National highways in India
The National highways in India are a network of trunk roads that is owned by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. It is constructed and managed by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), the National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation (NHIDCL), and the public works departments (PWD) of state governments.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the nodal agency responsible for building, upgrading, and maintaining most of the National Highways network. It operates under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) is a major effort to expand and upgrade the network of highways. NHAI often uses a public–private partnership model for highway development, maintenance, and toll-collection.
In India, National Highways are at-grade roads, whereas Expressways are controlled-access highways where entrance and exit is controlled by the use of ramps that are incorporated into the design of the expressway.
India has 142,126 km (88,313 mi) of National Highways as of April 2019.
National Highways constituted 2.7% of India's total road network, but carried about 40% of road traffic, as of 2013. In 2016, the government vowed to double the highway length from 96,000 to 200,000 km.
The majority of existing highways are two-lane roads (one lane in each direction), though much of this is being expanded to four or more lanes. Some sections of the network are toll roads. Only a few highways are built with concrete. Bypasses have been constructed around larger towns and cities to provide uninterrupted passage for highway traffic. Some existing roads have been reclassified as National Highways.
The National Highways Act, 1956 provided for private investment in the building and maintenance of the highways.
The National Highways Authority of India was established by the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. Section 16(1) of the Act states that the function of NHAI is to develop, maintain, and manage the National Highways and any other highways vested in, or entrusted to, it by the Government of India.
In 1998 India launched a massive program of highway upgrades, called the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), in which the main north–south and east–west corridors and highways connecting the four metropolitan cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata) have been fully paved and widened into four-lane highways. Some of the busier National Highway sectors in India were also converted to four- or six-lane limited-access highways.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways adopted a new systematic numbering of National Highways in April 2010. It is a systematic numbering scheme based on the orientation and the geographic location of the highway. The new system indicates the direction of National Highways whether they are east–west (odd numbers) or north–south (even numbers). It also indicates the geographical region where they are with even numbers increasing from east to west starting from NH2 and odd numbers increasing from north to south starting from NH1.
Bharatmala, a centrally-sponsored and funded road and highways project of the Government of India  with a target of constructing 83,677 km (51,994 mi) of new highways, has been started in 2018. Phase I of the Bharatmala project involves the construction of 34,800 km of highways (including the remaining projects under NHDP) at an estimated cost of ₹5.35 lakh crore (US$75 billion) by 2021-22.
|State / Union Territory||State PWD||NHAI||NHIDCL ||Length (km)|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||87||331|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||31|
|Daman and Diu||22|
|Jammu & Kashmir||436||2,601|
- The longest National Highway is NH44, which runs between Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, covering a distance of 3,806 km (2,365 mi).
- The shortest National Highway is NH966B, which spans 6 km (3.7 mi), from Ernakulam to Kochi in Kerala.
- The Leh–Manali Highway connecting Leh in Ladakh to Manali in Himachal Pradesh is the world's second highest-altitude motorable highway.
- List of National Highways in India by state
- List of National Highways in India by highway number
- India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway
- Roads in India
References and notes
- "Ministry of Road Transport and Highways". Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- Mahapatra, Dhananjay (2 July 2013). "NDA regime constructed 50% of national highways laid in last 30 years: Centre". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "National Highways road length to be increased from 96,000 km to 2,000,000 km: Nitin Gadkari". The Financial Express. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "The National Highways Act, 1956". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Rationalisation of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Road Transport and Highways. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "New numbers for national highways". The Times of India. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "Bharat Mala: PM Narendra Modi's planned Rs 14,000 crore road from Gujarat to Mizoram", The Economic Times, New Delhi, 29 April 2015
- "Ministry proposes construction of 20,000 km of roads under Bharat Mala project", The Economic Times, New Delhi, 9 January 2016
- "Bharatmala Pariyojana - A Stepping Stone towards New India | National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- "National Highways Summary - Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India". morth.nic.in. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- "Welcome to NHAI". www.nhai.org. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- "New numbers for national highways". Maps of India.
- "List of highways in Kerala". ListKerala.com.
- "National Highway 47A". India9.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National highways in India.|