National Research Council Canada

Coordinates: 45°26′46″N 75°37′01″W / 45.44623°N 75.61698°W / 45.44623; -75.61698
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
National Research Council Canada
Conseil national de recherches Canada
Agency overview
Formed1916; 107 years ago (1916)
JurisdictionGovernment of Canada
HeadquartersOttawa, Ontario, Canada
Minister responsible
Agency executive
  • Iain Stewart, President
Key document

The National Research Council Canada (NRC; French: Conseil national de recherches Canada)[1] is the primary national agency of the Government of Canada dedicated to science and technology research & development.[2] It is the largest federal research & development organization in Canada.[3]

The Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development (currently, François-Philippe Champagne) is responsible for the NRC.[2]


NRC is an agency of the Government of Canada, and its mandate is set out in the National Research Council Act.[4]

Under the Act, the NRC is responsible for:

  • Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in fields of importance to Canada;
  • Providing vital scientific and technological services to the research and industrial communities;
  • Investigating standards and methods of measurement;
  • Working on the standardization and certification of scientific and technical apparatus, instruments and materials used or usable by Canadian industry;
  • Operating and administering any astronomical observatories established or maintained by the Government of Canada;
  • Establishing, operating and maintaining a national science library; and
  • Publishing and selling or otherwise distributing such scientific and technical information as the Council deems necessary.

Close to 4,000 people across Canada are employed by the NRC. In addition, the NRC also employs guest workers from universities, companies, and public and private-sector organizations.[5]


NRC laboratories on Sussex Drive in Ottawa

Between World War I and II[edit]

The National Research Council was established in 1916,[6] under the pressure of World War I, to advise the government on matters of science and industrial research. In 1932, laboratories were built on Sussex Drive in Ottawa.

With the impetus of World War II, the NRC grew rapidly and for all practical purposes, became a military science and weapons research organization. It undertook a number of important projects, which included participation with the United States and United Kingdom, in the development of chemical and germ warfare agents, the explosive RDX, the proximity fuse, radar, and submarine detection techniques. A special branch, known as the Examination Unit, was involved with cryptology and the interception of enemy radio communications. According to the Canadian Security Intelligence Service website, the NRC headquarters in Ottawa "was a prime espionage target" during the Cold War.[7] The NRC was also engaged in atomic fission research at the Montreal Laboratory, and later the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario.

Post-World War II[edit]

Post-WWII, the NRC reverted to its pre-war civilian role, and a number of wartime activities were spun off to newly formed organizations. Military research continued under a new organization, the Defence Research Board, while inventions with commercial potential were transferred to the newly formed Canadian Patents and Development Limited; and atomic research went to the newly created Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Foreign signals intelligence gathering officially remained with the agency when, by Order in Council, the Examination Unit became the Communications Branch of the NRC in 1946. The CBNRC was transferred to the Department of National Defence in 1975, and renamed the Communications Security Establishment. During the 1950s, the medical research funding activities of the NRC were handed over to the newly formed Medical Research Council of Canada.

Finally, on 1 May 1978, with the rapid post-war growth of Canadian universities, the NRC's role in university research funding in the natural sciences was passed under the GOSA Act to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Under financial pressure in the 1980s, the federal government produced what popularly became known as the Neilson Report, which recommended across-the-board financial cuts to all federal government organizations, including the NRC.[citation needed] This led to staff and program cutbacks.

21st Century[edit]

In 2000, there were about 1000 NRC researchers with PhDs conducting research in many areas.[8]

Recovery was slow, but the NRC has managed to regain its status as Canada's single most important scientific and engineering research institution among many other Canadian government scientific research organizations.[citation needed]

As President of the National Research Council Canada, chemist Arthur Carty revitalized the organization. In 2004, he left the NRC when then prime minister Paul Martin appointed him as independent, non-partisan advisor on science and technology.[9]

Around June 2014, the NRC was reportedly penetrated by Chinese state-sponsored hackers.[10]

The tenure of John McDougall as President of the NRC (2010–2016) was marked by a number of controversies. His presidency was characterized by a dramatic drop in publications and patents,[11] by significant cuts in scientific staff,[12] and by a 23-month period during which NRC management was aware that the organization was contaminating the water table outside its fire-safety testing facility in Mississippi Mills, Ontario, with perfluorinated chemicals used in firefighting foams and did not inform that community's inhabitants.[13] John McDougall's departure – signalled by a sudden, three-line email to employees in March 2016 announced that he was going on personal leave. During this time Maria Aubrey, Vice President of the NRC, filled the role as Acting President.[14] Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC.[15] The details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed.

Under Minister of Science Kirsty Duncan, the Trudeau government changed the focus of the NRC, to develop partnerships with private and public-sector technology companies, both nationally and internationally.[citation needed] Under the previous federal Minister of State (Science and Technology), Gary Goodyear, the NRC became in the words of one wag a "toolbox for industry" and dented basic-research infrastructure.[16]

In August 2020 under Minister of Innovation, Science and Industry Navdeep Bains and President Iain Stewart, the NRC announced it was building the Biologics Manufacturing Centre, a facility that can produce vaccines and other biologics.[17] The construction of the facility was started as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and Canada's inability to produce COVID-19 Vaccines.[18] The facility is expected to open in July 2021, and will have a vaccine manufacturing capacity of 2 million does per month.[17] In February 2021, the Canadian government has signed a memorandum of understanding with Novavax to pursue manufacturing its NVX-CoV2373 vaccine at the Biologics Manufacturing Centre.[17][19][20]

In September 2020, President Iain Stewart was shuffled to the troubled Public Health Agency of Canada,[21] and in December 2020 Bains named Mitch Davies to fill the vacancy.[22]

In October 2021, Iain Stewart returned to his position as President of the National Research Council.[23]

Divisions and portfolios[edit]

Divisions of the NRC include:[24][25]


A radiant heat panel for precision testing of quantified energy exposures at the Institute for Research in Construction of the NRC, near Ottawa.[30]

Some areas of research & development at NRC include:[25]

At one point in January 2018 the NRC had over 30 approved programs, including the following.[31]


A fire house at the Institute for Research in Construction, used to provide information to aid building code and fire code development in Canada.[30]

The following are the NRC's various research centres and their areas of R&D:[32][33]

  • Advanced Electronics and Photonics Research Centre – semiconducting materials and photonic device design
  • Aerospace Research Centre – design, manufacturing, performance and maintenance of air and space vehicles
  • Aquatic and Crop Resource Development Research Centre – sustainability of foods and other bio-product sectors
  • Automotive and Surface Transportation Research Centre – eco-friendly and more economical vehicles
  • Canadian Campus for Advanced Materials Manufacturing (CCAMM) – a joint initiative with the Xerox Research Centre of Canada (XRCC).
  • Centre for Research and Applications in Fluidic Technologies (CRAFT) – in vitro diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and precision medicine.
  • Collaboration Centre for Clean Energy Transition – in partnership with the University of British Columbia
  • Collaborative Unit for Translational Research – in partnership with CHU Sainte-Justine; treatment, analytics, and diagnoses for mothers and children.
  • Construction Research Centre – building materials and regulations, fire safety, infrastructure and more
  • Cybersecurity Collaboration Consortium – in partnership with the Canadian Institute for Cybersecurity (University of New Brunswick); cybersecurity research and its applications in security, privacy, and safety.
  • Digital Technologies Research Centre – artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, blockchain, computer vision, cybersecurity, data analytics, language processing
  • Energy, Mining and Environment Research Centre – reducing environmental risks and increasing "global competitiveness in the energy and mining sectors."
  • Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centreobservatories and other astronomy and astrophysics infrastructure
  • Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre – advanced therapeutics, vaccines and diagnostics technologies
  • Karluk Collaboration Space – ocean engineering, technology, and science.
  • Medical Devices Research Centre – medical diagnostic technology
  • Metrology Research Centre – measurement research and metrological services
  • Nanotechnology Research Centre – nanotechnology
  • NRC-Fields Mathematical Sciences Collaboration Centre
  • NRC-uOttawa Joint Centre for Extreme Photonics – in partnership with the University of Ottawa
  • Ocean, Coastal and River Engineering Research Centre
  • Security and Disruptive Technologies Research Centre – facilities and technical support for nanotechnologies, advanced materials, photonics and quantum technologies

Former facilities:

Algal Carbon Conversion Flagship Program[edit]

The goal of the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Program[34] was to develop of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions from the oil sands. It contained plans for a $19-million facility to be constructed in Alberta, in partnership between the NRC, Canadian Natural Resources, and Pond Biofuels.[34]

In 2008, researchers from five I-CAN organizations were developing a Carbon Algae Recycling System (CARS) to "feed waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 from industrial exhaust stacks to micro-algae growing in artificial ponds."[35] The "Algal Carbon Conversion",[34] is related to prior interests of NRC President John McDougall, as he previously headed Innoventures, a company involved in lobbying for the development of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions.[36]

The NRC was not involved in this area of research prior to the arrival of McDougall.

Canadian Wheat Improvement Flagship[edit]

The Canadian Wheat Improvement Program is a "strategic collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre and the province of Saskatchewan."[37][38] With a budget of approximately $97 million (2013–2018), the Canadian Wheat Alliance will be conducting research on improving the yield of Canadian wheat crops and on the most efficient use of chemical fertilizers.[38] Working with breeders and scientists at the Crop Development Centre and at AAFC, they will be integrating long term research with genetic improvement of wheat.[39]

Gallium Nitride Electronics Program[edit]

Gallium nitride (GaN) is a semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes. The GaN Electronics Program supports partner research and development activities with a goal of ensuring that GaN technology will create wealth and a greener future for Canadians.[40] The NRC is the only Canadian foundry for GaN electronics, and offers both normally-on and normally-off devices. The GaN500v2 Foundry Design Kit was released on June 28, 2014.[41][42]

Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP)[edit]

The NRC Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP) was introduced in the 1950s to support product developments in small to medium-sized businesses. The NRC provides grants and financial support to business' looking to bring new and innovative technologies to the market.[43]

Some of the many innovations by NRC personnel included the artificial pacemaker, development of canola (rapeseed) in the 1940s, the Crash Position Indicator in the 1950s, and the Cesium Beam atomic clock in the 1960s.

Since 1974, Paul Barton of PSB Speakers used the NRC's world-class measurement facilities, their anechoic chamber. By the 1980s, more companies began to use this resource, develop it further, and tested their loudspeakers at the NRC.[8] Electrical engineer, Floyd E. Toole, who worked at the NRC was at the centre of this research.[8] By the year 2000, most companies had their own sound chambers, but Barton continued to use the NRC's facilities. In about 1990, PSB and other Canadian companies worked with the NRC on Athena to evaluate digital signal processing (DSP) for loudspeaker design.[8]

The metal walls of the NRC’s anechoic chamber are located about a foot and a half from the internal walls that surround it. The whole chamber is suspended on springs. This makes it a building within the M-37 building. The purpose of all this is to provide a completely isolated environment that, according to Barton, registers a noise level that is less than 0dB. (0dB is a statistical average of the lowest level of human hearing.) Wedges made from fibreglass are inside the chamber, and they help create the reflection-free environment. No sound gets in, none gets out, and what occurs within gets completely absorbed with nary a bounce.

— Schneider, 2000

From 2002 to 2006, John R. McDougall, who was appointed President of the NRC in 2010, was a member of the NRC-IRAP Advisory Board.[44] In 2011, Bev Oda, the Minister of International Cooperation, and Gary Goodyear, Minister of State (Science and Technology), announced the grant recipients. These included small to medium-sized businesses, such as, Nortek Solutions a privately-owned Canadian software company. They received a $30,000 grant from the NRC to hire a young graphics design graduate to work on their "CUROS" people management software. Oasys Healthcare, a company that provides "innovative audio and video solutions for the medical marketplace" received a $13,000 NRC grant for its new technology for operating rooms. Jeffrey Ross Jewellery's product called Dimples, imprints fingerprints in silver using an innovative process and material, developed through a NRC $35,750 grant.[45]

Flight dynamics[edit]

NRC's fleet of research and test aircraft

The NRC has a fleet of nine aircraft for their research purposes:[46][47]

  • Harvard (4) – Trainer and experimental platform for avionics research

NRC's past fleet of research and test aircraft

Former aircraft include other models of the nine listed above[48] and the following:[citation needed]

Research aircraft

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Several Nobel laureates have been associated with the NRC at various points of their careers, including:


Harper government[edit]

Under the tenure of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Canadian Government research organizations began to restrict the ability of government scientists to communicate with the public.[9] This includes restricting scientists within the NRC to communicate with the public through non-scientist communications personnel. Harper's focus as an economist was on his action plan: creating jobs and building the economy. There were widespread concerns that the progress in development was at the cost of the environment.

In 2012, the federal government moved "to defund government research centres in the High Arctic." In the same year National Research Council environmental scientists "were barred from discussing their work on snowfall with the media.[50]

"Scientists for the governmental agency Environment Canada, under threat of losing their jobs, were banned from discussing their research without political approval. Mentions of federal climate change research in the Canadian press have dropped 80 per cent. The union that represents federal scientists and other professionals has, for the first time in its history, abandoned neutrality to campaign against Mr. Harper.

— New York Times

The appointment by Harper's Minister of State (Science and Technology) Gary Goodyear of John McDougall as President of the NRC was followed by several controversies:

In 2011, President John McDougall began to oversee a change in research focus away from basic research and towards industry-relevant research.[51][52] This included the development of multiple programs which shifted the research budget out of existing projects and into a number of focused programs.[53] In October 2012, John McDougall and his appointment, Dr. Ian Potter (VP Business Management), served termination notices to all of the NRC's Business Development Officer's (BDOs) across Canada, which ultimately impacted the majority of the NRC's intellectual property management, patenting, and business development activites conducted at the various NRC's research centres in Canada.

The transformation of the NRC into a research and technology organization that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the Harper government's Economic Action Plan.[2] On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP). With these services, the NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization.[2]

During his tenure as president, there was a drop in research publications and new patents from the NRC as the scientific staff was cut significantly.[citation needed] An article published in April 2016 and based on information from the office of the Minister of Science gave the following figures for the period 2011–2015:

In the five years from 2011 through 2015, the number of studies in academic journals were 1,889, 1,650, 1,204, 1,017 and 549, respectively. (Figures from 2010 and earlier are generally in the 1,200 to 1,300 range.) The number of patents over the period 2011 to 2014 (with no figure available for 2015) are: 205, 251, 128 and 112, respectively. The years before 2011 averaged 250 to 300 patents per year.[54]

In 2014 the NRC's computer network was the target of a cyber attack by Chinese infiltrators, which resulted in the NRC's IT network being shut down for an extended period of time.

In September 2016, the office of the Minister of Science released figures showing that from 2010 to 2015, the number of research officers at the NRC fell by 26 per cent, and the number of scientists and engineers of all kinds fell by 22 per cent.[55]

McDougall's tenure as president included the period during which the NRC contaminated the water table in the Eastern Ontario community of Mississippi Mills, without informing its inhabitants.[citation needed] In January 2014, NRC employees at the fire-safety testing facility in Mississippi Mills were told to start drinking bottled water.[citation needed] In December 2015, 23 months later, residents of Mississippi Mills with homes near the facility were warned by the NRC that their well-water was contaminated with toxic chemicals called perfluorinated alkyl substances, often found in firefighting foam.[56] In July 2016, Acting President Maria Aubrey formally acknowledged that the NRC's National Fire Laboratory was the source of the groundwater contamination in Mississippi Mills.[57] In December 2016, it was reported that owners of homes near the lab in Mississippi Mills were launching a multi-million dollar lawsuit against the NRC over water contamination.[58]

In March 2016, John McDougall sent a three-sentence email to NRC employees, announcing that he was going on personal leave.[14] Subsequently, NRC management announced that two major projects he had led would be abandoned: re-branding the NRC as "CNRCSolutions" – though colourful "CNRCSolutions" T-shirts and "branding books" had already been distributed,[59] and re-organizing its three research divisions into five research divisions.[60]

Effective August 24, 2016 under Kirsty Duncan, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC.[15] The details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed.

Bill C-38[edit]

Bill C-38 angered many people who opposed unregulated industrial growth. They argued that science was being gutted and silenced to open the way for development in ecologically sensitive areas in the north.[61]

In June 2012, the federal opposition made a motion in parliament,[62]

That, in the opinion of the House, Canadian scientific and social science expertise is of great value and, therefore, the House calls on the Government to end its muzzling of scientists; to reverse the cuts to research programs at Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Library and Archives Canada, National Research Council Canada, Statistics Canada, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; and to cancel the closures of the National Council of Welfare and the First Nations Statistical Institute.

Thirty Meter Telescope[edit]

Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a proposed extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become controversial due to its planned location on Mauna Kea, which is considered sacred land according to the native Hawaiians, on the island of Hawaii in the United States.[63] On April 6, 2015, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada would commit $243.5 million over a period of 10 years.[64] The telescope's enclosure was designed by Dynamic Structures Ltd. in British Columbia.[65]

In an online petition, a group of Canadian academics have called on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, together with Navdeep Bains (then Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development) and Kirsty Duncan (then Minister Of Science) to divest Canadian funding from the project. On July 20, 2019, an online petition titled "A Call to Divest Canada's Research Funding for the Thirty Meter Telescope on Mauna Kea" has been posted on[66]

Agencies with special relationships with the NRC[edit]

Specialized agencies and services which have branched out of the NRC include:

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Both forms are in use since at least 1989. Treasury Board of Canada, Administrative Policy Manual, Chapter 470, “Federal Identity Program”, appendix A, Titles of organizations, 1989. See these references from the Translation Bureau: ...Canada ...of Canada.
  2. ^ a b c d Government of Canada nd.
  3. ^ National Research Council Canada (2019-04-01). "About the NRC". Retrieved 2021-11-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (June 29, 2021). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, National Research Council Act".
  5. ^ Canada, Government of Canada National Research Council (April 1, 2019). "Home - National Research Council Canada". Archived from the original on December 10, 2006.
  6. ^ "History". National Research Council of Canada. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  7. ^ "The National Research Council headquarters in Ottawa". Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  8. ^ a b c d Schneider 2000.
  9. ^ a b Nature 2008, p. 866.
  10. ^ Graff, Garrett M. (October 11, 2018). "How the US Forced China to Quit Stealing—Using a Chinese Spy". Wired. Around the same time when the FBI was asking for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's help in detaining Su Bin, according to The Globe and Mail, Canada was responding to a massive attack by state-sponsored Chinese hackers who had penetrated the network of its National Research Council, which leads the country's research and development efforts. (China denied the accusation.)
  11. ^ "Science minister responds after NRC shakeup, but with few details". Ottawa Citizen. 2016-04-09. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  12. ^ "NRC's five-year brain drain dealt 'a serious whack' to research". Ottawa Citizen. 2016-09-22. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  13. ^ "NRC employees told to drink bottled water 2 years before neighbours warned". CBC News. May 26, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  14. ^ a b "National Research Council president on leave, no reason given". 4 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  15. ^ a b Canada, Government of Canada, National Research Council. "Iain Stewart – National Research Council of Canada". Retrieved 5 April 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Himelfarb, Jordan (12 July 2013). "Federal cabinet shuffle: Gary Goodyear has to go: Himelfarb". Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. Goodyear, the minister of state for science and technology, has presided over the most retrograde federal Science and Technology policy in memory. During his tenure, the government shuttered the office of the National Science Advisor, blocked asbestos from a UN hazardous chemicals list on which it clearly belongs, gutted the Fisheries Act, gutted the Navigable Waters Protection Act, set out to weaken the Species at Risk Act, killed the long-form census, eroded Environment Canada's ability to monitor climate change, earned an international reputation for muzzling scientists and, at a great potential cost, defunded the world's leading freshwater research centre... At the same time, changes to our science-funding regime and a makeover of the National Research Council, Canada's science agency, into a tool box for industry have dented our basic-research infrastructure and damaged our prospects for innovation.
  17. ^ a b c Canada, National Research Council (21 December 2020). "Biologics Manufacturing Centre".
  18. ^ Canada, National Research Council (18 September 2020). "COVID-19 response: Building the infrastructure".
  19. ^ Tumilty, Ryan (4 March 2021). "Redacted Novavax COVID-19 vaccine contract for Canada released in U.S. regulatory filings". National Post. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  20. ^ "SEC 8-K filing". 3 March 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  21. ^ "Public Health Agency of Canada gets new president as current one steps down". CTVNews. 2020-09-21. Retrieved 2020-10-06.
  22. ^ "Government of Canada announces new National Research Council President". Government of Canada. 18 December 2020.
  23. ^ "Public health agency head who was admonished by MPs leaving: PM". CTVNews. 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2022-03-09.
  24. ^ Canada, National Research Council (2019-03-04). "Organizational structure". Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  25. ^ a b Canada, National Research Council (2020-02-06). "Brochure: National Research Council of Canada". Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  26. ^ Canada, Government of Canada. National Research Council. "Advanced electronics, photonics and digital technologies – National Research Council Canada". Archived from the original on 2018-04-06. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  27. ^ Canada, Government of Canada. National Research Council (21 December 2015). "Measurement science and standards – National Research Council Canada". Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  28. ^ Canada, Government of Canada. National Research Council. "Astronomy and astrophysics – National Research Council Canada". Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  29. ^ Canada, Government of Canada. National Research Council. "Security and disruptive technologies – National Research Council Canada". Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Institute for Research in Construction - NRC-IRC". Archived from the original on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  31. ^ Canada, Government of Canada. National Research Council. "Research programs and collaboration opportunities – National Research Council Canada". Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Research centres". National Research Council Canada. 2019-03-04. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  33. ^ "Collaboration centres". National Research Council Canada. 2018-08-20. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  34. ^ a b c NRC 2013c.
  35. ^ I-CAN 2008, p. 11.
  36. ^ Sixth Estate 2011.
  37. ^ NRC 2013e.
  38. ^ a b National Research Council Canada 2013.
  39. ^ "Canadian Wheat Alliance (CWA)".
  40. ^ "Gallium nitride (GaN) Electronics". National Research Council Canada. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014.
  41. ^ "GaN500v2 Design Kit". National Research Council Canada. Archived from the original on 2014-09-05.
  42. ^ "National Research Council of Canada Announces GaN Design Kit". Compound Semiconductor. July 11, 2014. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  43. ^ NRC 2012a.
  44. ^ Genome Canada 2014.
  45. ^ Alexander 2011.
  46. ^ Research aircraft fleet
  47. ^ "Canadian Civil Aircraft Register: Quick Search Result for Government Of Canada, National Research Council". Transport Canada. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  48. ^ System, Government of Canada; Transport Canada; Civil Aviation; General Aviation; Aircraft Registration and Leasing; Canadian Civil Aircraft Register; General Aviation System; Civil Aviation (August 28, 2013). "Canadian Civil Aircraft Register".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  50. ^ Stephen Marche (14 August 2015). "The Closing of the Canadian Mind". New York Times. Sunday Review. Toronto. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  51. ^ Hoag 2011, p. 269.
  52. ^ NRC 2013a.
  53. ^ Canada, National Research Council (2019-03-04). "Research centres". Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  54. ^ "Science minister responds after NRC shakeup, but with few details". 9 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  55. ^ "NRC's five-year brain drain dealt 'a serious whack' to research". 22 September 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  56. ^ "Toxic chemicals used in fire-fighting foam discovered in water in 2013 – CBC News". Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  57. ^ "NRC admits it's the source of Mississippi Mills water contamination". 8 July 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  58. ^ "Mississippi Mills residents sue NRC for $40M over water contamination". 6 December 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  59. ^ "NRC 'solutions' rebranding quietly dropped without explanation". 6 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  60. ^ "NRC president McDougall officially departs — but reasons are still secret". 29 July 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  61. ^ Environmental Hansard 2013.
  62. ^ Enviro-Hansard 2012.
  63. ^ "Canadian government faces call to revoke giant telescope project funding". 29 July 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  64. ^ "Canada finally commits its share of funds for Thirty Meter Telescope". CBC News.
  65. ^ Semeniuk, Ivan. "With $243-million contribution, Canada signs on to mega-telescope in search of first stars and other Earths". Globe and Mail.
  66. ^ Ivan Semeniuk (22 July 2019). "Thirty Meter Telescope dispute puts focus on Canada's role". Retrieved 7 December 2019.

External links[edit]

45°26′46″N 75°37′01″W / 45.44623°N 75.61698°W / 45.44623; -75.61698