National colours

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National colours are frequently part of a country's set of national symbols.

Many states and nations have formally adopted a set of colours as their official "national colours" while others have de facto national colours that have become well-known through popular use. National colours often appear on a variety of different media, from the nation's flag to the colours used in sports.

Africa[edit]

Country Flag Primary
colours
Secondary
colours
Primary Secondary Further
information
Algeria Green, white and red    
Angola Red, black and yellow    
Benin Green, yellow and red    
Botswana Light blue, black and white    
Burkina Faso Red, green and yellow    
Burundi Red, white and green    
Cameroon Green, red and yellow    
Cape Verde Blue, white, red and yellow     
Central African Republic Blue, white, green, yellow and red    
  
Chad Blue, yellow and red    
Comoros Yellow, white, red, blue and green    
  
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Blue, yellow and red    
Congo, Republic of the Green, yellow and red    
Djibouti Light blue, green, white and red     
Egypt Red, white and black    
Equatorial Guinea Green, white, red and blue     
Eritrea Green, blue, red and yellow     
Eswatini (Swaziland) Blue, yellow, red, black and white    
  
Ethiopia Green, yellow, red and blue     
Gabon Green, yellow and blue    
Gambia Red, blue, green and white     
Ghana Red, yellow, green and black Black and white (used in sports)        
Guinea Red, yellow and green    
Guinea-Bissau Red, yellow, green and black     
Ivory Coast Orange, white and green    
Kenya Black, red, green and white     
Lesotho Blue, white, green and black     
Liberia Red, white and blue    
Libya Red, black, green and white     
Madagascar Red, green and white    
Malawi Black, red and green    
Mali Green, yellow and red    
Mauritania Green, yellow and red    
Mauritius Red, blue, yellow and green     
Morocco Red and green   
Mozambique Green, yellow, red, black and white    
  
Namibia Blue, red, green, white and yellow    
  
Niger Orange, white and green    
Nigeria Green and white   
Rwanda Sky blue, yellow and green    
São Tomé and Príncipe Green, yellow, red and black     
Senegal Green, yellow and red    
Seychelles Blue, yellow, red, white and green    
  
Sierra Leone Green, white and blue    
Somalia Blue and white   
South Africa Red, green, blue, gold, black and white[1] Green and gold (used in sports)    
   
   National colours of South Africa
South Sudan Black, red, green, blue, yellow and white    
   
Sudan Red, white, black and green     
Tanzania Green, yellow, blue and black     
Togo Green, yellow, red and white     
Tunisia Red and white   
Uganda Black, yellow and red    
Zambia Green, red, black and orange     
Zimbabwe Green, yellow, red, black and white    
  

North America[edit]

Country Flag Primary
colours
Secondary
colours
Primary Secondary Further
information
Anguilla Orange, blue and white    
Antigua and Barbuda Red, white, blue, black and yellow    
  
Aruba Yellow, cerulean, white, red    
 
Bahamas Aquamarine, yellow and black    
Barbados Ultramarine, gold and black    
Belize Blue, red and white Sky blue (used in sports)      
Bermuda Red, blue and white Prussian blue (used in sports)      
Bonaire Yellow, blue and white    
British Virgin Islands Green, yellow and white    
Canada Red and white[2] Black (only used in sports)      National colours of Canada
Cayman Islands Blue, red and white    
Costa Rica Blue, white and red Black (used in sports)      
Cuba Blue, white and red Black      
Curaçao Blue, yellow and white    
Dominica Green, yellow, black, white and red Blue (used in sports)    
  
 
Dominican Republic Blue, white and red    
El Salvador Blue and white   
Grenada Green, yellow and red    
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Green, red and white    
Guatemala Blue and white Navy blue and green-blue      
Haiti Blue and red[3]   
Honduras Blue and white Navy blue and midnight blue      
Jamaica Green, gold and black    
Martinique Blue and white Light blue     
Mexico Green, white and red Black, indian red, magenta and lime green (used only in sports)          National colours of Mexico
Montserrat Black, green, dark blue, red and white      
Nicaragua Blue and white Gold and denim (used only in sports)      
Panama Blue, white and red Midnight blue and cadet blue (used only in sports)       
Puerto Rico Red, white and blue    
Saint Kitts and Nevis Green, red and white Gold and black   
 
  
Saint Lucia Light blue, yellow, black and white Blue (only in sports)       
Saint Martin Yellow and blue Dark blue, red and white       
Saint Pierre et Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Blue, white and red    
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Blue, yellow and green    
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Red, blue and white    
Trinidad and Tobago Red, white and black Maroon (only in sports)      
Turks and Caicos Blue, light blue, red and white Green sheen (only in sports)       
United States of America Red, white and blue[3]     National colours of the United States
US Virgin Islands White, yellow and blue Light blue (used only in sports)      

South America[edit]

Country Flag Primary
colours
Secondary
colours
Primary Secondary Further
information
Argentina Light blue and white[4] Blue and black (used in sports)      
Bolivia Red, yellow and green White (used in sports)      
Brazil Green and yellow Blue and white      
Chile Red, white and blue    
Colombia Yellow, blue and red Dark blue and white (used in sports)       
Ecuador Yellow, blue and red Sky blue (used in sports)      
French Guiana Yellow and green Blue (used in sports)     
Guyana Yellow and green Red and black      
Paraguay Red, white and blue Bluegray (used in sports)      
Peru Red and white   
Suriname White and green Red and gold      
Uruguay Blue and white Red; light blue and black are used in sports       
Venezuela Yellow, blue and red Burgundy and khaki (used in sports)       

Asia[edit]

Country Flag Primary
colours
Secondary
colours
Primary Secondary Further
information
Afghanistan Black, red, green and white Blue (cricket)       
Armenia Red, blue and orange    
Azerbaijan Blue, red and green    
Bahrain Red and white   
Bangladesh Red, green and gold White (football) [5]       Bangladesh First Flag of Bangladesh (1971)
Bhutan Fulvous, gold and white Red (football)      
Brunei Yellow, black, white and red Blue and green (football)        
Cambodia Red and blue Black (football)     
China Red and yellow Dark blue, black and white (sports)       
Georgia Red and white   
Hong Kong Red and white Black and gray      
India Saffron orange, blue, white and green Sky blue (sports)       
Indonesia Red and white[6] Green (sports)     
Iran Green, white and red Black      
Iraq Red, white, black and green     
Israel Blue and white[7]    National colours of Israel
Japan Red and white Black (sports); Blue, white and spring bud (only used in football)         National colours of Japan
Jordan Black, white, green and red     
Kazakhstan Blue and yellow White and black (sports)      
Korea, North
(Democratic People's Republic of Korea)
Red, white and blue    
Korea, South
(Republic of Korea)
White, red, blue and black     
Kuwait Green, white, red and black Blue and red (sports)        
Kyrgyzstan Red and yellow Maroon, blue and white (football)       
Laos Red, blue and white Black, gold and sky blue (football)        
Lebanon Red, white and green    
Macau Green and white White and dark blue (sports)      
Malaysia Gold and black Red, white, dark blue and yellow        
Maldives Red and white Green and blue (football)      
Mongolia Blue, red and yellow White (sports)      
Myanmar Yellow, green, red and white     
Nepal Crimson, blue and white    
Oman Red, white and green Gold      
Pakistan Green and white Lime green and gold (sports)      
Philippines Blue, red, white and yellow     
Qatar Maroon and white   
Saudi Arabia Green and white Dark green (football)   
Singapore Red and white Blue (football)     
Sri Lanka Maroon, gold, green and orange Blue (sports)       
Syria Red, white, black and green Gray and gold        
Tajikistan Red, white and green    
Thailand Red, white and blue Royal yellow, royal purple and blue sapphire         Royal flags of Thailand
Timor-Leste Red, yellow, black and white     
Turkey Red and white Turquoise     
Turkmenistan Green and white Sand     
United Arab Emirates Red, green, white and black Gold and blue        
Uzbekistan Blue, white, red and green Black (sports)       
Vietnam Red and yellow White (sports)     
Yemen Red, white and black    

Europe[edit]

Country Flag Primary
colours
Secondary
colours
Primary Secondary Further information
Albania Red and black   
Andorra Blue, yellow and red    
Austria Red and white   
Belarus Red, white and green    
Belgium Red Black and yellow; Light blue (used in cycling)[8]      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Blue and gold White (used in football)     
Bulgaria White, green and red    
Croatia Red, white and blue    
Cyprus Blue and white Orange     
Czech Republic White, red and blue[9][10][11]     National colours of the Czech Republic
Denmark Red and white   
Estonia Blue, black and white[12]    
Finland White and blue Red and gold      
France Blue, white and red[13]    
Germany Black, red and gold White; Silver (used in motor racing)        National colours of Germany
Greece Blue and white    National colours of Greece
Hungary Red, white and green    
Iceland Blue, white and red    
Ireland Green White and orange       Green relates to Goídel Glas, Father of Goidelic (Gaelic) languages and Gaels, Blue relates to St. Patrick, White as it appears on the Irish flag relates to peace between the Gaelic nationalism and the Loyalist supporters of William of Orange and Orange for William of Orange.
Italy Green, white and red[14] Azure       National colours of Italy
Latvia Red and white   
Liechtenstein Blue and red   
Lithuania Yellow, green and red    
Luxembourg Red, white and light blue    
Malta Red and white   
Moldova Blue, yellow and red    
Monaco Red and white   
Montenegro Red and gold   
Netherlands Orange Red, white and blue      
North Macedonia Red and yellow   
Norway Red, white and blue    
Poland White and red    National colours of Poland
Portugal Green and red (Before the 1910 revolution: White and blue)      
Romania Blue, yellow and red    
Russia White, blue and red Green      
San Marino White and light blue   
Serbia Red, blue and white[15][16][17]     National colours of Serbia
Slovakia White, blue and red    
Slovenia White, blue and red[18] Green, blue and white (sports)[19]        
Spain Red and gold   
Sweden Blue and gold   
Switzerland Red and white   
Ukraine Blue and gold    National colours of Ukraine
United Kingdom Red, white and blue British racing green       National colours of the United Kingdom

Oceania[edit]

Country Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
American Samoa Blue, red and white    
Australia Green and gold Blue and white       National colours of Australia
Cook Islands Green and white   
Fiji Light blue White and black (rugby and other sports)     
French Polynesia Red and white   
Guam Indigo and red Blue and white      
New Caledonia Gray, white and red    
New Zealand Black[20] White, silver, ochre red and teal        National colours of New Zealand
Niue Yellow golden and blue   
Samoa Red, white and blue    
Solomon Islands Olive green, yellow and blue Green and white       
Tonga Red and white   
Tuvalu Sky blue, yellow and white Blue      

Countries with limited or no recognition[edit]

These are the national colours for countries or states that have limited or no recognition.

Country Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
Abkhazia Abkhazia Green, white and red    
Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) Republic of Artsakh Red, blue and orange White      
Donetsk People's Republic Donetsk People's Republic Black, blue and red    
Islamic State Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Black  
Kosovo Blue, yellow and white Black      
Luhansk People's Republic Luhansk People's Republic Light blue, blue and red    
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Red and white   
Palestine Black, white, green and red     
Somaliland Somaliland Green, white and red    
South Ossetia South Ossetia White, red and yellow    
Taiwan Blue, white and red Verdigris (University Sports)      
Transnistria Transnistria Red and green   

Former countries[edit]

Country Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
Byzantine Empire Red, Gold, Purple     Byzantine flags and insignia
East Germany Black, red and gold Blue       National colours of Germany
France (Kingdom of France 987–1792, 1814–1848) White, Blue    French Blue, French Flags
German Empire Black, White, Red     German Flags
Holy Roman Empire Gold, Black White, Red       Flags of the Holy Roman Empire
Rhodesia Green  
Roman Empire Red, Purple   
Roman Republic Red  
Soviet Union Red Gold    
South Africa (pre-1994)
Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg
Orange, white and blue Green (sports)      
South Yemen
Flag of South Yemen.svg
Red, sky blue, white and black     
Yugoslavia Blue, white and red    

Caliphates[edit]

Country Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
Abbasid Caliphate Black   Black Standard
Umayyad Caliphate White  
Fatimid Caliphate Green, White    Green in Islam

Ancient/Imperial Chinese Dynasties[edit]

Country Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
Xia Dynasty Black, Grue    [21], Green/Blue in China
Shang Dynasty White   [21]
Zhou Dynasty Red   [21]
Qin Dynasty Black   [21]
Han Dynasty Yellow, Red    [21]
Former Wei Dynasty Yellow   [21]
Jin Dynasty Red, White    [21]
Liu Song Dynasty Red, Black    [21]
Southern Qi Dynasty Red, Grue    [21], Green/Blue in China
Liang Dynasty Red   [21]
Chen Dynasty Red, Yellow    [21]
Northern Wei Dynasty Black   [21]
Northern Qi Dynasty Black   [21]
Northern Zhou Dynasty Black   [21]
Sui Dynasty Red   [21]
Tang Dynasty Yellow   [21]
Later Jin Dynasty White   [21]
Later Han Dynasty Black   [21]
Later Zhou Dynasty Grue   [21], Green/Blue in China
Song Dynasty Red   [21]
Western Xia Dynasty White   [21]
Jin Dynasty White   [21]
Yuan Dynasty White   [21]
Ming Dynasty Red   [21]
Qing Dynasty Yellow   [21], Imperial yellow jacket

Supranational organisations[edit]

Some noted supranational organisations like the United Nations and the European Union have their own colours as part of their branding and marketing. They are usually taken from the organisation's flag. Although they do not have national sporting teams, the colours can be used for anything connected to the organisation, like associated bodies.

Organisation Flag Primary colours Secondary colours Primary Secondary Further information
African Union Flag of the African Union.svg Green and gold    Flag of the African Union
Arab League
Flag of the Arab League.svg
Green Red, black and white       Flag of the Arab League, Pan-Arab colours
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Blue, red and yellow Brown       Flag of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Caribbean Community
Flag of CARICOM.svg
Sky blue, navy and yellow Maroon (sports)       Maroon is the colour of the West Indies cricket team. Although they are not an officially part of CARICOM, most members of the community are members of the Cricket West Indies. CARICOM sees the organisation as an associated institute of Community. [22]
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Flag CPLP.gif
Blue and white    Flag of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Eurasian Economic Union
White Blue and gold      Flag of the Eurasian Economic Union
European Union Reflex blue and gold    Flag of Europe
Mercosur
Flag of Mercosur.svg
White and blue Green      Flag of Mercosur
NATO Flag of NATO.svg Dark Blue   Flag of NATO
Nordic Council
Blue and white    Flag of the Nordic Council; Design Manual of the Nordic Council - Colours
Turkic Council
Turqouise   Although the flag of the Turkic Council is light blue and white, turquoise is the colour most associated with the Turkic region.
United Nations Light blue and white    Flag of the United Nations

Examples of use of these colours[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National flag". South African Government. 2018-02-19.
  2. ^ "National Colours: Red and White". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  3. ^ a b "National Symbols". The World Factbook (52nd ed.). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Public Affairs. 2014. ISBN 978-0-16-092553-5. OCLC 913577992. Archived from the original on 2016-11-08. Retrieved 2015-05-02.
  4. ^ "Símbolos nacionales". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 2015-10-09. La primera enseña patria es la Bandera Nacional. Creada por el general Manuel Belgrano el 27 de febrero de 1812, fue consagrada con los mismos colores ‘celeste y blanco’ por el Congreso de Tucumán el 20 de julio de 1816 y ratificada por el mismo cuerpo en Buenos Aires, el 25 de febrero de 1818.
  5. ^ "Bangadesh national team". Colours of Football. Retrieved 2018-07-11.
  6. ^ Minahan, James B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems. ABC-CLIO. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8. Retrieved 2015-10-26. National colors: Red and white
  7. ^ "Israel National Symbols: The Israeli Flag". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  8. ^ "Rode Duivels brengen eerbetoon aan wielrenners met uitshirts". Sporza. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-08-20.
  9. ^ "Státní symboly". hrad.cz.
  10. ^ "Symboly současné České republiky". vlast.cz.
  11. ^ "Státní symboly České republiky". toulkypocechach.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
  12. ^ "National symbols of Estonia". Archived from the original on 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  13. ^ "Le drapeau tricolor" [The Tricolor Flag] (in French). 2002-06-20. Archived from the original on 2005-01-28. Retrieved 2015-07-18. Le pavillon, ainsi que le drapeau national, sera formé des trois couleurs nationales disposées en trois bandes égales, de manière à ce que le bleu soit attaché à la garde du pavillon, le blanc au milieu et le rouge flottant.
  14. ^ Ferorelli, Nicola (1925). La vera origine del tricolore italiano. Rassegna storica del Risorgimento. 12. pp. 654–680.
  15. ^ The Journal of the Orders & Medals Research Society of Great Britain. Orders and Medals Research Society. 1969. p. 207).
  16. ^ Chronicles. Rockford Institute. 1994. p. 39.
  17. ^ Thomas, Nigel; Mikulan, Krunoslav (2006). The Yugoslav Wars (2): Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia 1992–2001. Osprey Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-84176-964-6.
  18. ^ "National Insignia". Government of the Republic of Slovenia. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2016-08-21. the three national colours (white, blue and red) of Carniola - the central historic state on the territory of the Slovenian people - are used
  19. ^ "Sport in Slovenia" (PDF). Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-08-21. The Olympic Committee of Slovenia suggests that sports organisations use the following ratio when designing national sports equipment: 50% green, 30% blue and 20% white.
  20. ^ "Design of The New Zealand Orders Insignia". The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Government of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y doi:10.3176/tr.2012.3.03
  22. ^ "West Indies Cricket Board". CARICOM. Retrieved 2020-06-23.