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A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.
Following the outbreak of romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.
In areas where Western dress codes have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride. International events may cater for non-Western attendees with a compound dress code such as "business suit or national dress".
In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by sumptuary laws. In Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of gho and kera for men, kira and toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 North America
- 5 Oceania
- 6 South America
- 7 Notes
- Cameroon – Pagne (female), Toghu (male)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo – Pagne
- Gabon – Pagne
- Republic of the Congo – Pagne
- São Tomé and Príncipe – Pano
- Burundi – Imvutano
- Comoros – Lesso (female), Kanzu (male)
- Djibouti – Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Dirac (female), Garbasaar (female)
- Eritrea – Kidan Habesha (male), Zuria or Habesha kemis (female)
- Ethiopia – Ethiopian suit or Kidan Habesha (male), Habesha kemis (female)
- Kenya – Kenya is unique among African nations in that it is the only country that does not have a national costume. All tribes have their respective traditional garments, for example: Maasai traditional costume: Kitenge, Kikoi, Maasai beadwork
- Rwanda – Mushanana
- Madagascar – Lamba
- Somalia – Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Dirac (female), Guntiino (female), Garbasaar (female)
- Tanzania – Kanzu and Kofia (male), Kanga (female)
- Uganda – Kanzu and Kofia (male), Gomesi (female)
- Sétif – Binouar
- Bikhmar (Ouargla)
- Blouza (Oran)
- Burnous, Caftan, Caftan El-Bey, Gandoura, Haïek, Jellaba, Mlaya, Sarouel (Algérie)
- Chemsa (Jijel)
- Fergani (Constantine)
- Gandoura Annabiya (Annaba)
- Ghlila, Karakou, Sarouel Mdawer (Algiers)
- Qashabiya (Djelfa et Laghouat), Labsa Kbaylia (Kabylie)
- Labsa M'zabia (M'zab)
- Labsa Naïlia (Ouled Naïl)
- Labsa Touratia (Hoggar)
- Lefa we dlala (Annaba)
- Melhfa Chaouïa (Aures)
- Melhfa Sahraouia (Tindouf)
- Egypt – Galabeya
- Libya – Jellabiya, Farmla (an embroidered vest), Fouta
- Morocco – Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha (male), Takchita (female)
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic – Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
- Sudan – Jalabiyyah, Taqiyyah, and Turban (male), Toob, a cotton women's dress (female)
- Tunisia – Jebba, Chechia, Fouta
- South Africa – Afrikaners and British diaspora: slouch hat, safari shirt, veldskoen khaki Bermuda shorts; Zulus, Xhosa, etc.: Madiba shirt, shweshwe clothing, Zulu crown (isicholo)
- Angola – Pano
- Malawi – Chitenje
- Lesotho – Shweshwe clothing and blankets, Mokorotlo
- Mozambique – Capulana
- Namibia – Herero traditional clothing
- Zambia – Chitenje
- Zimbabwe – Safari shirt (male), Chitenje (female)
- Benin – lace Dashiki suit and Aso Oke Hat (male), lace Buba and wrapper set (female)
- Burkina Faso – Batakari (male), Kaftan (female)
- Cape Verde – Pano de terra
- Côte d'Ivoire – Kente cloth (male), Kente kaba and slit set (female)
- Gambia – Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
- Ghana – Kente cloth or Ghanaian smock and Kufi (male), Kente kaba and slit set (female), Agbada (male)
- Guinea – Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
- Guinea-Bissau – Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
- Liberia – Dashiki suit and Kufi (male), Buba and skirt set (female)
- Mali – Grand boubou and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
- Mauritania – Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
- Niger – Babban riga, Tagelmust, Alasho (male), Kaftan (female)
- Nigeria – Agbada, Dashiki or Isiagu and Aso Oke Hat (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
- Senegal – Senegalese kaftan and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
- Kazakhstan – Chapan
- Turkmenistan – Chapan
- Tuva – Deel
- Mongolia – Deel
- Uzbekistan – Khalat, Tubeteika
- China – Hanfu, Cheongsam, Changshan, Tangzhuang, Zhongshan suit
- Tibet – Chuba
- Japan – Kimono, Junihitoe, Sokutai
- Korea – Hanbok or Chosŏn-ot
- Taiwan -
- Afghanistan – Pashtun dress: Afghan cap, turban, Shalwar Kameez (male), Firaq partug, Chador (veil) (female)
- Bangladesh – Kurta and Pyjama (male) and Sari, Lehengha and Dupatta (female)
- Bhutan – Gho (male) and Kira (female)
- India – Achkan, Sherwani, Dhoti, Churidar, Kurta (male) and Sari, Lehenga, Choli (female)
- Maldives – Dhivehi libaas (women) Dhivehi mundu (men)
- Nepal – Daura-Suruwal and Dhaka topi, (male) and Gunyou Cholo (female); Traditional Newar, Sunuwar, Rai, Limbu clothing
- Pakistan – Peshawari pagri, Shalwar Kameez, Churidar (male), Shalwar Kameez and Dupatta (female)
- Sri Lanka – Sari (women)
- Brunei – Baju Melayu, Songkok (male), Baju Kurung, Tudung (female)
- Cambodia – Sampot, Apsara, Sabai, Krama, Chong kraben
- East Timor – Tais cloth clothing
- Indonesia – (See: National costume of Indonesia). There are hundreds of folk costumes in Indonesia because of the diversity in the island nation. Each ethnic groups of Indonesia have their own traditional costume
- Laos – xout lao, suea pat, pha hang, pha biang, sinh
- Myanmar – Longyi, Gaung baung
- Philippines – Barong (male) and Baro't Saya; Maria Clara gown, Terno (female)
- Thailand – Chut thai: Thai female: Thai Chakkri, Thai male: Suea Phraratchathan, Both genders: Chong kraben and Sabai.
- Vietnam – Áo giao lĩnh, Áo dài, Áo tứ thân, Áo bà ba.
- Abkhazia – Chokha
- Armenia – Armenian dress, Arkhalig, Chokha
- Azerbaijan – Azerbaijani traditional clothing: Arkhalig, Chokha, Kelaghayi
- Bahrain – Thawb
- Georgia – Chokha (Every region has its own specific design of Chokha)
- Israel – Tembel hat, Biblical sandals, Yemenite Jewish clothes; Jewish religious clothing: Rekel, Bekishe, Tzitzit, Kippah, Tichel.
- Iran – Chador, Turban, Kurdish clothing, minority traditional clothes: Qashqai, Azerbaijani, Gilaki and Turkmen clothing.
- Iraq – Assyrian clothing, Keffiyeh, Hashimi Dress, Bisht, Dishdasha; Kurdish clothing in Iraqi Kurdistan.
- Jordan – Keffiyeh, Bisht, Bedouin clothing
- Lebanon – Tantour, Keffiyeh, Labbade, Taqiyah
- Kurdistan – Sirwal (pants), Kurdish clothing, gold coin belt and necklace for women.
- Kuwait – Thawb
- Oman – Dishdasha
- Ossetia – Chokha
- Qatar – Kandura
- Palestine – Keffiyeh, Taqiyah (cap), Palestinian costumes.
- Saudi Arabia – Thawb, Ghutrah, Agal, Bisht, Abaya, Jilbab, Niqab
- Syria – Dishdasha
- Turkey – Fez, Kaftan, Shalvar.
- United Arab Emirates – Kandura, Abaya
- Yemen – Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of an ornate jambiya and leather bandoliers for the men's costume.
- Belarus – Slutsk stash, the national type of wimple (namitka)
- Bulgaria – Every town has its own design of a national costume (nosia), with different types of clothing items traditional for each of the ethnographic regions of the country.
- Romania – Romanian dress
- Russia – Sarafan, Kokoshnik, Kosovorotka, Ushanka, Valenki; (Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
- Ukraine – National costumes of Ukraine: Vyshyvanka, Sharovary, Żupan, Ukrainian wreath
- Poland – Żupan, Kontusz, Rogatywka (National costumes of Poland)
- Czech Republic – Kroje
- Hungary – National costumes of Hungary
- Slovakia – Kroj (embroidered traditional dress)
- Denmark – Folkedragt
- Estonia – Rahvariided
- Finland – Every region has its own specific design of national costume (kansallispuku, nationaldräkt). These vary widely. Many of them resemble Swedish costumes, but some take influences from Russian costumes as well. For the Sami in Finland, each place has its own Gákti or Luhkka for colder weather
- Iceland – Þjóðbúningurinn
- Ireland – Aran sweater, Irish walking hat, Grandfather shirt, Leine
- Latvia - Tautastērps
- Norway – Bunad; Sami: Gákti and for older weather Luhkka
- Sweden – Sverigedräkten has varied from region to region but since 1983 has an official National Costume in one common version; 18th century: Nationella dräkten; Sami: Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
- United Kingdom:
- England – English country clothing, Morris dance costumes, Pearly kings and queens, Flat cap, English clogs
- Northern Ireland: Similar to Ireland.
- Scotland – Highland dress: Kilt or trews, tam o'shanter or Balmoral bonnet, doublet, Aboyne dress, and brogues or ghillies.
- Wales – Traditional Welsh costume
- Albania – Albanian Traditional Clothing
- Andorra – Barretina, espadrilles
- Croatia – Croatian national costume, Lika cap, Sibenik cap
- Greece – Fustanella, Amalia costume; Ancient Greek clothing: Peplos, Chiton.
- Italy – Italian folk dance costumes; Roman clothing: Toga, Stola
- Kosovo – Traditional clothing of Kosovo
- Macedonia – Macedonian national costume
- Malta – Għonnella
- Montenegro – Montenegrin cap
- Serbia – Serbian dress, Šajkača, Opanci
- Portugal – Every region has its own specific design of a national costume.
- Slovenia – Gorenjska noša (Upper Carniola)
- Spain – Every autonomous region has its own national costume.
- Basque Country – Beret, espadrilles
- Austria – Tracht and Dirndl
- Belgium – Bleu sårot
- France – Every region has its own specific design of national costume. The most famous French traditional clothing could be the Breton costume or the Alsatian costume; commonly associated French items of clothing are the beret and the Breton shirt.
- Germany – Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. For example, Bavaria's well-known Tracht: Lederhosen and Dirndl.
- Liechtenstein – Tracht, Dirndl
- Netherlands – Dutch cap, Klompen; poffer (North Brabant)
- Switzerland – Every canton has its own specific design of a national costume.
- Cuba – Guayabera, panama hat (male), guarachera (female)
- Dominican Republic – Chacabana
- Dominica – Madras
- Haiti – Karabela dress (female), Shirt jacket (male)
- Jamaica – Bandanna cloth Quadrille dress (female), Madras shirt and white trousers (male), Jamaican Tam
- Puerto Rico – Guayabera, panama hat (male), enaguas (female)
- St. Lucia – Madras
- Trinidad and Tobago – Afro-Trinidadians and Tobagonians - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female); Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian - Kurta, Dhoti, Sherwani (male), Sari, Choli, Lehenga (female)
- Belize - Mestizos - Huipil (female), Guayabera (male); Mayas - All tribes wear distinct kinds of Mayan dress.
- Guatemala – Huipil, Corte skirt, Tocado (female), Todosantero suit (male)
- Nicaragua – Huipil, Rebozo (female), Sombrero, white shirt and trousers (male)
- Panama – Pollera (female), Montuno (male)
- Bermuda – Bermuda shorts
- First Nations – button blanket, buckskins, moccasins, Chilkat blanket, Cowichan sweater, war bonnet
- Nunavut and other Inuit communities – Parka, mukluks, amauti
- Métis – Ceinture fléchée, Capote, Moccasins
- Quebec and French Canadians – Ceinture fléchée, Capote, mackinaw jacket, tuque, trapper hat
- Alberta - Canadian tuxedoes (denim jacket with denim shirt and blue jeans) and western wear are common on folk events such as the Calgary Stampede.
- Mexico – Charro suit, Sarape, Sombrero (male), Rebozo, China Poblana dress (female); every state has a typical folk dress, for example:
- Yucatan – Guayabera(male), Huipil (female)
- Veracruz - Guayabera
- Chihuahua and Coahuila – cowboy hats, cowboy boots, bandanna
- Sonora - Yaqui or Seri clothes; Sonora is unique among Mexican states to not have a representative costume, yet the indigenous clothing, especially the Deer dance costume of the Yaqui, is very popular.
- Tamaulipas Cuera tamaulipeca
- Oaxaca: Tehuana
- United States:
- American Southwest, Texas and rural areas in the Midwestern and Western US – Western wear, derived from original Mexican vaquero and American pioneer garb is traditional dress in Texas, the Southwestern US, and many rural communities, including cowboy hats, Western shirts, cowboy boots, jeans, chaps, prairie skirts, and bolo ties.
- American Upper Midwest, Pacific Northwest, the northern portions of the Great Lakes Basin, and Maine – Due to the cold weather, the garb in rural areas tends to more closely adhere to heavier materials, such as flannel or Buffalo plaid mackinaw jackets, the occasional parka, and trapper hat. A good example is seen in the typical attire of Paul Bunyan, a folk hero popular in areas where logging was a common occupation, as well as lumberjacks working in the area.
- Deep South – Traditional Southern US wear includes white seersucker suits and string ties for men, and sun hats and large Southern belle-style dresses for women.
- New York City and Northeastern US – According to folklorist Washington Irving, knickerbockers similar to the breeches of the Pilgrims and Founding Fathers were traditionally worn by many wealthy Dutch families in 19th century New York. These short pants remained commonplace among young urban American boys until the mid 20th century.
- Amish (notably in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio), the Pennsylvania Dutch and some sects of Mormon fundamentalism (especially in Utah) preserve traditional 19th century clothing styles.
- Various styles of Native American clothing; for example, traditional pow-wow regalia for Plains Indians: Moccasins, buckskins, glass beads, breech clouts, and war bonnets or roaches.
- District of Columbia - Seersucker suits are commonplace on Seersucker Thursday.
- Alaska – Kuspuks, worn with dark pants and mukluks, as well as parkas are traditional native wear.
Australia and New Zealand
- New Zealand Māori tribe – Māori Flax Skirts
- Fiji – Sulu, Tapa cloth
- New Caledonia – Manou, Robes mission
- Papua New Guinea – Meri blaus, lap-lap
- Vanuatu – Kastom dress, Aelan dress
- Cook Islands – Pareo
- French Polynesia – Pareo
- Hawaii – Aloha shirt, Muumuu
- Samoa – Lavalava, Puletasi, 'ie toga clothing
- Tonga – Tupenu, Ta'ovala, Tapa cloth
- Argentina – Gaucho costume
- Bolivia – Poncho, Chullo, Andean pollera
- Brazil – Each region has its own traditional costume.
- Northeast – Vaqueiro clothing
- Baiana and Abadá for Bahia
- Brazilian carnival or Samba costumes for Rio de Janeiro
- Amazonian clothes for many states within the Amazon rainforest and the Xingu River area
- Gaúcho costumes for Rio Grande Do Sul.
- Caipiras (Brazilian country folk) in Sao Paulo, Goiás and many rural areas, conserve traditional folk styles of clothing, imitated by participants of festa juninas.
- Chile – Huaso costume: Chamanto, Chupalla
- Colombia – Sombrero Vueltiao, ruana, white shirt, trousers and alpargatas (male), Sombrero Vueltiao, blouse, pollera and alpargatas (female); every region has a distinct costume.
- Ecuador – Poncho, Panama hat
- Paraguay – Ao po'i
- Peru – Chullo, Poncho, Andean pollera
- Suriname – Kotomisse, Pangi cloth
- Uruguay – Gaucho costume
- Venezuela – Llanero costume: Liqui liqui and pelo e' guama hat
- "Носиите – Жеравна 2014". Nosia.bg. 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- "Български народни носии – България в стари снимки и пощенски картички". Retrobulgaria.com. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Condra, Jill, ed. (2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress, Vol. I. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 123.
- Condra, Jill, ed. (2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress, Vol. I. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 123.
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