National anthem of Slovenia

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Zdravljica
English: A Toast
Himna Republike Slovenije.jpg
The national anthem of Slovenia as defined in the 1994 law adopting it. As typically performed, it consists of a part of the "Zdravljica" poem.

National anthem of  Slovenia
LyricsFrance Prešeren, 1844
MusicStanko Premrl, 1905
Adopted1989 (de facto)
1994 (de jure)
Preceded by"Naprej, zastava slave"
Audio sample
"Zdravljica" (instrumental)

The national anthem of Slovenia is based on "Zdravljica", a carmen figuratum poem by the 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet France Prešeren, inspired by the ideals of Liberté, égalité, fraternité,[1] and set to music by Stanko Premrl. As the country's national anthem, it is one of the state symbols of Slovenia.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Historically, the national anthem from 1860[2][3] until the beginning of the 1990s,[4] was "Naprej, zastava slave" ("Forward, Flag of Glory"),[i] the first ever piece of Slovene literature to be translated into English.[7]

Lyrics and music[edit]

The words of the current Slovene national anthem are all or part[ii] of "Zdravljica", written by the 19th-century Slovene poet France Prešeren for which music was written by the Slovene composer Stanko Premrl in 1905. Emphasising internationalism,[10] it was defined in 1994[11] as the anthem with the Act on the national symbols of Slovenia. However, even before the breakup of Yugoslavia, the lyrics and music were together adopted as the regional anthem of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia on 27 September 1989. Therefore, it was the regional anthem of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia (known as simply the "Republic of Slovenia" from 1990 to 1991) as a constituent republic of Yugoslavia from 8 March 1990 to 25 June 1991, as well.

Legal status[edit]

As a work of arts, published in the official journal Official Gazette, the text and melody of the seventh stanza of "Zdravljica" qualify as an official work and are per Article 9 of the Slovene Copyright and Related Rights Act not protected by the copyrights.[12] Their usage is regulated by the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation, published in the Official Gazette in 1994.[13] The official melody is written in B-flat major.

Lyrics[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Where the last word can be capitalized to mean "Slavic" instead of "Glory", but despite a popular interpretation that it could refer to the Slavic people in general, the word slava was written uncapitalised by Jenko. It was capitalised by public in 1863.[5] Nowadays, it is written with small letters.[6]
  2. ^ The question whether the entire "Zdravljica" or only its seventh stanza constitutes the Slovene national anthem, remains unresolved. Whereas the Constitution of Slovenia determines the title of the poem, the Act about the anthem specifically determines its seventh stanza. It has been argued that the act contradicts the constitution and that the question should be resolved by the Slovenian Constitutional Court.[8][9] In practice, mostly only the seventh stanza is sung and reproduced as the national anthem.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Danica Veceric (2006). Slovenia. Looking at Europe, The Oliver Press, Inc., ISBN 1881508749
  2. ^ Rupnik, Janko; Cijan, Rafael; Grafenauer, Božo (1993). Ustavno pravo [Constitutional Law] (in Slovenian). Faculty of Law, University of Maribor. p. 51. ISBN 978-961-6009-39-3.
  3. ^ Javornik, Marijan, ed. (2001). Enciklopedija Slovenije [Encyclopedia of Slovenia] (in Slovenian). 15. p. 403. ISBN 978-86-11-14288-3.
  4. ^ "Državni simboli in znamka Slovenije" [National Symbols and the Trademark of Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  5. ^ Kristen, Samo (2007). "V Pragi "Naprej zastava slave", v Ljubljani "Kde domov můj?" Jan Masaryk in Slovenci" [In Prague "Naprej zastava slave", in Ljubljana "Kde domov můj?" Jan Masaryk and Slovenes] (PDF). Anthropos (in Slovenian). 39 (3–4): 272–274. ISSN 0587-5161. COBISS 11065421.
  6. ^ Lisjak Gabrijelčič, Luka (2008). "The Dissolution of the Slavic Identity of the Slovenes in the 1980s. The case of the Venetic Theory" (PDF). Department of History, Central European University: 34. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Dobrovoljc, France (1951). "Razgledi: dve zanimivi epizodi iz zgodovine slovensko-angleških kulturnih stikov" [Views: Two Interesting Episodes from the History of the Slovene-English Cultural Contacts]. Novi svet [New World] (in Slovenian). Državna založba Slovenije [State Publishing House of Slovenia]. 6 (10): 958–959. ISSN 1318-2242. COBISS 37239808.
  8. ^ Lotnar Černič, Jernej (24 September 2010). "Himna Slovenije je Zdravljica in ne samo njena sedma kitica" [The Anthem of Slovenia is "Zdravljica" and not only its Seventh Stanza]. IUS-INFO. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  9. ^ Škrinjar, Klara (3 September 2012). "Zdravljica v političnem in pravnem primežu" [Zdravljica in the Political and Legal Vice]. Delo.si (in Slovenian).
  10. ^ Božič, Dragan (3 November 2010). "Katero kitico č'mo kot himno zapet'" [Which Stanza Should We As the Anthem Sing?] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  11. ^ Jesenovec, Stanislav (17 February 2009). "Pesniku toplo, skladatelju vroče" [Warm to the Poet, Hot to the Composer]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). ISSN 1854-6544.
  12. ^ M. B. Jančič, M. B. Breznik, M. Damjan, M. Kovačič, M. Milohnić. Upravljanje avtorskih in sorodnih pravic na Internetu - Vidik javnih inštitucij (in Slovene) [The Management of Copyright and Related Rights on Internet - The Aspect of Public Institutions]. August 2010. Peace Institute; Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana. Pg. 28.
  13. ^ Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi (Slovene) [Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation]. Official Gazette. 67/1994.
  14. ^ "Text of the Slovenian National Anthem in Different Languages". Protocol of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  15. ^ 1954 translation by Janko Lavrin (1887–1986)

External links[edit]