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folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for festivals and formal wear.
Following the outbreak of
romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.
In areas where contemporary Western fashions have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride.
In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by
sumptuary laws. In Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of and gho kera for men, and kira toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.
Central Africa [ edit ]
Eastern Africa [ edit ]
woman in traditional attire
Burundi - Imvutano
Comoros - Lesso (female), Kanzu (male)
Djibouti - Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Dirac (female), Garbasaar (female)
Eritrea - Kidan Habesha (male), Zuria or Habesha kemis (female)
Ethiopia - Ethiopian suit or Kidan Habesha (male), Habesha kemis (female)
Kenya - Kenya is unique among African nations in that it is the only country that does not have a national costume. All tribes have their respective traditional garments, for example: Maasai traditional costume: Kitenge, Kikoi, Maasai beadwork
Rwanda - Kanzu (male), Mushanana (female)
Madagascar - Lamba
Somalia - Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Dirac (female), Guntiino (female), Garbasaar (female)
Tanzania - Kanzu and Kofia (male), Kanga and Gowni (female)
Uganda - Kanzu and Kofia (male), Gomesi (female)
Northern Africa [ edit ]
Algeria : Binouar ( Sétif), Bikhmar ( Ouargla), Blouza ( Oran), Burnous ( Algérie), Caftan ( Algérie), Caftan El-Bey ( Algérie), Chemsa ( Jijel), Fergani ( Constantine), Gandoura ( Algérie), Gandoura Annabiya ( Annaba), Ghlila ( Algiers), Haïek ( Algérie), Jellaba ( Algérie), Karakou ( Algiers), Kachabia ( Djelfa et Laghouat), Labsa Kbaylia ( Kabylie), Labsa M'zabia ( M'zab), Labsa Naïlia ( Ouled Naïl), Labsa Touratia ( Hoggar), Lefa we dlala ( Annaba), Melhfa Chaouïa ( Aures), Melhfa Sahraouia ( Tindouf), Mlaya ( Algérie), Sarouel ( Algérie), Sarouel Mdawer ( Algiers)
Egypt - Galabeya
Libya - Jellabiya, Farmla (an embroidered vest), Fouta
Morocco - Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha (male), Takchita (female)
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Sudan - Jalabiyyah, Taqiyyah, and Turban (male), Toob, a cotton women's dress (female)
Tunisia - Jebba, Chechia, Fouta
Southern Africa [ edit ]
Western Africa [ edit ]
Benin - lace Dashiki suit and Aso Oke Hat (male), lace Buba and wrapper set (female)
Cape Verde - Pano
Côte d'Ivoire - Kente cloth (male), Kente kaba and slit set (female)
Gambia - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Ghana - Kente cloth or Ghanaian smock and Kufi (male), Kente kaba and slit set (female)
Guinea - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Guinea-Bissau - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Liberia - Dashiki suit and Kufi (male), Buba and skirt set (female)
Mali - Grand boubou and Kufi (male), Bògòlanfini-style Kaftan (female)
Mauritania - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Niger - Gandora, Tagelmust or Alasho (male), Kaftan (female)
Nigeria - Agbada or Isiagu and Aso Oke Hat (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
Senegal - Senegalese kaftan and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
Palestinian family wearing typical
Modern Bedouin from Saudi Arabia with turban and
Central Asia [ edit ]
Eastern Asia [ edit ]
Southern Asia [ edit ]
Afghanistan - Pashtun dress: Afghan cap, turban, Shalwar Kameez (male), Firaq partug, Chador (veil) (female)
Bangladesh - Kurta (male) and Sari (female)
Bhutan - Gho (male) and Kira (female)
India - Achkan, Dhoti, Kurta (male) and Sari (female)
Maldives - Dhivehi libaas (women) Sarong, white shirt (men)
Nepal - Daura-Suruwal, (male) and Gunyou Cholo (female); Traditional Newar clothing
Pakistan - Peshawari pagri, Shalwar Kameez, Churidar (male), Shalwar Kameez and Dupatta (female)
Sri Lanka - Mul Anduma (men), Ossariya (women)
Southeastern Asia [ edit ]
Brunei - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung, Tudung (female)
Cambodia - Sampot, Apsara, Sabai, Krama, Chong kraben
East Timor - Tais cloth clothing
Indonesia - Every ethnic group in the country has their national costume. Kebayas, sarongs and the Beskap jacket of the Javanese and the Kain batik and dance costumes of Bali are some examples.
Laos - xout lao, suea pat, pha hang, pha biang, sinh
Malaysia - Baju Melayu and Songkok (male), Baju Kurung, Baju Kebarung (Kebaya/Kurung hybrid), Tudung (female)
Myanmar - Longyi, Gaung baung
Philippines - Barong Tagalog (male) and Baro't saya (female)
Singapore - Baju Lokchuan (male) and Nyonya Kebaya (female)
Thailand - chut thai: Thai female: Thai Chakkri, Thai male: Suea Phraratchathan, Both genders: chong kraben and sabai.
Vietnam - Áo Dài, Áo Tứ Thân, Áo Bà Ba.
Western Asia [ edit ]
Abkhazia - Chokha
Armenia - Each region has its own style of folk costume.
Azerbaijan - Azerbaijani traditional clothing
Gulf States - Similar to Saudi Arabia; these states have elaborate women's dresses known as Thobe al-Nashal.
Georgia - Chokha (Every region has its own specific design of Chokha)
Israel - Tembel hat, Biblical sandals, Yemenite Jewish clothes; Jewish religious clothing: Rekel, Bekishe, Tzitzit, Kippah, Tichel.
Iran - Persians: Chador, Jubba, Turban; Ethnic minorities in Iran: Azerbaijani traditional clothing, Assyrian clothing, Kurdish clothing
Iraq - Assyrian clothing, Keffiyeh, Bisht, Kurdish clothing
Jordan - Keffiyeh, Bisht, Bedouin clothing
Lebanon - Tantour, Keffiyeh, Taqiyah
Kurdistan - Sirwal (pants), Kurdish clothing, gold coin belt and necklace for women.
Ossetia - Chokha
Palestine - Keffiyeh, Taqiyah (cap), Palestinian costumes.
Saudi Arabia - Thawb, Ghutrah, Agal, Bisht, Abaya, Jilbab, Niqab
Turkey - Fez, Kaftan, Shalvar.
Yemen - Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of an ornate jambiya and leather bandoliers for the men's costume.
Northern caucasus folk costumes
Costumes of peasants from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Germany
Eastern Europe [ edit ]
Belarus - Slutsk stash, the national type of wimple ( namitka)
Bulgaria - Every town has its own design of a national costume ( nosia), with different types of clothing items traditional for each of the ethnographic regions of the country. [1 ] [2 ]
Romania - Romanian dress
Russia - Sarafan, Kokoshnik, Kosovorotka, Ushanka, Valenki; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Ukraine - National costumes of Ukraine: Vyshyvanka, Sharovary, Żupan, Ukrainian wreath
Central Europe [ edit ]
Northern Europe [ edit ]
Southern Europe [ edit ]
Western Europe [ edit ]
North America [ edit ]
wearing seersucker suits associated with the Southern US
Caribbean [ edit ]
Central America [ edit ]
Northern America [ edit ]
Bermuda - Bermuda shorts
Mexico - Charro suit, Sarape, Sombrero (male), Rebozo, China Poblana dress (female); every state has a typical folk dress, for example:
American West, Southwestern US and Midwestern US - Western wear, derived from original American pioneer garb is traditional dress in Texas, the Southwestern US, and many rural communities, including cowboy hats, Western shirts, cowboy boots, jeans, prairie skirts, and bolo ties.
Southern US - Traditional Southern US wear includes white seersucker suits and string ties for men, and sun hats and large Southern belle-style dresses for women.
Northeastern US - According to folklorist Washington Irving, knickerbockers similar to the breeches of the Pilgrims and Founding Fathers were traditionally worn by many wealthy Dutch families in 19th century New York. These short pants remained commonplace among young urban American boys until the mid 20th century.
Amish (in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio), the Pennsylvania Dutch and some sects of Mormon fundamentalism (especially in Utah) preserve traditional 19th century clothing styles.
Moccasins, buckskins, glass beads, breech clouts, and war bonnets are traditional pow-wow regalia for Plains Indians.
Alaska - kuspuks, worn with dark pants and mukluks, as well as parkas are traditional native wear.
Oceania [ edit ]
Australia and New Zealand [ edit ]
Melanesia [ edit ]
Polynesia [ edit ]
South America [ edit ]
Argentina - Gaucho costume
Bolivia - Poncho, Chullo, Andean pollera
Brazil - Each region has its own traditional costume. Vaqueiro clothing for the northeast, Baiana and Abadá for Bahia, Brazilian carnival or Samba costumes for the southeast area, Amazonian clothes for many states within the Amazon rainforest and the Xingu area, and Gaucho costumes for Southern Brazil (most importantly Rio Grande Do Sul. Caipiras (similar to the jíbaro of Puerto Rico), in Sao Paulo, Goiás and many rural areas, conserve traditional folk styles of clothing, imitated by participants of festas juninas.
Chile - Huaso costume
Colombia - Sombrero Vueltiao, ruana, white shirt, trousers and alpargatas (male), Sombrero Vueltiao, blouse, pollera and alpargatas (female); every region has a distinct costume.
Ecuador - Poncho, Chagra costume
Guyana - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female)
Paraguay - Gaucho costume
Peru - Chullo, Poncho, Andean pollera
Suriname - Kotomisse
Uruguay - Gaucho costume
Venezuela - Llanero costume: Liqui liqui and pelo e' guama hat