National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan

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National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы Ұлттық Қауіпсіздік Комитеті
Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy Ulttyq Qaýipsizdik Komıteti
Russian: Комитет Национальной Безопасности Республики Казахстан
Эмблема КНБ РК.png
The emblem of The National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Флаг КНБ РК.png
Agency overview
Formed13 July 1992; 27 years ago (1992-07-13)
Preceding agency
Agency executive
Websiteknb.kz
Footnotes
Also referred to by the abbreviations KNB[1][2] or NSC,[3] or unofficially as the Kazakh National Security Service[4]

The National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NSC) is an intelligence agency in Kazakhstan.[3] It was founded on 13 July 1992.[6] It primarily manages the Border Service of Kazakhstan, which conducts oversight over the international borders of Kazakhstan. The NSC also oversees and Arystan ('Lions') commando unit.[7]

History[edit]

The NSC was created in accordance with a law passed by parliament in July 1992 which authorised the establishment of an agency to replace the KGB, the old national security apparatus of the Soviet Union. Initially, it retained most of the staff which the KGB had employed in Kazakhstan, as well as the powers the KGB had held; its first head, Bulat Baekenov, had worked for the KGB for over two decades. Its early years were marked by close cooperation with Russia on issues of border security and counter-intelligence against alleged foreign spies.[1] In December 1995, a new presidential decree modified some of the NSC's powers.[8]

In November 2008, journalist Ramazan Yesergepov published an article entitled "Who Rules the Country: President or National Security Committee?" It contained private NSC correspondence which was later listed as classified, resulting in his 2009 arrest and conviction on security charges.[9] The case led to domestic and international condemnation.[10][11]

In January 2010, Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbaev appointed his nephew Samat Abish as the NSC's head of human resources; opposition lawmaker Serikbolsyn Abdildin of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan claimed this shows that Nazarbaev considers personal loyalty more important than skill in government posts.[2]

Border Service[edit]

The Border Service (Kazakh: шекара қызметі, Russian: Пограничная служба) is a paramilitary agency of the NSC that serves to protect the international borders of Kazakhstan. It is the successor to the Eastern Border District of the Soviet Committee of State Security (KGB). Various border agreement are made with bordering countries such as Russia, China and Kyrgyzstan in order to prevent terrorist activities from occurring on the border. It is mainly composed of border units and checkpoints, air police, a coast guard as well as other support units.

Arystan Commando Unit[edit]

The Arystan Commando Unit is a special forces unit of the Office of the NSC and the armed forces. It was created as part oc the Presidential Security Service on 13 January 1992. Since April 1993, the unit has been referred to as the Arystan Unit. Every year, personnel of the unit are required to pass a qualifying exam. It currently operates in Nur-Sultan, Almaty, and Aktau (the latter being done in order to ensure safety in the oil-producing fields).[12]

List of Chairmen[edit]

  • Bulat Baekenov, October 1991 - December 1993[13]
  • Sat Tokpakbaev, December 1993 - November 1995; left his post to take up the chairmanship of the Special Security Division (Специализированное охранное подразделение) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs[13]
  • Dzhenisbek Dzhumanbekov, November 1995 - May 1997; his term was marked by scandal over illegal dealings with Iran, and his vice-chairman was sacked; Dzhumanbekov himself resigned from his position and left public life[13]
  • Alnur Musaev, May 1997 - September 1998
  • Nurtai Abykayev, September 1998 – August 1999; dismissed from his post for his role in a scandal over the sale of old MiG fighter planes to North Korea by the Kazakhstan Ministry of Defense, and replaced by his predecessor.[13][14][5]
  • Alnur Musaev, August 1999 - May 2001; second term ended by dismissal from his post due to personal conflicts with the president and other elites[13]
  • Marat Tazhin, May 2001 - December 2001[13]
  • Nartai Dutbayev, December 2001 - 22 February 2006; resigned in scandal over murder of opposition politician Altynbek Sarsenbayev[13][15][16]
  • Amangeldy Shabdarbayev, 2 March 2006 - 7 December 2009; removed from his post for unclear reasons[17][18]
  • Adil Shayakhmetov, 9 December 2009 – August 2010; removed from his post in the aftermath of the arrest of Prosecutor-General's Office official Murat Musabekov, who was fingered as allegedly plotting a coup in an anonymous letter allegedly circulated by NSC officers.[5][17]
  • Nurtai Abykayev, August 2010 – December 2015;
  • Vladimir Zhumakanov, December 2015 – September 2016
  • Karim Massimov, September 2016 – present;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Knight 1997, p. 161
  2. ^ a b "Kazakh President's Nephew Gets Post In Security Service", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 12 January 2010, retrieved 27 January 2010
  3. ^ a b McDermott, Roger N. (3 August 2006), "Kazakhstan's Intelligence Service in Disarray", The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst, retrieved 2 February 2010
  4. ^ "KNB Gives Kazakh Uranium Company Head New Lawyer", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 20 January 2010, retrieved 2 February 2010
  5. ^ a b c Lillis, Joanna (7 October 2010), "Kazakhstan: Coup Rumor a Sign of Factional Infighting in Astana", Eurasianet, retrieved 13 December 2010
  6. ^ Adequately react to modern threats, Kazakhstan: National Security Committee, 13 July 2007, retrieved 1 August 2009
  7. ^ "Suspects in slaying of opposition leader reportedly from Kazakh security service", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 22 February 2006, retrieved 13 December 2010
  8. ^ "Об органах национальной безопасности Республики Казахстан", Ведомости Верховного Совета Республики Казахстан, 24 (157), 21 December 1995, retrieved 28 January 2010
  9. ^ "Kazakhstan: Journalist Ramazan Yesergepov faces the prospect of spending the next 8 years behind the bars", Ferghana Information Agency, 11 January 2009, retrieved 20 April 2011
  10. ^ Leonard, Peter (13 August 2009), "Kazakhstan court refuses to free jailed editor", Seattle Times, retrieved 20 April 2011
  11. ^ "Rights group raps Kazakh record before OSCE summit", Daily Times of Pakistan, 1 December 2010, retrieved 20 April 2011
  12. ^ О мерах по дальнейшему совершенствованию деятельности органов национальной безопасности Республики Казахстан — Указ Президента Республики Казахстан от 22 ноября 2016 года № 372с
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Кузнецов, Николай (11 December 2009), "Девять жизней Комитета нацбезопасности", Взгляд, 45 (134), retrieved 28 January 2010
  14. ^ "Kazakh sackings over plane scandal", BBC News, 9 August 1999, retrieved 1 August 2009
  15. ^ "Central Asia Report: Week at a Glance", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 10 March 2006, retrieved 27 January 2010
  16. ^ "Kazakh officers linked to murder", BBC News, 26 January 2006, retrieved 28 January 2010
  17. ^ a b "Kazakhstan Approves New National Security Committee Chief", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 9 December 2009, retrieved 27 January 2010
  18. ^ "Kazakh Senate Approves New Intelligence Chief", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2 March 2006, retrieved 27 January 2010

Bibliography[edit]

  • Knight, Amy W. (1997), Spies without cloaks: the KGB's successors, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-01718-1

External links[edit]