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National Union (Israel)

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National Union
האיחוד הלאומי
LeaderYa'akov Katz
Benny Begin
Rehavam Ze'evi
Binyamin Elon
Avigdor Lieberman
Founded1999 (1999)
Dissolved2013 (2013)
Succeeded byNational Union-Tkuma
National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Political positionRight-wing to far-right[2]
Most MKs7 (2003)
Election symbol
(In 1999 יט‎; in 2003 ל‎)

The National Union (Hebrew: האיחוד הלאומי, HaIhud HaLeumi) was an alliance of right-wing and nationalist political parties in Israel. In its final full form, the alliance consisted of four parties: Moledet, Hatikva, Eretz Yisrael Shelanu, and Tkuma.[3] Leading up to the 2013 Knesset elections, only Tkuma remained, and joined The Jewish Home. During its existence, it had also included Ahi, Herut – The National Movement, the Jewish National Front, and Yisrael Beiteinu.


Logo of the National Union, 1999

The National Union was formed in 1999 to contest the elections of that year as an alliance between Moledet, Tkuma, and Herut – The National Movement, winning four seats. In 2001, the party's support was almost doubled by the addition of the predominantly Russian-immigrant party, Yisrael Beiteinu.

After Ariel Sharon won the 2001 Prime Ministerial elections, National Union was brought into the National Unity Government, and party leader Rehavam Zeevi was appointed Minister of Tourism, with Yisrael Beiteinu leader Avigdor Lieberman becoming Minister of National Infrastructure. When Zeevi was assassinated on 17 October 2001, Binyamin Elon of Moledet took his ministerial position, and Lieberman became head of the National Union.

Herut ran independently in the 2003 elections, and did not pass the barrier. The National Union party won seven seats, and was included in Ariel Sharon's coalition, alongside Likud, Shinui, the National Religious Party, and Yisrael BaAliyah. Elon and Lieberman were appointed Minister of Tourism and Minister of Transportation, respectively.

The National Union opposed the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip. Sharon sacked ministers Elon and Lieberman, and the National Union left the coalition (Elon attempted to avoid sacking by going into hiding, but ultimately failed).[4]

However, the National Union was then bolstered by the addition of the Renewed Religious National Zionist Party (later renamed Ahi), which had been formed by NRP dissidents opposed to the Gaza withdrawal after the NRP had decided to remain in the coalition. After withdrawal, the National Union adopted orange as its symbol, the color having been used by anti-disengagement protesters.

Logo of the National Union-NRP joint list, 2006

In 2005, Yisrael Beiteinu left the National Union to run independently in the 2006 elections. At the last minute, the National Religious Party decided to form a joint list with National Union called National Union - NRP. The combined list adopted more social policies, and won the support of the chief rabbis of Religious Zionism (such as Rabbi Abraham Shapira), and the Union of Handicapped (thanks to the NRP's pro-handicapped legislation). The joint list used the slogan New Right Rising (Hebrew: ימין חדש עולה, Yamin Hadash Oleh), and won nine seats, of which the National Union took six.

In 2008, in anticipation of the 2009 elections, the National Union and NRP formally unified into a single party, called the Jewish Home. This was intended to unify their political sector and present the public with a new face for the religious Zionist movement. The Jewish Home was to be a single party, rather than a list of separate parties, each with its own agenda and independent leadership. Professor Daniel Hershkowitz was picked to head the newly formed party. However, MK Aryeh Eldad left to form his own list, Hatikva, while MKs Effi Eitam and Yitzhak Levy (formerly of Ahi) re-established Ahi, which later merged into Likud. When the Jewish Home announced its candidate list for the elections, five of the top six slots went to ex-NRP members, with only MK Uri Ariel, formerly of Tkuma, in the top six.

The remaining ex-Moledet members broke off, re-established their party, and allied with MK Eldad's Hatikva, reviving the National Union name. Elon stated that he would not seek re-election, and American immigrant Uri Bank took his place on the Jewish Home list. The split from Jewish Home grew, and polls indicated Hatikva could win three seats. Eretz Yisrael Shelanu also joined the National Union, with member Michael Ben-Ari given fourth spot on the alliance's list. While these issues were being negotiated, Uri Ariel also left Jewish Home and rejoined the National Union list, leaving Jewish Home as little more than a renamed NRP.

In preparation for the 2013 Knesset elections, the Tkuma faction of the National Union merged with the Jewish Home. Ya'akov Katz, chairman of the party, asked to be lower on the list of Tkuma members, and soon after resigned from politics. Hatikva and Eretz Yisrael Shelanu broke off, and merged to form Otzma LeYisrael[5] while Moledet and Tkuma merged with the Jewish Home.[6] In the elections held on 22 January 2013, the Jewish Home received 9% of the vote, winning twelve seats in the Knesset.


National Union had come under scrutiny for its sympathy towards right-wing "price-tag" militants, who engaged in vandalist activities targeting both the state of Israel and Palestinians, including siding with such militants in clashes with Israeli authorities. When a group of "hilltop youth" militants attacked an Israeli army base in late 2011, MK Uri Ariel protested Israeli officials who called the group "terrorists", and condemned calls for the use of lethal force to repel such attacks in the future.[7] In January 2012, Ariel admitted to giving IDF troop movement information to such militants in order to facilitate disruption of army activities.[8]

In 2009, MK Michael Ben-Ari was arrested after interfering with police attempts to arrest a settler who had been rioting against Palestinians in protest of proposed settlement evacuations.[9] In March 2011, Ben-Ari criticized arrests of settlers who had thrown stones at the police in order to block the service of an arrest warrant, comparing Internal Security Minister Yitzhak Aharonovitch to Muammar Gaddafi and declaring that "his days are numbered".[10]

In 2012, MK Aryeh Eldad and MK Michael Ben-Ari sparked controversy by calling for asylum seekers entering Israel to be shot.[11]


Name Ideology Position Leader
Moledet (1999–2013) Ultranationalism
Population transfer
Right-wing to far-right Rehavam Ze'evi (1999–2001)
Benny Elon (2001–08)
Uri Bank (2008–13)
Tkuma (1999–2013) Religious Zionism
Right-wing to far-right Zvi Hendel (1999–2009)
Ya'akov Katz (2009–13)
Herut (1999–2000) Revisionist Zionism Right-wing Benny Begin (1999–2000)
Michael Kleiner (2000)
Yisrael Beiteinu (2001–2005) Revisionist Zionism
Right-wing Avigdor Lieberman (2001–2005)
Mafdal (2006–2008) Religious Zionism
Religious conservatism
Right-wing Zvulun Orlev (2006–2008)
Ahi (2005–2008) Religious Zionism
Religious conservatism
Right-wing Effi Eitam (2005–2008)
Hatikva (2009–2012) Revisionist Zionism
Far-right Aryeh Eldad (2009–2012)
Eretz Yisrael Shelanu (2009–2013) Religious Zionism
Far-right Shalom Dov Wolpo (2009–2013)
Hayil (2009–2013) Kahanism
Far-right Baruch Marzel (2009–2012)

Party leaders[edit]

Leader Took office Left office
1 Benny Begin 1999 1999
2 Rehavam Ze'evi 1999 2003
3 Avigdor Lieberman 2003 2005
4 Benny Elon 2005 2008
5 Ya'akov Katz 2008 2013
6 Uri Ariel[a] 2013 2019
7 Bezalel Smotrich[a] 2019 Incumbent

Election results[edit]

Election Alliance Leader Votes % Seats +/– Status
1999 none Benny Begin 100,181 3.0 (#11)
4 / 120
New Opposition
2003 none Avigdor Lieberman 173,973 5.52 (#5)
7 / 120
Increase 3 Government
2006 National Union-NRP Benny Elon 224,083 7.14 (#9)
6 / 120
Decrease 1 Opposition
2009 none Yaakov Katz 112,570 3.34 (#8)
4 / 120
Decrease 2 Opposition

Knesset members[edit]

Term Members
1999–2003 Binyamin Elon, Michael Kleiner, Hanan Porat (replaced by Zvi Hendel), Rehavam Ze'evi
2003–2006 Uri Ariel, Aryeh Eldad, Binyamin Elon, Zvi Hendel, Avigdor Lieberman (replaced by Eliezer Cohen), Michael Nudelman, Yuri Stern, Yigal Yasinov (joined from Shinui)
2006–2009 Uri Ariel, Effi Eitam, Aryeh Eldad, Binyamin Elon, Zvi Hendel, Yitzhak Levy
2009–2013 Uri Ariel, Michael Ben-Ari, Aryeh Eldad, Ya'akov Katz


  1. ^ a b Tkuma is the only remaining faction in the National Union.


  1. ^ Sharon Weinblum (2015). Security and Defensive Democracy in Israel: A Critical Approach to Political Discourse. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-317-58450-6.
  2. ^ "Israeli political parties". BBC News. 5 April 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  3. ^ Gil Hoffman (1 January 2009). "The only candidate Anglos can 'Bank' on?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  4. ^ Donald MacIntyre (5 June 2004). "Cabinet farce after Sharon sacks pair to secure Gaza vote". The Independent. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022.
  5. ^ Elad Benari (12 October 2012). "Ben-Ari Leaves National Union, Will Run with Eldad". Arutz 7. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Moledet Strengthens Unity in Religious Camp". Arutz Sheva. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  7. ^ Herb Keinon; Yaakov Lappin; Lahav Harkov (15 December 2011). "Rioting Jews to be tried in army courts". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  8. ^ Jonathan Lis (8 January 2012). "Second Israeli MK admits to having given settlers information on IDF movements". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  9. ^ Nathan Jeffay (3 June 2009). "Pollsters Find Israeli Public Less Supportive of Settlements". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  10. ^ Yair Altman (30 March 2011). "Settlers stone police in nightly clash". Ynetnews. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  11. ^ Gili Cohen (3 June 2012). "MK: Shoot everyone trying to cross Israel border". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 June 2015.

External links[edit]