, seeking the right to run ads in the Rhode Island governor's race without complying with that state's campaign finance laws, including both campaign financing contribution limits and reporting requirements. In October 2010 the suit was dismissed; the court called the filing "disorganized, vague and poorly constructed" and gave the group one week to refile the lawsuit. NOM appealed to federal court, who ruled against them.
Civil union opposition
NOM has opposed civil union recognition, calling it "a direct threat to marriage and the religious liberties" and stating that "civil union statutes across the country have been used to sue business owners and professionals who run their practices by their deeply held religious beliefs." It has campaigned against the passage of Illinois's Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, SB 1716.
Iowa judge retention vote campaign
On November 2, 2010, NOM ran a bus tour through Iowa campaigning for removal of three Iowa Supreme Court justices then up for a retention vote, following the court's unanimous decision in Varnum v. Brien; the retention vote was "the most controversial...and one of the closest" races on the ballot. All three justices lost the retention vote, the first time any judge had lost that vote since Iowa initiated the retention system in 1962.
New York same-sex marriage opposition
NOM actively opposed legalization of same-sex marriage in New York in 2011. The group sponsored a rally in the Bronx in May 2011 with state Senator Ruben Diaz, Sr., a Democrat. After same-sex marriage was legalized in the state by the legislature in June 2011, NOM pledged to spend $2 million to defeat the four Republicans who voted for the bill to legalize it, and has erected signs in the districts of those senators, warning "You're Next". Wealthy same-sex marriage supporters vowed to finance the targeted senators.
NOM supported four "Let the People Vote" rallies later in July of the same year, with the stated purpose of having the voters decide the issue versus the bill passed by the state's legislature.
North Carolina Amendment 1
NOM provided more than $300,000 to the committee supporting North Carolina's Amendment 1, a 2012 referendum which would alter the state's constitution to forbid marriage and all other recognition for same-sex couples.
2012 presidential pledge
On August 3, 2011, NOM unveiled a pledge for 2012 Republican presidential candidates. Signers pledge that they will support a federal marriage amendment, appoint federal judges who are originalists and thus "reject the idea our Founding Fathers inserted a right to gay marriage in our Constitution", defend the Defense of Marriage Act in court, "establish a presidential commission on religious liberty to investigate and document reports of Americans who have been harassed or threatened for exercising key civil rights to organize, to speak, to donate or to vote for marriage", and "advance legalization to return to the people of the District of Columbia their right to vote on marriage." This pledge was signed by candidates Rick Perry, Mitt Romney, Rick Santorum, Michele Bachmann, and Newt Gingrich (who initially declined), along with Tim Pawlenty; Ron Paul and Herman Cain chose not to sign. During the Iowa primary campaign, NOM aired a TV ad targeting Paul, contrasting his failure to pledge with the activities of "the major presidential candidates", thus implying that Paul was not truly in contention in the primary campaign.
NOM attempted repeatedly to intercede in the legalization of same-sex marriage in Oregon. The group requested to be allowed to act as defendants in the state court case that ultimately found the ban on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional, but were denied by the judge as lacking standing, a ruling that was confirmed by the federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. After the ruling that started same-sex marriage in the state, NOM filed a request with the U.S. Supreme Court, asking that the state court's ruling be stayed, to allow NOM to further pursue its case for being an intercessor, and that the matter be reviewed by the Supreme Court. The request was denied.
March For Marriage
NOM organized protest marches against same-sex marriage in Washington, DC in 2013, 2014, and 2015. The 2015 March For Marriage took place on April 25, the Saturday before the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in a set of cases related to same-sex marriage.
On September 20, 2013, NOM announced that they would begin gathering signatures aimed at putting a proposition on the November 2014 California ballot of a law addressing the rights of transgender students. The law, AB 1266, allows students to play on school sports teams and to use school bathrooms that accord with their gender identity. Brown said that "Opening our most vulnerable areas at school including showers, bathrooms and changing rooms to members of the opposite sex is politically-correct madness that risks the privacy and security of our children and grandchildren." On February 24, 2014, the California secretary of state's office reported that the proposition had failed to gather enough valid signatures to qualify for the November election.
NOM president Brown has spoken in Russia calling for the illegalization of adoption by LGBT people. He spoke to the Duma committees on international affairs and the family, telling them that persecution of religious people would arise from permitting equal rights in any form.
Disclosure violation convictions
In 2009, Californians Against Hate (CAH) filed a formal complaint with the IRS against NOM, saying that NOM had refused to make its IRS 990 forms public, as required by law. CAH representatives went to "the Princeton, New Jersey, offices of the National Organization for Marriage twice to get copies of their IRS 990 reports, to no avail," said CAH's president, Fred Karger. "Then our representative, Ben Katzenberg, sent two certified letters to the NOM office on March 18, 2009, requesting its two 990 forms. Federal law requires NOM to furnish copies of these IRS filings within 30 days after the request has been received. And 40 days later, still no 990s." NOM has since posted 990 forms for 2007 and 2008 on their website.
In March 2009, Karger filed a complaint with the California Fair Political Practices Commission alleging that the National Organization for Marriage was established by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in order to direct church funds toward the passage of Proposition 8. A church spokesman and NOM's then-president Maggie Gallagher both denied the allegations.
The Maine Commission on Governmental Ethics and Election Practices fined NOM over $50,000 and demanded the group file a campaign finance report, revealing donors, for fundraising related to a 2009 Maine referendum. Maine laws require organizations that solicit more than $5,000 for a ballot question campaign to file disclosure reports. NOM contributed $1.6 million to Stand For Marriage Maine as of October 23, 2009, without filing any disclosure reports. The Commission was started on the path an investigation by Karger. The commission approved an investigation on a 3–2 vote, overriding the recommendation of their staff. NOM responded by filing suit, claiming that the state's election laws violate the Constitution. NOM, arguing that their lawsuit was likely to succeed, sought a federal restraining order to avoid having to provide donor names before the date of the balloting, which U.S. District Court Judge David Brock Hornby denied. In January 2010, representatives of the group were subpoenaed to appear before the commission. In February, the group requested that those subpoenas be dropped, but the commission voted unanimously to deny that request. On May 23, 2010, Magistrate Judge John H. Rich III of the U.S. District Court of Maine ordered NOM to submit bank statements and similar documentation, covering the dates from January 1, 2009 forward, to Maine's Commission on Government Ethics and Election Practices within seven days. On June 24, 2010, the commission rejected NOM's claim that the commission lacked appropriate authority and should cease its investigation. In February 2011, Hornby issued a summary judgment ruling that Maine's disclosure law was valid, a decision NOM appealed and lost in August 2011. In September 2011, the federal court denied NOM's request to have the case reheard, and in February 2012 the U.S. Supreme Court rejected NOM's request to hear the case. In January 2012, NOM lost another federal appeal on a different aspect of their Maine case, but said that they would take that issue to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case on October 1, 2012. After hearing arguments on April 11, 2013, the Maine Supreme Judicial Court on May 30 affirmed the lower court ruling and rejected NOM's challenge to the Maine Commission on Governmental Ethics and Elections Practices's subpoenas. The Commission announced their findings and the fine on May 28, 2014, saying that NOM had "intentionally set up its fundraising strategy to avoid disclosure laws". A lawyer representing NOM plans to appeal the matter in state court, and NOM filed complaint against two groups that support gay marriage, the Human Rights Campaign and the National Gay & Lesbian Task Force Foundation, saying that they had engaged in the same actions as NOM.
In Iowa, the organization is under investigation by the Iowa Ethics & Campaign Disclosure Board over whether it failed to properly disclose the names of donors towards its campaign to unseat judges who had ruled in favor of same-sex marriage in the state. Previously, it had faced accusations from the Interfaith Alliance of Iowa Action Fund and One Iowa that it has failed to properly disclose its contributors. NOM's efforts in that state included spending $86,060 on the failed state House of Representatives campaign of Stephen Burgmeier.
NOM executive director Brown has stated that the group does not release donor names to prevent donor intimidation by proponents of same-sex marriage. The group used that argument in an unsuccessful lawsuit seeking to exempt them from California's disclosure laws. On March 2, 2015, the United States Supreme Court turned down an appeal of this case, bringing it to an end.
Criticism and opposition
In September 2010, the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) and the Courage Campaign launched "NOM Exposed", a website which says it documents "Truth, Lies, and Connections about the So-Called National Organization for Marriage." The site contains profiles of NOM leaders and prominent supporters; details of NOM's links to Latter-Day Saints, the Catholic Church and conservative Christian organizations such as Opus Dei, the Knights of Columbus and Focus on the Family; information about NOM's budget; and an interactive map with information on NOM activities in specific states. HRC spokesperson Michael Cole characterized NOM as "a secretive player in antigay politics, which is posing as an offshore company for antigay religious money"; NOM president Brown countered that NOM is "not out to hoodwink voters... [but is] talking openly about same-sex marriage" and predicted that the "NOM Exposed" website would backfire. Brown also said that HRC's "heavy-handed attacks on NOM only prove that we are the key national organization fighting for marriage as one man and one woman."
The naming of NOM donors on the NOM Exposed website was the basis of a lawsuit by NOM against the IRS. The list of donors had come from a Schedule B document which is public information, but from which the IRS is supposed to redact donor names when distributing. NOM sought damages and the revelation of the identity of the individual who released the document. The case for punitive damages was rejected by U.S. District Judge James C. Cacheris, who said that NOM had "made no showing from which a reasonable jury could find that the disclosure of its Schedule B was the result of willfulness or gross negligence". Under a consent judgment issued on June 24, 2014, the IRS agreed to pay $50,000 in damages to the National Organization for Marriage as a result of the unlawful release of the confidential information.
Southern Poverty Law Center
The Southern Poverty Law Center included NOM on its Winter 2010 list of "anti-gay groups" that "have continued to pump out demonizing propaganda aimed at homosexuals." NOM president Brown took issue with the inclusion, stating that NOM "isn't about being anti-anyone."
Resignation of Louis Marinelli
On April 8, 2011, Louis Marinelli, a 25-year-old NOM activist and online strategist who describes himself as "the one behind the 2010 Summer for Marriage Tour", had driven the bus during that tour, and had moderated many of NOM's web properties (including its Facebook page, its Twitter account, and the Tour blog), resigned from his affiliation with the organization, announced his support for same-sex marriage, and categorically apologized for and repudiated his past actions on behalf of the organization. He also shut down the Facebook page he had built up for NOM, which had 290,000 followers. The next day, NOM created a new official Facebook page (to replace Marinelli's), and released this statement: "Louis Marinelli worked in a volunteer capacity as a bus driver during our summer marriage tour. Around this time, NOM began to pay him as a part-time consultant for helping us expand our internet reach. He has since chosen a different focus. We wish him well." NOM president Brown publicly downplayed Marinelli's role with the organization, however, after Marinelli published several articles critical of NOM on his website, Brown contacted him and said that if the articles were not removed, NOM would pursue legal action against Marinelli for violation of a confidentiality agreement he had signed as a contractor with access to specialized information.
In October 2011, the blog Good As You showed that NOM used uncredited photographs of 2008 rallies for then-presidential candidate Barack Obama on its website to make it appear that the crowds supporting Obama were actually NOM supporters.
The story was subsequently picked up by media including The Rachel Maddow Show and Instinct Magazine. Brown dismissed the photo controversy as a misdirection effort by "Rachel Maddow and her friends on the left". NOM removed the photos in the collage, referring to one of them as "a common use photo in the public domain". The images included one Reuters photo and two that were copyrighted under a Creative Commons license requiring that the photographer be credited.
In March 2012, NOM memos dated to 2009 advocating strategies of pitting the African-American and homosexual communities against each other, of discouraging Latino assimilation into a culture accepting of same-sex marriage, and of painting President Obama as a "social radical" were released by a federal judge in Maine and published by the Human Rights Campaign. The internal NOM documents state that they seek "to drive a wedge between gays and blacks" by promoting "African American spokespeople for marriage", thus provoking same-sex marriage supporters into "denouncing these spokesmen and women as bigots", and to interrupt the assimilation" of Latinos into "dominant Anglo culture" by making the stance against same-sex marriage "a key badge of Latino identity". The documents also showed a goal to "sideswipe" US President Barack Obama by depicting him as a "social radical" via issues including child protection and pornography.
The revealed tactics were described as "one of the most cynical things I've ever heard" and "scary" by Julian Bond, Chairman Emeritus of the NAACP. The National Black Justice Coalition said that the "documents expose N.O.M. for what it really is – a hate group determined to use African American faith leaders as pawns to push their damaging agenda."
In response to the controversy, NOM stated that the organization has a diverse base of support which includes people of "every color, creed and background" and that it has "worked with prominent African-American and Hispanic leaders, including Dr. Alveda C. King, Bishop George McKinney of the COGIC Church, Bishop Harry Jackson and the New York State Senator Reverend Rubén Díaz Sr." Gallagher, who was president of the organization at the time of the documents, said that their language "makes us sound way too big for our britches", while Brown, president at the time the controversy arose, wrote that the language was "inapt", stating that "it would be enormously arrogant for anyone at NOM to believe that we can make or provoke African-American or Latino leaders do anything".
- Newton, David E. (2010). Same-sex marriage: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 222. ISBN 1-59884-707-4.
- Mencimer, Stephanie (July 1, 2010). "Gay Marriage Foes: 'Til Disclosure Do Us Part?". Mother Jones (Mother Jones and the Foundation for National Progress).
- "Rhode Island takes major step toward approving civil unions". Reuters. June 29, 2011.
- "RI House approves 'civil unions,' 62 to 11". The Providence Journal. May 19, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Brown, Brian (April 6, 2011). "URGENT ALERT: Tell Gov. McDonnell to Oppose Same-Sex Adoption Regs". NOM Blog. National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Dolan, Maura (2013-09-20). "Prop. 8 backers behind effort to repeal transgender law". latimes.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- "About NOM". National Organization for Marriage. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "About NOM – National Organization for Marriage". National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- "Boards and Staff". Bible Literacy Project. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Our Staff, Board of Directors, and Advisory Council Members". Family Institute of Connecticut. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Board of Trustees". Witherspoon Institute. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "UVU Employee Professional Pages". Utah Valley University. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "National Organization for Marriage Welcomes Orson Scott Card to its Board of Directors". National Organization for Marriage. April 23, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Josh Rottenberg, Entertainment Weekly, July 26, 2013
- "NOM Announces New Chairman of the Board". National Organization for Marriage. September 22, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Blanco, Chino (July 14, 2009). "Knock, Knock, Anybody NOM? Anybody Mormon?". Daily Kos. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Jackson, Herb (November 29, 2011). "New Jersey grass roots campaigns don't reveal funding sources". Washington Independent.
- "Jury Says San Diego Firefighters Were Sexually Harassed in Gay Parade". Fox News. February 17, 2009.
- Johnson, Luke (January 6, 2011). "Despite 'grassroots' claim, most of National Organization for Marriage funding comes from few sources". Washington Independent.
- "Form 990 for Tax Year 2009" (PDF). National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- Zwick, Jesse (September 20, 2010). "In wake of ballot initiatives, questions about the National Organization for Marriage's funding". The American Independent (Washington DC).
- Resnick, Sofia (July 27, 2010). "National Organization for Marriage's 2010 financial records raise questions". The Washington Independent. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Jim Hinch (July 7, 2014). "Evangelicals Are Changing Their Minds on Gay Marriage: And the Bible isn't getting in their way". Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Deseret News introduces Editorial Advisory Board". Deseret News (Salt Lake City). August 23, 2010.
- "Two Sides Spend Big in Battle Over Same-Sex Marriage in New Jersey". Fox News. December 10, 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Swami, Prerana (June 17, 2009). "N.Y. Gay Marriage Bill Faces New Challenges". CBS News. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "Marriage Victory in New York!". National Organization for Marriage. December 2, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Sulzberger, A. G. (November 3, 2010). "Iowa Judges Defeated After Ruling on Same-Sex Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Hesse, Monica (August 28, 2009). "Opposing Gay Unions With Sanity & a Smile". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Phillips, Frank (June 14, 2007). "Legislators vote to defeat same-sex marriage ban". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- Ring, Dan. "Billboard attacks gay marriage vote". The Republican. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "Campaign Finance: National Organization For Marriage California – Yes On 8". Secretary of State Debra Bowen. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
- Conant, Eve (November 15, 2010). "'I Do'? I Don't!". Newsweek. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
- "Tracking the money: Final Numbers". Los Angeles Times.
- "Ruling by United States District Court" (PDF). San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- USA Today. August 4, 2010 http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2010/08/calif-ban-on-same-sex-marriage-prop-8-ruled-unconstitutional/1#.Uc35dGJQEdg. Missing or empty
- "Supreme Court dismisses California's Proposition 8 appeal - CNN.com". CNN. June 27, 2013.
- "What You Can Do Today to Help Save Marriage". NOM Blog. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Setback for Group Fighting Gay Marriage in Maine The New York Times, October 29, 2009
- Goodnough, Abby (November 17, 2009). "Loss in Maine Sets Back Gay-Marriage Drive". The New York Times (Maine). Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Other National Races – Election Results 2009 – The New York Times". Elections.nytimes.com. November 9, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
- Keen, Lisa (September 4, 2009). "NOM Under Investigation". Bay Windows. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Public Campaign Finance Page for the State of Maine". Maine Commission on Governmental Ethics & Election Practices. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Money fueling battle over gay marriage". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "NOM Launches Nationwide "Two Million for Marriage" Initiative!". Nationformarriage.org. April 8, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "de beste bron van informatie over 2 m 4 m. Deze website is te koop!". 2m4m.org. Retrieved June 16, 2011.[dead link]
- "Anti-Gay Rights Group Calls its Marriage Campaign '2M4M'".
- "National Organization For Marriage Or Two Men For Marriage?".
- "About 2M4M.org". April 9, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2009.[dead link]
- Rich, Frank (April 19, 2009). "The Bigots' Last Hurrah". The New York Times. pp. WK10.
- Foust, Michael (April 17, 2009). "A winning strategy to stop 'gay marriage'?". Baptist Press. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "Human Rights Campaign Exposes National Organization for Marriage's Fake Ad for Fake Problems" (Press release). Human Rights Campaign. April 8, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- Smith, Ben (April 8, 2009). "New campaign fights same-sex marriage". Politico. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
Terkel, Amanda (April 9, 2009). "HRC releases audition tapes of 'Gathering Storm' actors.". Think Progress. Center for American Progress. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
Wolfson, Evan (April 13, 2009). "Winning the Freedom to Marry? Cue the Attack on the Gays!". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Young, John (April 21, 2009). "'Gathering Storm' spoofs: Which celebrity gay-marriage parody rains more laughs?". Entertainment Weekly. PopWatch blog.
- "National Organization for Marriage and Carrie Prejean Launch New Ad Showing Intolerance of Gay Marriage Activists, Illustrating Threats to Religious Liberty". National Organization for Marriage. April 30, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Miss California Carrie Prejean in semi-nude photo controversy". The Vancouver Sun. May 5, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.[dead link]
- "STATEMENT ON CARRIE PREJEAN". National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Anti-Gay Marriage Group Distances Itself From Prejean". On Top Magazine. November 16, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Conservative activists turn to web for traction; denounce gay 'marraige'". The Christian Science Monitor. May 28, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "NOM's expenditure report" (PDF). Tips-q.com. Retrieved June 16, 2011.[dead link]
- Provided photo. "GOP picks candidate for congressional seat, attacks likely Democratic hopeful". The Post-Standard. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Scozzafava Suspends Campaign". Watertown Daily Times. October 31, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Hoffman concedes 23rd Congressional race to Owens[dead link], Associated Press, November 4, 2009
- Vielkind, Jimmy (August 11, 2009). "Meet Bill Owens, a DCCC-Approved Non-Democrat for the House". The New York Observer. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Special election results certified". Watertown Daily Times. December 16, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Precious, Tom. "Gay marriage not likely to come to Senate again soon : Albany". The Buffalo News. Retrieved March 8, 2010.[dead link]
- Hakim, Danny (November 6, 2009). "Marriage for Gays on Agenda in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- . "Advocates Say Despite GOP Flip, State Senate Could Pass Marriage Equality". NY1.com. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Rachel Slajda (November 10, 2009). "Scozzafava: 'My Name's A Verb Now' | TPM LiveWire". Tpmlivewire.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Horowitz, Jason. 'My name's a verb now': Dede Scozzafava sadder, wiser after bruising political race Watertown Daily Times.
- Tuma, Mary. "GOProud Director: National Organization for Marriage Are 'Pansies,' 'Wusses'". The Washington Independent. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Vick, Karl (December 3, 2009). "N.Y. State Senate votes down gay marriage bill by wide margin". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- "Baptist Press – N.Y., N.J., groups race to pass 'gay marriage' by year's end – News with a Christian Perspective". Bpnews.net. November 12, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Same-Sex-Marriage Fight Hits The Road". Npr.org. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Opposing Groups Hold Rallies On Marriage Views". WISC-TV (Madison, Wisconsin). July 27, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
"Hundreds march to protest National Organization for Marriage rally". WisPolitics.com. July 28, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
Hancock, Jason (July 28, 2010). "National Organization for Marriage trying to raise money in Iowa". The Iowa Independent. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
Chapman, Steve (July 29, 2010). "Entangling marriage into a political jujitsu". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
Burress, Jim; Aleck Ragsdale (August 8, 2010). "National Organization for Marriage, NOM, Rallies Under Gold Dome". WABE (Atlanta, Georgia). Retrieved August 18, 2010.
Ehlers, Matt (August 11, 2010). "Gay marriage critics roll in". The News & Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina). Retrieved August 18, 2010.
- Key, Michael (August 16, 2010). "D.C. sees National Organization for Marriage rally, counter protest". Washingtonblade.com. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Garcia, Michelle (August 31, 2010). "Peter, Paul, & Mary's Warning to NOM". The Advocate. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Advocate.com Editors (October 9, 2010). "John Mellencamp Doesn't Like NOM". The Advocate. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- "Anti-gay marriage group ordered to refile RI suit". Boston Globe. Associated Press. October 1, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.[dead link]
- Gregg, Katherine (September 28, 2010). "Opponents of same-sex marriage file suit to allow unlimited campaign spending in Rhode Island". Providence Journal. Retrieved October 3, 2010.[dead link]
- "Lower court ruling on campaign disclosures is upheld". The Providence Journal. August 11, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Civil Union Floor Vote".
- SDGLN staff (November 23, 2010). "Anti-gay NOM expands target, opposes civil unions". San Diego Gay and Lesbian News. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Voting out the justices: What Iowans are saying". The Des Moines Register. November 3, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Schulte, Grant (November 3, 2010). "Iowans dismiss three justices". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Eckholm, Erik; Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 2, 2011). "New York's Approval of Same-Sex Marriage Spurs Opponents for New Fights". The New York Times.
- Kaplan, Thomas (October 12, 2011). "4 Republicans Who Voted for Gay Marriage Set to Receive Aid". The New York Times.
- "Topic Galleries". Chicago Tribune.
- "Perry Signed Pledge" (PDF).
- "Romney, Bachmann, Santorum sign marriage pledge". USA Today. August 4, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "NOM Pledge" (PDF). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Smith, Ben (August 4, 2011). "Romney signs marriage pledge". Politico.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Gingrich Signs NOM's Marriage Pledge, Leaving Only Paul Among Major Candidates Not To Have Signed". NOM Blog. December 15, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- "Pawlenty signs NOM marriage pledge". Iowa Independent. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- "Gay Marriage Has Boosted Iowa's Economy, Study Concludes – ABC News". USA: ABC. December 8, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Holley, Joe (August 26, 2011). "Perry signs pledge backing gay marriage ban – Houston Chronicle". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- "Values Voters Must Demand Clear Commitment". RealClearPolitics. November 4, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (December 28, 2011). "Commercial Introduces Gay Marriage as an Issue in the Iowa Caucuses". The New York Times.
- "Group asks Supreme Court to block Oregon's same-sex marriage ruling". Portland Tribune. 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- "Justices won't stop gay marriages in Oregon". USA Today. 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "National Organization for Marriage takes aim at California's transgender students' rights law". Salon.com. 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Mason, Melanie (February 24, 2014). "Measure to block transgender student law fails to make ballot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Grindley, Lucas (2013-10-04). "National Organization for Marriage Caught Helping Russia Pass Antigay Laws". Advocate.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Broverman, Neal (May 4, 2009). "Antigay Group Hiding Mormon Cash?". The Advocate. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "Financial Reports". National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- Joseph, Brian (March 19, 2009). "Prop. 8 foes accuse Mormons of establishing front group". Orange County Register. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
Broverman, Neal (May 4, 2009). "Antigay Group Hiding Mormon Cash?". The Advocate. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
- Tony, Semerad. "Leaked memos: Gay rights group make new charges over LDS Prop 8 role". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
- "National Organization for Marriage sued by Maine over 2009 referendum". Associated Press. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- "Anti-gay marriage group sues state". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Iowa and Maine question National Organization for Marriage's funding sources". EDGE Boston. August 31, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Keen, Lisa (October 1, 2009). "Maine will scrutinize anti-gay groups". Bay Area Reporter.
- "Yes on 1 funder loses bid", Kennebec Journal, February 27, 2010
- "Judge: Gay Marriage Repeal Funders Should Turn over Donor Information", Maine Public Broadcasting Network, May 25, 2010
- National Organization for Marriage, et al., Plaintiffs v. Walter F. McKee, et al. United States District Court, District of Maine.
- "Commission: Marriage group probe to go on – Maine Politics – Bangor Daily News". Bangordailynews.com. June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Court Sides with Maine in Election Law Dispute". Mpbn.net. November 8, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Court nixes rehearing in Maine PAC reporting case". Houston Chronicle. September 7, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Courthouse News Service". Courthousenews.com. January 31, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Sharp, David (January 31, 2012). "Anti-gay-marriage group loses Maine list appeal". The Boston Globe.
- Long, Robert (October 1, 2012). "U.S. Supreme Court rejects anti-gay marriage group's appeal of Maine's donor disclosure law". Bangor News. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Long, Robert (May 30, 2013). "Maine high court rejects appeal to shield names of donors to campaign against gay marriage". Bangnor Daily News. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "National Organization for Marriage targets gay-marriage advocates with ethics complaints". The Portland Press Herald / Maine Sunday Telegram. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- http://blogs.desmoinesregister.com/dmr/index.php/2013/08/08/iowa-ethics-board-will-investigate-national-organization-for-marriage/article. Retrieved 2013-11-02. Missing or empty
- Bolcer, Julie. "NOM-Backed Candidate Loses in Iowa". Advocate.com. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Chibbaro Jr., Lou (August 21, 2009). "Anti-gay group to fight marriage efforts in D.C.: National Organization for Marriage relocates to city, seeks to block DOMA repeal". Washington Blade (washblade.com). Retrieved August 22, 2009.[dead link]
- "Prop. 8 backers lose CA campaign disclosure case". San Francisco Chronicle. October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.[dead link]
- Hagan, Robyn (2012-02-29). "First Circuit Ruling Stands: Supreme Court Rejects NOM Appeal - Court News - U.S. First Circuit". Blogs.findlaw.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- "NOM Exposed". Human Rights Campaign and Courage Campaign. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- Conant, Eve (September 28, 2010). "A New Kind of Outing". Newsweek. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- Bolcer, Julie (September 28, 2010). "NOM Exposed by HRC, Courage Campaign". The Advocate. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Zwick, Jesse (September 28, 2010). "HRC To Watchdog National Organization for Marriage". Washington Independent. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- "National Organization for Marriage responds to NOMexposed.com" (Press release). National Organization for Marriage. September 29, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- Ring, Trudy (2014-06-05). "Court: NOM Can't Claim Punitive Damages in IRS Disclosure Suit". Advocate.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "National Organization for Marriage Files Suit against IRS". AccountingWEB. 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Jonathan H. Adler. "IRS agrees to pay non-profit group $50,000 for unauthorized release of tax return". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- Schlatter, Evelyn. "18 Anti-Gay Groups and Their Propaganda". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
- Thompson, Krissah (November 24, 2010). "'Hate Group' Designation Angers Same-Sex Marriage Opponents". Washington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- Schlatter, Evelyn. "18 Anti-Gay Groups and Their Propaganda | Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Marinelli, Louis (April 8, 2011). "I now support full marriage equality". Two Cents and a Couple of Copecks. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Vilensky, Mike (April 9, 2011). "National Organization for Marriage Strategist Realizes He's Actually Pro-Gay Marriage". New York. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
Brantley, Max (April 8, 2011). "The line is open". Arkansas Times. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
Smith, Ben (April 11, 2011). "Ex-NOM organizer embraces same-sex marriage". Politico. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
Campbell, Susan (April 11, 2011). "Remember National Org. for Marriage's Summer for Marriage Tour?". Hartford Courant. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
Coscarelli, Joe (April 11, 2011). "Anti-Gay Activist Actually Loves Gay Marriage". The Village Voice. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
Reeve, Elspeth (April 11, 2011). "Gay Marriage Supporters Seek the Aide of a Former Opponent". The Atlantic Wire (The Atlantic). Retrieved April 14, 2011.
Meinzer, Melissa (April 12, 2011). "Homophobic Activist Converts, Admits Same-Sex Civil Marriage Should Be a Universal Right". Riverfront Times. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Conant, Eve (April 13, 2011). "An Anti-Gay Marriage Crusader on His Conversion". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
- Popkin, Helen A.S. (April 13, 2011). "Anti-gay Facebook page hacked by its own administrator". Today (NBC). Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- NOM staff (April 9, 2011). "NOM Announces New Facebook Page!". National Organization for Marriage. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Reilly, Ryan J. (April 19, 2011). "Anti-Gay Marriage Group NOM Threatens To Sue Defector". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "Photo: A mutant strain of NOM misrepresentation". Goodasyou.org. October 24, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Photo: A mutant strain of NOM misrepresentation (part 2)". Goodasyou.org. October 25, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "The Great NOM Photo "Controversy"". Nomblog.com. November 1, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Grindley, Lucas (November 1, 2011). "NOM Tries (and Fails) to Explain Why It Manipulated Photos". Advocate.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Lochhead, Caroline (March 28, 2012). "Prop. 8 group pitted blacks, Latinos against gays". San Franscisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- CNN Wire Staff (March 28, 2012). "Group sought wedge between blacks, gays to fight same-sex marriage". CNN. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Nix, Kevin (March 26, 2012). "Breaking: Previously Confidential Documents Shed Light on NOM Strategy". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Portero, Ashley (March 27, 2012). "National Organization For Marriage Memos Reveal Plan to Drive 'Wedge' Between Black, Gay Communities". International Business Times. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Crary, David (March 27, 2012). "Gay-Marriage Foes Sought to Split Gays and Blacks". New York Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Marinucci, Carla (March 30, 2012). "Did Romney PAC violate California law by failing to report $10,000 donation to pro-Prop. 8 effort?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- "NOM Strategy to divide gays and blacks?". MSNBC. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- "NOM Proud of Strong Record on Minority Partnerships". National Organization for Marriage. March 27, 2012.
- "NOM Defends Itself Against Race Baiting ... By Race Baiting?". Instinct. March 31, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
Media related to National Organization for Marriage at Wikimedia Commons
- National Organization for Marriage – official site
- NOM Exposed – a critical website sponsored by the Human Rights Campaign and the Courage Campaign
- Maggie Gallagher debates Gavin Newsom on gay marriage in a May 2009 interactive debate from NOW on PBS Online