National Security Service (Uzbekistan)
|Davlat Xavfsizlik Xizmati|
Государственная Служба Безопасности
|Formed||September 26, 1991|
|Type||Intelligence, internal security, secret police|
The National Security Service (Uzbek Milliy Xavfsizlik Xizmati, MXX; in Russian Служба национальной безопасности, СНБ, often romanised as SNB) is the national intelligence agency of the government of Uzbekistan. It was created on 26 September 1991 as a successor to the KGB and it's republican affiliate in the Uzbek SSR. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, it has retained the same responsibilities and a similar range of functional units, including paramilitary police and special forces. The SNB was a rival of the Interior Ministry until 2005, when it was brought under its control.
The following officials have led the SNB since its establishment:
- Rustam Inoyatov 27 June 1995–31 January 2018
- Ikhtiyor Abdullayev 31 January 2018–11 February 2019
- Abdusalom Azizov Since 11 February 2019
Rustam Inoyatov was the head of the SNB for over 20 years beginning in 1995. The deputy director of the SNB was in 2005 appointed Minister of the Interior. A reorganisation of the security and counter-terrorism agencies in the aftermath of the Andijan massacre significantly increased the power and resources of the SNB. In February 2019, the SNB head Ikhtiyor Abdullayev was fired after he was accused to have conducted surveillance on President Shavkat Mirziyoyev's personal phone.
The following people served as chairmen of the Uzbek KGB:
- Alexei Byzov (20 April 1954 - 11 February 1960)
- Georgy Naymushin (26 February 1960 - 14 December 1963)
- Sergey Kiselev (14 December 1963 - 25 October 1969)
- Alexey Beschastnovr (25 October 1969 - 25 October 1974)
- Eduard Nordman (25 October 1974 - 2 March 1978)
- Levon Melkumov (2 March 1978 - 24 August 1983)
- Vladimir Golovin (24 August 1983 - 27 January 1989)
- Anatoly Morgasov (23 February 1989 - 12 June 1991)
- Gulam Aliyev (12 June 1991 - 26 September 1991)
Activities and human rights abuses
The SNB has been closely associated with the authoritarian administration of President Islam Karimov, and has been accused of involvement in human rights abuses and in sponsoring acts of terrorism to provide a pretext for repressive policing. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has reported claims that the 1999 Tashkent bombings were carried out by the SNB, then led by Rustam Inoyatov of the Tashkent clan, and that the SNB may also have been responsible for a series of bombings in 2004 in Tashkent and Bukhara.
Fear of the SNB is so widespread in Uzbekistan that it is considered dangerous to say its name in public.
On 13 May 2005 SNB troops, along with military and Interior Ministry forces, killed a large number of protesters in Andijan, in an event that became known as the Andijan massacre. Estimates of those killed range widely, from the official figure of 187 to upwards of 1,000. The protests related to the arrest of a group of local businessmen, and the massacre was preceded by disorder including, according to Pravda, an attempt to seize the regional headquarters of the SNB.
- "monitors the Uzbek sector of the Internet and 'stimulates' ISPs and Internet cafés to practice self-censorship. Soviet-style censorship structures were replaced by 'monitoring sections' that work under SNB’s guidance. There is no mandatory government prepublication review, but ISPs risk having their licenses revoked if they post 'inappropriate' information. Occasionally, the SNB orders ISPs to block access to opposition or religious Web sites. A survey of internet filtering practices among Uzbek ISPs was conducted by ONI in January 2007. Respondents confirmed that they use filtering applications including SquidGuard and FortiGuard. The SNB's censorship is selective and often targets articles on government corruption, violations of human rights, and organized crime. Usually, it affects URL-specific pages instead of top-level domain names. Uzbek ISPs block entire Web sites or individual pages upon SNB's unofficial requests. Accessing a blocked page redirects the user to a search engine or to an error message such as 'You are not authorized to view this page.' The retransmission of blocked channels is also prohibited.
The SNB is known to have special purpose units "Alfa", "Cobra", and "Scorpion" under its direct command.  The Border Service and Customs Service of Uzbekistan answer to the SNB since being placed under its control in 2005. With corruption in the Country being the highest, the organization fully separated itself from the Nation but stays under mafia control.
- Secrets and Lies: Forced Confessions Under Torture in Uzbekistan, Amnesty International (April 15, 2015).
- Uzbek Secret Police Roam Russian Prisons, News Briefing Central Asia (Institute for War and Peace Reporting) (January 9, 2013).
- Rustam Inoyatov: SNB vs MVD — Registran.net
-  Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty on "Tashkent clan"
- Changes in Uzbekistan's Military Policy after the Andijan Events[permanent dead link] Central Asia-Institute Silk Road Studies Program
- "КГБ Узбекской ССР". shieldandsword.mozohin.ru. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
-  Radio Free Europe feature on bombings
- Higgins, Andrew (April 1, 2018). "'The Ice Is Melting' as Uzbekistan Moves to Dilute Police State". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- 2004 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Uzbekistan, United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (February 28, 2005).
- Preliminary findings on the events in Andijan Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (June 2005).
- Documenting Andijan, Council for Foreign Relations (26 June 2006).
- The Turkish Weekly
- Institute for War and Peace Reporting
- Former Uzbek Spy Accuses Government Of Massacres, Seeks Asylum 1 September 2008, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
- The revolution in Uzbekistan's Andijan turns out to be narcotic Pravda
- Profile: Uzbekistan, OpenNet Initiative (December 21, 2010).