National Right to Life Committee
National Right to Life Committee, Inc.
|Founded||April 1, 1968|
|Founder||National Conference of Catholic Bishops|
|Carol Tobias, President|
Bishop James T. McHugh
|Part of a series of articles on|
and the Catholic Church
|This article is part of a series on|
the United States
The National Right to Life Committee (NRLC) is the oldest and largest national anti-abortion organization in the United States with affiliates in all 50 states and more than 3,000 local chapters nationwide.[N 1]
In 1966 the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) asked (then Rev.) James T. McHugh to begin observing trends in the reform of policy on abortion. The National Right to Life Committee was founded in 1967 as the "Right to Life League" to coordinate its state campaigns under the auspices of the NCCB. To appeal to a more broad-based, nonsectarian movement, crucial Minnesotan leaders proposed an organizational constitution that would separate the NRLC from the direct supervision of the NCCB, and by early 1973 NRLC Director (then Rev.) James T. McHugh and his executive assistant, Michael Taylor, proposed a different plan to move the NRLC toward independence from the Catholic Church.
The national organization of National Right to Life comprises the:
- National Right to Life Committee, Inc. (NRLC), 501c(4), EIN: 52-0986196;
- National Right to Life Committee Educational Trust Fund, 501c(3), EIN: 52-1241126;
- National Right to Life Educational Foundation, Inc., 501c(3), EIN: 73-1010913;
- National Right to Life Conventions, Inc., 501c(4), EIN: 52-1257773;
- National Right to Life Political Action Committee (NRLPAC); and
- National Right to Life Victory Fund, an independent expenditure political action committee, i. e., a "SuperPAC".
National Conference of Catholic Bishops: 1968–73
In 1966 the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) asked (then Rev.) James T. McHugh to begin observing trends in the reform of policy on abortion. At the time then Fr. McHugh was Director of the United States Catholic Conference (USCC) Family Life Bureau, and later became the Bishop of Camden and then of Rockville Centre. The NCCB asked Fr. McHugh during its annual conference in April 1967 to organize the National Right to Life Committee (NRLC) and fund the established NRLC with $50,000 to "initiate and coordinate a program of information" with state affiliates that would inform stakeholders of the wave of proposed state legislation to liberalize statutes prohibiting abortion.
The National Right to Life Committee was formalized in 1968. McHugh hired executive assistant Michael Taylor to help with the day to day needs of the organization. In October 1968, they published the first NRLC newsletter formally introducing the organization and providing information on the efforts to change abortion laws. On the state level, independent right to life organizations were beginning to form and began to rely on NRLC for direction and information. The newsletter lasted until 1971.
NRLC held its first meeting of nationwide anti-abortion leaders in Chicago, Illinois in 1970 at Barat College. New Jersey attorney Juan Ryan served as the first President of NRLC. In the following year NRLC held its first convention at Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Incorporation and Human Life Amendment
The NRLC was formally incorporated in May 1973, in response to the Roe v. Wade ruling of the US Supreme Court and the desire to separate from the Catholic Church to attract more Protestants to the organization. The National Conference of Catholic Bishops launched a campaign to amend the United States Constitution by enacting a Human Life Amendment that not only invalidated Roe v. Wade but also prohibited both the US Congress and the States from legalizing abortion in the United States. Its first convention as an incorporated organization was held the following month in Detroit, Michigan. At the concurrent meeting of NRLC's Board, Ed Golden of New York was elected President. Among the founding members was Mildred Jefferson, the first African-American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School. Jefferson subsequently served as President in 1975.
Schism forms the American Life League
In 1978, NRLC found itself $100,000 in debt after Jefferson's presidency. Rather than acknowledge her record, she left the organization to form the Right to Life Crusade.
On April 1, 1979, the American Life League (ALL) was founded by Judie Brown, former public relations director of NRLC, and 9 others after a schism within the NRLC. Within less than a year of its foundation, ALL had 68,000 members and received assistance from Howard Phillips, publicity from Paul Weyrich, a co-founder of Heritage Foundation, and the benefits of extensive lists of membership provided by the direct mail specialist Richard Viguerie.
Since its incorporation, the NRLC prioritized its politics over getting publicity due to its concern of being portrayed in a poor light and lack of funds. But by 1980 NRLC's annual budget increased to $1,600,000 and retained a membership of 11 million, allowing the organization to invest in media strategy and established its media department in 1984. The organization worked quickly and in 1985 had a communications department that produced and distributed a radio program, media campaigns, and maintained press connections. Its media strategy worked to create a public image that differentiated the NRCL from allies by using medical professionals, including its president and primary spokesperson Dr. John Willke, to lend legitimacy and hiring a young African-American woman. One hallmark of their media campaign was utilizing the slogan "Love them Both" which embraced claims of women's rights and welfare through compassion to gain the support of those ambivalent on the issue.
In 1995, the NRLC coined the term "partial-birth" abortion to describe a new medical procedure also known as "dilation and extraction," or D&X, and "intact D&E" in which the fetus is removed intact from the uterus after 20 weeks gestation. The organization illustrated and published drawings of the procedure in booklets and paid newspaper advertisements to create public opposition of both the procedure and abortion in general. The NRCL was later critical of President Clinton's 1995 veto of a bill that would ban the procedure. The phrase was later used in the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.
Efforts paid off and in 1992 and 1998, Fortune magazine recognized the NRLC as the most publicly recognized and politically effective anti-abortion organization. In 1999, Fortune ranked them as the 8th most influential public policy group working in Washington, DC.
The Silent Scream
In 1984 the Committee co-produced the documentary The Silent Scream on abortion with Bernard Nathanson. In 1985, following 2 years of a boycott of a product of the Upjohn Company that NRLC coordinated, the Company ceased all research on abortifacient drugs. Three years later, NRLC joined other anti-abortion organizations in notifying drug companies that if any company sold an abortifacient drug the millions of Americans who opposed abortion would boycott all the products of that company.
NRLC boycott of Hoechst Marion Roussel and Altace
In the 1990s the NRLC began a nationwide grassroots lobbying campaign against the Freedom of Choice Act, and announced a boycott of the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf and its American affiliates for permitting its abortion drug, mifepristone, into the United States. The U.S. National Right to Life Committee announced a 1994 U.S. boycott of all Hoechst pharmaceutical products including Altace, targeting the abortion pill RU-486.
According to Keri Folmar, the lawyer responsible for the language of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, the term "partial birth abortion" was developed in early 1995 at a meeting of herself, Charles T. Canady, and NRLC lobbyist Douglas Johnson. The phrase elicited strong negative reactions from a focus group and became a key phrase in NRLC's attack on abortion.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2011)
- 1968–1973 – Juan Ryan, New Jersey
- 1973–1974 – Edward Golden, New York
- 1974–1975 – Kenneth VanDerHoef, Washington
- 1975–1978 – Mildred Jefferson, Massachusetts
- 1978–1980 – Carolyn Gerster, Arizona
- 1980–1983 – John C. Willke, Ohio
- 1983–1984 – Jean Doyle, Florida
- 1984–1991 – John C. Willke, Ohio
- 1991–2011 – Wanda Franz, West Virginia
- 2011–present – Carol Tobias, North Dakota
- The oldest state pro-life organization in the US is Virginia Society for Human Life which was founded in 1967.
• Nation's Oldest Right to Life Organization Supporting Thompson Standard News Wire.com, December 20. Retrieved: September 9, 2013.
• Fred Thompson Receives the Endorsement of Virginia Society for Human Life Presidency Project UCSB.EDU, December 20, 2007. Retrieved: September 9, 2013.
- http://www.christianlifeandliberty.net/RTL.bmp K.M. Cassidy. "Right to Life." In Dictionary of Christianity in America, Coordinating Editor, Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1990. pp. 1017,1018.
- National Right to Life Committee - Abortion, NRLC, Women, and Legislation | JRank Articles
- "National Right to Life Convention kicks off in Jacksonville". Florida Independent. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Karrer, Robert N. (2011). "THE NATIONAL RIGHT TO LIFE COMMITTEE: ITS FOUNDING, ITS HISTORY, AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE PRO-LIFE MOVEMENT PRIOR TO ROE V. WADE". The Catholic Historical Review. 97 (3): 527–557. ISSN 0008-8080. JSTOR 23052569.
- "God's Own Party: The Making of the Religious Right", pp. 113–116. ISBN 978-0-19-534084-6. Daniel K. Williams. Oxford University Press. 2010.
- Karrer, R. N. (2011). "The National Right to Life Committee: its founding, its history, and the emergence of the anti-abortion movement prior to Roe v. Wade". Cathol Hist Rev. 97 (3): 527–57. doi:10.1353/cat.2011.0098. PMID 22069796.
- "God's Own Party: The Making of the Religious Right", p. 116. ISBN 978-0-19-534084-6. Daniel K. Williams. Oxford University Press. 2010.
- Williams, Daniel K. (October 4, 2010). God's Own Party: The Making of the Christian Right. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199798872.
- Karrer, Robert N. (2011). "The Pro-Life Movement and Its First Years under "Roe"". American Catholic Studies. 122 (4): 47–72. ISSN 2161-8542. JSTOR 44195373.
- Staggenborg, Suzanne (1994). The Pro-Choice Movement: Organization and Activism in the Abortion Conflict. Oxford University Press US. p. 188. ISBN 0-19-508925-1.
- Greenhouse, Linda (2010). Before Roe v. Wade: Voices that Shaped the Abortion Debate before the Supreme Court's Ruling. Kaplan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60714-671-1. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013.
- Prendergast, William B.; Prendergast, Mary E. (1999). The Catholic Voter in American Politics: The Passing of the Democratic Monolith. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 9780878407248.
- Hevesi, Dennis (October 18, 2010). "Mildred Jefferson, 84, Anti-Abortion Activist, Is Dead - Obituary (Obit)". NYTimes.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "Founded". Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- http://www.clmagazine.org/article/index/id/MTM1NDE Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine A saintly influence: Pope John Paul II's impact on American Life League—and me. Judie Brown. Celebrate Life Magazine.
- Smith, Peter (May 6, 2013). "Catholics Bid Farewell to Pro-Life Lion Howard Phillips". National Catholic Register. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "Right Wing Watch - American Life League". People for the American Way. Wayback Machine. April 2006. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Rohlinger, Deana A. (2006). "Friends and Foes: Media, Politics, and Tactics in the Abortion War". Social Problems. 53 (4): 537–561. doi:10.1525/sp.2006.53.4.537. ISSN 0037-7791. JSTOR 10.1525/sp.2006.53.4.537.
- Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation: The Abortion Wars and Strategies of Political Harassment. University of Michigan. p. 90.
- Rohlinger, Deana A. (2015). Abortion Politics, Mass Media, and Social Movements in America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069237.
- Siegel, Reva B. (2012). "Abortion and the "Woman Question:" Forty Years of Debate". Yale Law School.
- "'Partial-Birth Abortion': Separating Fact From Spin". NPR.org. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Mitchell, Alison (December 14, 1996). "Clinton, in Emotional Terms, Explains His Abortion Veto". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Santorum, Rick (November 5, 2003). "S.3 - 108th Congress (2003-2004): Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003". www.congress.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Djupe, Paul A.; Olson, Laura R. (July 2014). Encyclopedia of American Religion and Politics. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438130200.
- "Boycott Threat Blocking Sale of Abortion-Inducing Drug" New York Times
- "Abortion Drug Draws Boycott - New York Times". New York Times. July 8, 1994. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- http://www.ewtn.com/library/PROLIFE/RUBOYCOT.TXT Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Now's the Time to Defend Our Borders - A Pro-Life Boycott Could Keep RU 486 out of the U.S.
- Gorney, Cynthia. Gambling With Abortion Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Harper's Magazine, November 2004.
- Karrer, Robert N. "The National Right to Life Committee: Its Founding, Its History, and the Emergence of the Pro-Life Movement Prior to Roe v. Wade", Catholic Historical Review, Volume 97, Number 3, July 2011, pp. 527–57, in Project MUSE.
- National Right to Life Committee, official website
- American Citizens Concerned for Life, Inc. Records, (1968) 1974-1982 (1986) via Gerald R. Ford Library
- ProlifeProfiles.com/NRLC, criticism from within the anti-abortion movement
- From the archives: Bishop James McHugh dies at 68. Newsday. Zachary R. Dowdy. December 11, 2000