National conservatism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

National conservatism is a variant of conservatism common in Europe and Asia that concentrates on upholding national and cultural identity,[1] while mixing conservative elements with purely nationalist ones.

It shares characteristics with traditionalist conservatism and social conservatism given how the three variations focus on preservation and tradition. As national conservatism seeks to preserve national interests, traditional conservatism emphasizes ancestral institutions. Additionally, social conservatism emphasizes a patriarchal, restrictive attitude regarding moral behavior to preserve one's traditional status in society.[2][3][4] National-conservative parties often have roots in environments with a rural, traditionalist or peripheral basis, contrasting with the more urban support base of liberal-conservative parties.[5] In Europe, most embrace some form of Euroscepticism.[6][7]

The majority of conservative parties in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe since 1989 have been national conservative.[8]

Ideology[edit]

Social policies[edit]

National conservative parties are "socially traditional",[6] and support the traditional family and social stability.[9] According to the Austrian political scientist Sieglinde Rosenberger, "national conservatism praises the family as a home and a center of identity, solidarity, and tradition".[9] Many national conservatives are thus social conservatives, as well as in favor of limiting immigration and enacting strict law-and-order policies.[6]

Economic policies[edit]

National conservative parties in different countries do not necessarily share a common position on economic policy: Their views may range from support of a planned economy to a centrist mixed economy to a laissez-faire approach.[1] In the first, more common, case, national conservatives can be distinguished from liberal conservatives,[10] for whom free market economic policies, deregulation, and tight spending are the main priorities. Some commentators have indeed identified a growing gap between national and economic liberal conservatism: "Most parties of the Right [today] are run by economically liberal conservatives who, in varying degrees, have marginalized social, cultural, and national conservatives."[10]

List of national conservative political parties[edit]

Current national conservative parties, or parties with national conservative factions[edit]

The following political parties have been characterised as national conservative, at least as one of their ideological influences.

Defunct or formerly national conservative parties, or parties with national conservative factions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mandal 2007, p. 306.
  2. ^ ANDREW., HEYWOOD (2018). ESSENTIALS OF POLITICAL IDEAS : for a level. [S.l.]: PALGRAVE. ISBN 978-1137611673. OCLC 1005867754.
  3. ^ Varieties of conservatism in America. Berkowitz, Peter, 1959-. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press. 2004. ISBN 0817945725. OCLC 839305105.CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ Mediations of social life in the 21st century. Dahms, Harry F. (First ed.). Bingle, UK. 7 November 2014. ISBN 9781784412227. OCLC 896728569.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopecek (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-317-08503-4.
  6. ^ a b c d Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  7. ^ Traynor, Ian, The EU's weary travellers Archived 7 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, 4 April 2006
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bakke, Elisabeth (2010), "Central and East European party systems since 1989", Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989, Cambridge University Press, p. 79
  9. ^ a b Rosenberger, Sieglinde, Europe is swinging towards the right - What are the effects on women? Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, University of Vienna, 2002. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  10. ^ a b National Questions, National Review, Vol. 49, Issue 12, 30 June 1997, pp. 16-17
  11. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  12. ^ Provisions of RPA Program, Republican Party of Armenia, 2008.
  13. ^ Gerard Braunthal (2009). Right-Wing Extremism in Contemporary Germany. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-230-25116-8.
  14. ^ Oliver Rathkolb (2010). The Paradoxical Republic: Austria 1945-2005. Berghahn Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-78238-396-3.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). Western Europe 2008. Stryker Post Pubns. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-887985-98-7.
  17. ^ "A State of Division". Jacobin. 8 November 2018.
  18. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2018). "Bosnia-Herzegovina". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  19. ^ Vargas, Mateus (12 November 2019). "Novo partido se apresenta como 'sonho das pessoas leais a Bolsonaro'" (in Portuguese). Estadão. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  20. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro seeks top judge to become Brazil justice minister". BBC News. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  21. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  22. ^ Aflaki, Inga N. (2016). Entrepreneurship in the Polis. Routledge.
  23. ^ Justin Ling. "How Maxime Bernier Lost His Seat: Canada's nationalist People's Party has run a familiar populist playbook — and ended up a joke". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  24. ^ Tomic, Caroline (2018). Remigration to Post-Socialist Europe. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 116.
  25. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  26. ^ "Détails ODS - Election(s)Meter". fr.electionsmeter.com. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  27. ^ Pehe, Jiří. "Má liberalismus v České republice šanci? — Jiří Pehe". www.pehe.cz. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  28. ^ "Politolog Robejšek založil konzervativní stranu Realisté. Ve volbách chce získat 20 procent hlasů". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  29. ^ Moreau, Patrick (2011). "The Victorious Parties - Unity in Diversity?". In Uwe Backes, Patrick Moreau (ed.). The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 101. ISBN 9783647369228.
  30. ^ "New antimuslim party heading for Danish parliament while neofascists and anti-Semites take it to the streets". 13 March 2019.
  31. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  32. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  33. ^ Siitonen, Aaretti (2009), "Flags and hymns are not for Finns: An analysis of the European elections in Finland before the fact" (PDF), The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, p. 4
  34. ^ "Jean-Yves Camus". Lefigaro.fr. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  35. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  36. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2012). "France". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017.
  37. ^ Mayeur, Jean-Marie (1987). The Third Republic from Its Origins to the Great War, 1871-1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 298.
  38. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  39. ^ Baumgartl, Bernd (1995). New Xenophobia in Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 139.
  40. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2020). Parties and Elections in Europe. Books on Demand. p. 243.
  41. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  42. ^ "High single-digit difference between ND, SYRIZA in new poll on Thurs". Naftemporiki. 16 May 2019.
  43. ^ O'Reilly, Gerry (2019). Aligning Geopolitics, Humanitarian Action and Geography in Times of Conflict. Springer. p. 47.
  44. ^ "Νέα Δεξιά, το κόμμα του Φ. Κρανιδιώτη". Kathimerini (in Greek).
  45. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  46. ^ a b Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopecek (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-317-08503-4.
  47. ^ a b c András Körösényi (1999). Government and Politics in Hungary. Central European University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-963-9116-76-4.
  48. ^ Pytlas, Bartek (2015). Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: Mainstream Party Competition and Electoral Fortune. Routledge. p. 36.
  49. ^ Bonikowska, Monika (2014). "India After The Elections". Centre for International Relations (6): 2. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  50. ^ Misra, Amalendu (1999). "Savarkar and the Discourse on Islam in Pre-Independent India". Journal of Asian History. 33 (2): 175.
  51. ^ Lee, Doreen (2016). Activist Archives: Youth Culture and the Political Past in Indonesia. Duke University Press.
  52. ^ Hitchcock, Michael (1997). Images of Malay-Indonesian Identity. OUP. p. 101.
  53. ^ a b Gary Marks; Carole Wilson (2005). "National parties and the contestation of Europe". In Thomas Banchoff; Mitchell Smith (eds.). Legitimacy and the European Union: The Contested Polity. Routledge. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-134-67560-9.
  54. ^ "The short life of the "National Unity Government"" (PDF). Konrad Adenauer Foundation. July 2012. p. 1.
  55. ^ Watzal, Ludwig (1999). Peace enemies: the past and present conflict between Israel and Palestine. PASSIA. p. 28.
  56. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  57. ^ a b Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  58. ^ Andrea Carla (2016). "Tensions and Challenges between New and Old minorities: Political Party Discourses on Migration in South Tyrol". In Roberta Medda-Windischer; Patricia Popelier (eds.). Pro-independence Movements and Immigration: Discourse, Policy and Practice. BRILL. p. 70. ISBN 978-90-04-29439-4.
  59. ^ Ganesan (2015). Bilateral Legacies in East and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 67.
  60. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  61. ^ Stefanini, Sara (5 February 2017). "Liechtenstein's Populists Gain Ground". Politico. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  62. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  63. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  64. ^ Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 73–74. the UMNO can be described as a national conservative Islamic party
  65. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram, "Montenegro", Parties and Elections in Europe
  66. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey (2019). The Routledge Handbook to Religion and Political Parties. Routledge.
  67. ^ Staab, Steffen (2018). Social Informatics. Springer. p. 102.
  68. ^ Klaus Wahl (2020). The Radical Right: Biopsychosocial Roots and International Variations. Springer Nature. p. 201. ISBN 978-3-030-25131-4.
  69. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2008). "Macedonia". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  70. ^ Heywood, Andrew (2017). Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 93.
  71. ^ "Global Election Review 2019" (PDF). Solace Global. 2019. p. 4.
  72. ^ Koch, Mark (21 April 2013). "Return of the conservatives". Deutsche Welle.
  73. ^ Teehankee, Julio (2016). "Weak State, Strong Presidents: Situating the Duterte Presidency in Philippine Political Time". Journal of Developing Societies. 3 (3).
  74. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopecek (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-317-08503-4.
  75. ^ Krzypinski, Dariusz (2017). Ruxandra Boicu; et al. (eds.). Patterns of Recruitment of Polish Candidates in the 2014 European Parliament Elections. Political Communication and European Parliamentary Elections in Times of Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 245.
  76. ^ "Sejm und Senat: Zur Urne in der Woiwodschaft Lubuskie" (in German). MOZ.de. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  77. ^ Monika Sieradzka (11 October 2019). "Regierungspartei PiS ist der Favorit". Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk.
  78. ^ a b Henningsen, Bernd; Etzold, Tobias; Hanne, Krister, eds. (15 September 2017). The Baltic Sea Region: A Comprehensive Guide: History, Politics, Culture and Economy of a European Role Model. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag. p. 352. ISBN 978-3-8305-1727-6.
  79. ^ David Art (2011), "Memory Politics in Western Europe", in Uwe Backes; Patrick Moreau (eds.), The Extreme Right in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 364, ISBN 978-3-525-36922-7
  80. ^ "Socialist Antonio Costa wins Portugal election, will continue 'contraption' coalition". Euronews. 7 October 2019.
  81. ^ Narcis George Matache (3 May 2018). "Top 30 partide politice din România". The New Federalist.
  82. ^ "Russia parliament elections: How the parties line up". BBC News Online. BBC. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  83. ^ Sakwa, Richard (2013). Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 9781317989943. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  84. ^ "Is 'National Conservatism' the New Ideology of the Russian People? / Diena". Diena.lv. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  85. ^ Bluhm, Katharina (2018). New Conservatives in Russia and East Central Europe. Routledge.
  86. ^ "Russia election: Who are Vladimir Putin's challengers?". Deutsche Welle. 8 February 2018.
  87. ^ a b Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  88. ^ Berger, Mark (2014). Rethinking the Third World. Macmillan. p. 98.
  89. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Slovakia". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  90. ^ Kresťanstvo a tradície
  91. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe".
  92. ^ Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0.
  93. ^ Daniel Kübler; Urs Scheuss; Philippe Rochat (2013). "The Metropolitan Bases of Political Cleavage in Switzerland". In Jefferey M. Sellers; Daniel Kübler; R. Alan Walks; Melanie Walter-Rogg (eds.). The Political Ecology of the Metropolis: Metropolitan Sources of Electoral Behaviour in Eleven Countries. ECPR Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-907301-44-5.
  94. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  95. ^ "Tsai wants to continue her balancing act". International Politics and Society Journal. 13 January 2020.
  96. ^ "Thailand". De Agostini. Retrieved 5 February 2020. PPP (Palang Pracharath, People’s State Power Party, conservative nationalist)
  97. ^ Bayat, Asef (2013). Post-Islamism. Oxford University Press. p. 11.
  98. ^ "Erdoğan's Triumph". Financial Times. 24 July 2007. The AKP is now a national conservative party — albeit rebalancing power away from the westernised urban elite and towards Turkey's traditional heartland of Anatolia — as well as the Muslim equivalent of Europe's Christian Democrats.
  99. ^ Carkoglu, Ali (2004). Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration and International Dynamics. Routledge. p. 127.
  100. ^ "Türkei: Meral Akşener will als Präsidentin vier Millionen syrische Flüchtlinge zurückschicken". RTDeutsch. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  101. ^ "++ In Türkei festgenommene Deutsche wieder frei ++ Erdogan zum Sieger erklärt++". watson. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  102. ^ "Auszählung in der Türkei läuft: Erdogans Vorsprung schmilzt". Weser-Kurier. 24 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  103. ^ "Schüsse! Politiker der Opposition bei Wahl getötet". Morgenpost. 24 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  104. ^ "Nach Erdogan-Wahl und Diktator-Vergleich: EU-Beitrittsverhandlungen "zum Stillstand gekommen"". Kreiszeitung. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  105. ^ "Türkei-Wahlen: Oppositionspolitiker in Osttürkei getötet". Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung. 24 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  106. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  107. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  108. ^ O'Reilly, Gerry (2019). Aligning Geopolitics, Humanitarian Action and Geography in Times of Conflict. Springer. p. 47.
  109. ^ Goldman, Rene (2017). A Childhood Adrift. Azrieli Foundation.
  110. ^ Heywood, Andrew (2018). Essentials of Political Ideas. Palgrave. p. 58.
  111. ^ Roett, Riordan (1999). Brazil: Politics in a Patrimonial Society. p. 36.
  112. ^ Anne Griffin (1984). Quebec, the Challenge of Independence. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8386-3135-5.
  113. ^ Hloušek, Vít; Kopeček, Lubomír (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate. p. 165.
  114. ^ Hloušek, Vít (2016). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties. Routledge. p. 165.
  115. ^ Ulrike Ehret (2012). "The Catholic right, political Catholicism and radicalism: the Catholic right in Germany". Church, Nation and Race: Catholics and Antisemitism in Germany and England, 1918-45. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-1-84779-452-9.
  116. ^ Stone, Jon (24 September 2017). "German elections: Far-right wins MPs for first time in half a century". The Independent. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  117. ^ "Neue konservative Partei: Petry bekennt sich öffentlich zur Gründung der "Blauen Partei"". MDR.de (in German). 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  118. ^ Stiftung, Bertelsmann (2009). Strategies for Combating Right-wing Extremism in Europe. Brookings Institute Press. p. 183.
  119. ^ Häkkinen, Ville (2019). From Counterrevolution to Consolidation?. JYU. p. 99.
  120. ^ Baxter, Craig (1969). The Jana Sangh: a biography of an Indian political party. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 171.
  121. ^ Matin-Asgard, Afshin (2018). Both Eastern and Western. CUP. p. 243.
  122. ^ Stanley G. Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. p. 106.
  123. ^ Grand, Alexander (1978). The Italian Nationalist Association and the Rise of Fascism in Italy. University of Nebraska Press. p. 163.
  124. ^ Marco Tarchi (2007), "Recalcitrant Allies: The Conflicting Foreign Policy Agenda of the Alleanza Nazionale and the Lega Nord", Europe for the Europeans, Ashgate, p. 188
  125. ^ Robert Leonardi (2017). Government and Politics of Italy. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-349-93231-3.
  126. ^ Tom Lansford, ed. (2013). Political Handbook of the World 2013. SAGE Publications. p. 715. ISBN 978-1-4522-5825-6.
  127. ^ Sjølyst-Jackson, Peter (2010). Troubling Legacies: Migration, Modernism and Fascism in the Case of Knut Hamsun. Bloomsbury Academic.
  128. ^ Bohler, Jochen (2019). Civil War in Central Europe, 1918-1921: The Reconstruction of Poland. Oxford University Press. p. 99.
  129. ^ Jean-Michel De Waele; Anna Pacześniak (2012). "The Europeanisation of Poland's Political Parties and Party System". In Erol Külahci (ed.). Europeanisation and Party Politics: How the EU affects Domestic Actors, Patterns and Systems. ECPR Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-907301-84-1.
  130. ^ Gwiazda, Anna (2015). Democracy in Poland. Routledge. national conservative League of Polish Families (LPR) had a high percentage of women
  131. ^ Sawicka, Joanna; Skibicki, Juliusz; Szacki, Wojciech. "Kto jest kim u Kukiza". polityka.pl. Polityka. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  132. ^ a b Rossolinski, Grzegorz (2014). Stepan Bandera: The Life and Afterlife of a Ukrainian Nationalist. Columbia University Press. p. 33.
  133. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves (2016). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. p. 242.
  134. ^ Bátora, Jozef (11 June 2010), "Hungary is the main issue in the Slovakian elections", Toute l'Europe, retrieved 31 January 2012
  135. ^ Krabill, Ron (2010). Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid. University of Chicago Press. p. 51.
  136. ^ 《현대 한국정치 이론: 역사 현실 1945 ~ 2011》240p ~ 265p
  137. ^ Jun-Hyeok Kwak (11 June 2013). "Nationalism and Democracy Revisited" (PDF). Soongsil University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  138. ^ Blinkhorn, Martin (2002), Democracy and Civil War in Spain 1932-1939, Routledge, p. 140
  139. ^ Dudek, Carolyn Marie (2005). EU Accession and Spanish Regional Development. Peter Lang. p. 47.
  140. ^ Kuljić, Todor (2017). Post-Yugoslav Memory Culture. Lambert. p. 14.

Further reading[edit]