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National identity cards in the European Economic Area and Switzerland

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National identity card
Examples of European standard ID cards issued in Greece and Norway. ID cards issued in EFTA countries do not feature the EU flag.
TypeIdentity card
Issued byEuropean Union Member states of the European Economic Area
First issued2 August 2021 (new EU-standard)
In circulation53 million (2023, new EU-standard)[1]
~200 million (total)[2]
Valid in EU[3] and EFTA[4]
AndorraMonacoSan MarinoVatican City European microstates
 Albania[5]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[6]
Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands
France French Overseas Territories
Georgia (country)Georgia (excluding Abkhazia and South Ossetia)

GibraltarGibraltar (British overseas territory)
 Kosovo[7]
 Moldova[8]
 Montenegro[9]
 Montserrat (max. 14 days)
 North Macedonia[10]
 Serbia[11]


Various other countries and territories depending on the country of issue
EligibilityCitizens of the European Economic Area
ExpirationNew cards: Maximum 10 years

Non-MRZ: 2 Aug 2026

Non-EU standard: 2 Aug 2031
SizeID-1

National identity cards are identity documents issued to citizens of most European Union and European Economic Area (EEA) member states, with the exception of Denmark[12] and Ireland (which however issues an equivalent passport card).[13] As a new common identity card model replaced the various formats in use from 2 August 2021, recently issued ID cards are harmonized across the EEA, while older ID cards are currently being phased out according to Regulation (EU) 2019/1157.

As of 2021, there are approximately 200 million national identity cards in use in the EU/EEA, including 53 million of the new EU-standard cards.[1] They are compulsory in 15 EEA/EFTA countries, voluntary in 11 countries and in 5 countries they are semi-compulsory (some form of identification required). Where the card is compulsory, in some member countries it is required to be carried at all times, while in other countries the mere possession of the card is sufficient.[14]

Citizens holding a national identity card, which states citizenship of an EEA member state or Switzerland, can use it as an identity document within their home country, and as a travel document to exercise the right of free movement in the EEA and Switzerland.[15]: Articles 4 and 5 [16][17] However, identity cards that do not state citizenship of an EEA member state or Switzerland, including residence permits or residence cards issued to non-citizens, are not valid as travel documents within the EEA and Switzerland.[18][19][20]

Use[edit]

Travel document[edit]

  EU state, national ID card issued
  EFTA member, national ID card issued
  EU state, passport card issued (Ireland)
  EU state, no national ID card issued (Denmark)
  Accepts EU/EFTA national ID cards
  Accepts some EU/EFTA national ID cards (or under certain conditions)

As an alternative to presenting a passport, EEA and Swiss citizens are entitled to use a valid national identity card as a stand-alone travel document to exercise their right of free movement in the European Economic Area and Switzerland.[15]: Articles 4 and 5 [16][17] National identity card ownership in most EU countries and Switzerland is much more widespread than passport ownership.[21]

When travelling within the Nordic Passport Union, no identity documentation is legally required by Nordic citizens. When travelling within the Common Travel Area (UK and Ireland), other valid identity documentation (such as a driving licence) is often sufficient for Irish and British citizens.[22]

At present, Denmark is the only state that does not issue identity cards that are valid as travel documents in the EEA member states and Switzerland.[23] Strictly speaking, it is not necessary for an EEA or Swiss citizen to possess a valid national identity card or passport to enter the EEA and Switzerland. In theory, if an EEA or Swiss citizen can prove their nationality by any other means (e.g. by presenting an expired national identity card or passport, or a citizenship certificate), they must be permitted to enter the EEA and Switzerland. An EEA or Swiss citizen who is unable to demonstrate their nationality satisfactorily must, nonetheless, be given 'every reasonable opportunity' to obtain the necessary documents or to have them delivered within a reasonable period of time.[15]: Article 5(4) [24][25]

Additionally, EEA and Swiss citizens can enter the following countries and territories outside the EEA and Switzerland on the basis of their national identity cards alone, without the need to present a passport to the border authorities:

Turkey allows citizens of Belgium, Bulgaria,[41] France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Switzerland using a national identity card for short-term visits. Similarly, Egypt allows citizens of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Portugal to enter using a national identity card for short-term visits.[42][43] Tunisia allows nationals of the European Union (except Cyprus) and Switzerland to enter using a national identity card if travelling on an organized tour.[44] Anguilla, Dominica, Saint Lucia, Guernsey and Jersey allow nationals of France to enter using a national ID card. Gambia allows nationals of Belgium to enter using a national ID card.[45] Greenland allows Nordic citizens to use any identification document containing a photo.[46] The United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies allows EU, EEA and Swiss citizens to use national identity cards for entry if they have rights under the Withdrawal Agreement, which applies generally to EU/EFTA citizens residing in the UK before Brexit.[47][48][49] After 2026, only ICAO compliant biometric identity cards will be acceptable for entry to the UK.[50][51]

According to their local laws, Swedish and Finnish citizens cannot leave their country directly for a non-EU/EFTA country with only their ID cards.[52][53][54]

Additional checks for some citizens[edit]

At the external border crossing points of the Schengen Area, if a traveller presents a travel document without a machine readable zone and the border guard has 'doubt about his/her identity', the traveller may be requested to undergo a more in-depth 'second line' check.[24] In practice, this means that Greek or Italian citizens who present an old-format paper Greek or Italian identity card could be subject to additional checks and delay when entering/leaving the Schengen Area.[55]

With effect from 7 April 2017, it is mandatory for border guards in the Schengen Area to check on a systematic basis the travel documents of all EEA and Swiss citizens crossing external borders against relevant databases.[56] Until 7 April 2017, border guards in the Schengen Area were only obliged to perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' visual check for signs of falsification and tampering, and were not obliged to use technical devices – such as document scanners, UV light and magnifiers – when EEA and Swiss citizens presented their passports or national identity cards at external border checkpoints.[57] They were not legally obliged to check the passports/national identity cards of EEA and Swiss citizens against a database of lost/stolen/invalidated travel documents (and, if they did so, they could only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' database check, and could only check to see if the traveller was on a database containing persons of interest on a strictly 'non-systematic' basis where such a threat was 'genuine', 'present' and 'sufficiently serious').[57]

According to statistics published by Frontex, in 2015 the top 6 EU member states whose national identity cards were falsified and detected at external border crossing points of the Schengen Area were Italy, Spain, Belgium, Greece, France and Romania.[58] These countries remained the top 6 in 2016.[59]

Identification document[edit]

Identity documentation requirements for citizens
  National identity card required
  Some form of identity documentation required
  Identity documentation optional
Usage in own country

There are varying rules on domestic usage of identity documents. Some countries demand the usage of the national identity card or a passport. Other countries allow usage of other documents like driver's licences.

In eleven countries, e.g. Austria, Finland, Sweden and Iceland, national identity cards are fully voluntary and not needed by everyone, as identity documents like driving licences are accepted domestically. In these countries only a minority have a national identity card, since a majority use a passport or driving licence for identification purposess and don't need more identity documents. Similarly, the Irish Passport Card is voluntary.[60]

However, even in those EEA countries that impose a national identity card requirement on their citizens, it is generally not required to carry the identity cards at all times.

Usage outside own country

EEA and Swiss citizens exercising their right of free movement in another EEA member state or Switzerland are entitled to use their national identity card as an identification document when dealing not just with government authorities, but also with private sector service providers. For example, where a supermarket in the Netherlands refuses to accept a German national identity card as proof of age when a German citizen attempts to purchase an age-restricted product and insists on the production of a Dutch-issued passport or driving licence or other identity document, the supermarket would, in effect, be discriminating against this individual on this basis of their nationality in the provision of a service, thereby contravening the prohibition in Art 20(2) of Directive 2006/123/EC of discriminatory treatment relating to the nationality of a service recipient in the conditions of access to a service which are made available to the public at large by a service provider.[61] In those EEA countries whose citizens are required by law to obtain a national identity card, only a minority have a passport, since it is not needed for travelling across much of Europe.

Usage in third countries

National identity cards are often accepted in other parts of the world for unofficial identification purposes (such as age verification in commercial establishments that serve or sell alcohol, or checking in at hotels) and sometimes for official purposes such as proof of identity and nationality to authorities (especially machine-readable cards).

Electronic identity cards (eID)[edit]

As of 2024, all EU/EEA countries (except Denmark) issue national identity cards with an electronic identity (eID) function, either through incorporating an EMV (contact chip) or, most commonly, through a RFID/NFC (contactless) function. The regulation dictates that the eID functions must be logically or physically separate from the ICAO biometric function of the card.[1]

Digital signature applications can be used which enables the bearer to authenticate themselves digitally using their identity card.[62] Consequently they can authenticate documents to satisfy any third party that the document's not been altered after being digitally signed, as well as to identify the identity card holder. This application uses a registered certificate in conjunction with public/private key pairs so these enhanced cards do not necessarily have to participate in online transactions.[63] This can be achieved by using an EMV smartcard reader paired with a computer, or by NFC (by mobile phone or PC) for the contactless variants.

A growing number of EU countries have introduced dedicated mobile apps, linked to state registries, that replace physical identity cards. In 2024, EU has passed regulations aimed at standardising electronic identities also through mobile wallets.

Common design and security features[edit]

European Union standards from 2006[edit]

On 4 December 2006, all European Union member states agreed to adopt common designs and minimum security standards for national identity cards that were in the draft resolution of 15 November 2006:[64][65] This included laminated paper core cards and cards made of a synthetic substrate. The standard specified minimum biographical information (including doc. no., validity, signature), machine readability and ICAO conformity.[66]

EU Regulations from April 2017 revising the Schengen Borders Code, introduced systematic checks of travel documents of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens against relevant databases when entering and leaving the Schengen Area, and states that all member states should phase out national identity cards which are not machine-readable.[67]

New European Union standards from 2019[edit]

Regulation 2019/1157
European Union regulation
Text with EEA relevance
TitleRegulation (EU) 2019/1157 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on strengthening the security of identity cards of Union citizens and of residence documents issued to Union citizens and their family members exercising their right of free movement
Made byEuropean Parliament and Council
Made underArt. 21(2) TFEU
Journal referenceL 188, pp. 67–78
History
Date made20 June 2019
Came into force10 July 2019
Applies from2 August 2021
Preparative texts
Commission proposal17 April 2018
Current legislation

In 2019, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted a new regulation with a new common format of identity cards. The purpose of the regulation was to replace and harmonize the various identity card models currently in use in Europe. The regulation began to apply to the European Union (EU) on 2 August 2021 and the European Economic Area (EEA) as of 1 February 2024.[a]

However, the regulation was declared invalid by the European Court of Justice in March 2024 as it had been adopted on an incorrect legal basis, as fingerprinting of applicants for the issuance of identity cards may be an overreach of citizens' rights. It remains temporarily in force until, at the latest, 31 December 2026 so that the Council may adopt a new regulation on the correct legal basis.[70]

According to the EU law, Member States (including EEA States, with exceptions), should issue identity cards according to Regulation (EU) 2019/1157 which states that :[14]

  • Identity cards shall be produced in ID-1 format and shall contain a machine-readable zone (MRZ).
  • Security standards shall be based on ICAO Document 9303.
  • The document shall bear the title 'Identity card' in the official language and in at least one other official language of the institutions of the Union.
  • It shall contain the two-letter country code of the Member State issuing the card, printed in negative in a blue rectangle and encircled by 12 yellow stars (EU Flag) on the front side. (Requirement of the EU flag does not apply in Norway, Iceland and Liechenstein)[71]
  • It shall include a highly secure storage medium which shall contain a facial image of the holder of the card and two fingerprints in interoperable digital formats. The storage medium shall have sufficient capacity and capability to guarantee the integrity, the authenticity and the confidentiality of the data. The data stored shall be accessible in contactless form and secured as provided for in Implementing Decision (European Union) C(2018) 7767.[72]
  • Identity cards shall have a minimum period of validity of 5 years and a maximum period of validity of 10 years. But Member States may provide for a period of validity of less than 5 years for minors and more than 10 years for persons aged 70 and above.
  • Identity cards which do not meet the new requirements shall cease to be valid at their expiry or by 3 August 2031.
  • Identity cards which do not meet the minimum security standards or which do not include a functional MRZ shall cease to be valid at their expiry or by 3 August 2026.
  • Identity cards of persons aged 70 and above at 2 August 2021, which meet the minimum security standards and which have a functional MRZ shall cease to be valid at their expiry.

Article 16 states that this Regulation shall apply from 2 August 2021.

For several member countries the new requirements do not mean that the design or features of the existing cards change much, since they mostly fulfil the requirements already. For some this means a large redesign. A visible change for all countries is the country code inside the EU flag.

ICAO/EU identity cards have an identifying initial character that begins "A", "C", or "I".[73] in the MRZ on the obverse side.

Identity cards not meeting the new requirements shall cease to be valid at their expiry or by 3 August 2031, whichever comes sooner. Identity cards which do not meet the minimum security standards or which do not include a functional machine-readable zone shall cease to be valid by 3 August 2026. Identity cards of persons aged 70 and above on 2 August 2021 which meet the minimum security standards and which have a functional MRZ shall cease to be valid at their expiry.[74] In 2019, the EU estimated that around 80 million ID cards in circulation were not machine-readable, and will therefore expire in 2026.[75]

In addition, the new EU Regulation cannot be applied to travel documents like the passport card issued by Ireland, as stated at point (14) of the introduction chapter.[14]: Point 14, introduction chapter 

Implementation throughout the member states is ongoing with various timetables on a per-country basis. Cyprus began issuing identity cards conforming to the harmonised requirements as early as August 2020, becoming the first country to implement the new standard, followed by Malta the same month.[76][13][77]

Non-compliant identity cards[edit]

In July 2023, the European Commission decided to open an infringement procedure against Bulgaria, Greece and Portugal as they had not updated their ID cards to EU standards.[78] Greece began issuing its updated ID card in September 2023[79], followed by Portugal on 11 June 2024.[80]

Therefore, as of early June 2024, only Bulgarian ID cards are still non-compliant with EU standards. According to the Bulgarian authorities, the updated ID cards will begin to be issued from 17 June 2024.[81]

Danish identity cards are issued by municipalities, each having their own design, and are not accepted as valid travel documents outside Denmark. They were launched in 2017, replacing previous 'Youth Cards'.[82] Since 2018, information about the nationality of the cardholder has been included which briefly allowed the card to be used for travel to Sweden.[83] However in September 2019, Swedish authorities explicitly banned Danish municipal identity cards from being used for entry.[84] In 2021, the Danish Ministry of Interior came to the conclusion that more secure ID cards were not on the agenda due to prohibitive costs.[85]

Cards issued by other EEA states[edit]

In February 2024, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein became bound by Regulation 2019/1157 with some special provisions, including the lack of a requirement of an EU flag.[86] Nevertheless, Norwegian identity cards have already been compliant with the Regulation since July 2021. Likewise, Liechtenstein began issuing biometric EU-standard ID cards in January 2024.[87] Finally, Iceland began to issue new EU-standard ID cards in March 2024, the first in the world to use the new additional ICAO 9303 format with a vertical format.[88][89][90]

Overview of national identity cards[edit]

Member states issue a variety of national identity cards with differing technical specifications and according to differing issuing procedures. In most member states, cards can be issued abroad through the country's respective consulates.[91]

Member state eID Front Reverse Compulsory/optional Cost Validity Issuing authority Latest version
Austria
Austria

NFC Identity documentation is optional
  • €61.50 (applicants aged 16 or over)
  • €26.30 (children aged 2–15)
  • Free of charge (children under 2)
  • 10 years (ages >12)
  • 5 years (ages 2–11)
  • 2 years (<2)
2 August 2021[92]
Belgium
Belgium
EMV National identity card compulsory for Belgian citizens aged 12 or over
  • Differs per city
  • equivalent of €11 or €17 in local currency (citizens registered abroad)
  • 6 years (ages 12 to 18)
  • 10 years (ages 18 to 75)
  • 30 years (>75)
Municipality 15 July 2021[93]
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
[94]
No National identity card compulsory for Bulgarian citizens aged 14 or over
  • first card free (age 14-16)
  • €6.5 (age 14-18)
  • €9 (age 18-58)
  • €5.5 (age 58-70)
  • free (age >70)
  • No expiry (ages >58)
  • 10 years (ages 18 to 57)
  • 4 years (ages 14 to 17)
The police on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior 29 March 2010
Croatia
Croatia
EMV

NFC

National identity card compulsory for Croatian citizens resident in Croatia aged 18 or over
  • First card free of charge (age <18)
  • €13.27 (age 5-70)
  • €9.29 (age >70)[95]
  • €25.88 for 10-day issue
  • €66.36 for 3-day issue
  • 5 years
  • 40 years (adults aged 70 or over)
The police on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior[96] 2 August 2021
Cyprus
Cyprus
NFC National identity card compulsory for Cypriot citizens aged 12 or over
  • €30 (applicants aged 18 or over)
  • €20 (children under 18)
  • 10 years
  • 5 years (ages<18)
12 August 2020
Czech Republic
Czech Republic
EMV National identity card compulsory for Czech citizens over 15 years of age with permanent residency in the Czech Republic
  • Free of charge for first issue or renewal of data
  • 200 CZK for all ID cards with an electronic chip for all reasons
  • 10 years (ages>15)
  • 5 years (ages<15)
Municipality on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior 2 August 2021
Denmark
Denmark
No national identity card. Danish identity cards are issued by municipalities without a common design and are not usable as travel documentation outside some Nordic countries. Identity documentation is optional (for Danish and Nordic citizens)[3] 150 DKK 10 years Municipality 21 November 2017[97]
Estonia
Estonia
EMV
[98]
[99]
National identity card compulsory for all Estonian citizens aged 15 or over
  • €7 (age <15, retired or disabled, in Estonia)
  • €10 (age <15, retired or disabled, abroad)
  • €25 (age >15, in Estonia)
  • €50 (age >15, abroad)
  • €45 (urgent)[100]
5 years Police and Border Guard Board 23 August 2021
Finland
Finland
EMV
[101]
Identity documentation is optional
  • €49-55 (regular, for all citizens)[102]
  • €33-39 (children under 18, not valid as a travel document)

5 years

Police

13 March 2023
France
France
EMV

NFC
[103]

National identity card optional[104]
  • Free of charge
  • €25 (if the previous one cannot be presented, e.g., it was lost or stolen)

10 years[105]

City halls with a Dispositif de Recueil (on behalf of the prefecture)[106] 15 March 2021[105]
Germany
Germany
NFC National identity card optional; however, a national identity card or passport is compulsory for German citizens aged 16 or over.
  • €37.00 (applicants aged 24 or over)
  • €22.80 (applicants aged under 24)
  • 10 years (ages>24)
  • 6 years (ages<24)
City or town of residence 2 August 2021
Greece
Greece
NFC National identity card compulsory for Greek citizens aged 12 or over
  • €10 for first issue and renewal (or reissue after reported stolen)
  • €5 for members of large family households
  • + €9 for reissue if lost or destroyed [107]

10 years

Police

25 September 2023[108]
Hungary
Hungary
NFC National identity card optional; however, a national identity card, passport or driving licence is compulsory for all Hungarian citizens
  • Free of charge
  • 60 years (age >65)
  • 6 years (age 18–65)
  • 3 years (age 12–18)
  • 3 years from the next birthday, but until only the 12th birthday (age <12)
Ministry of Interior 2 August 2021
Iceland
Iceland

NFC
Identity documentation is optional (for Icelandic and Nordic citizens[3])
  • 9,200 ISK (18-66)
  • 4,600 for children, elderly and disabled
  • 2x cost for urgent application.
  • 10 years for adults
  • 5 years for children
Sheriff, on behalf of Registers Iceland 5 March 2024[89]
Republic of Ireland
Ireland

No national identity card. Ireland issues an optional passport card, only if the applicant already has a valid passport booklet, or gets one in the same application. Identity documentation is optional
  • €35 (standalone)
  • €25 (as part of a passport application)
  • 5 years (or less, matched to passport)
Department of Foreign Affairs 14 October 2021
Link to image Link to image
Italy
Italy
NFC
[109]
[110]
National identity card optional[111]
  • In Italy: €16.79 + fees depending on municipality[112]
  • Abroad: €21.95 or €27.11 (if previous card was lost or stolen)[113]
  • 3 years (age <3)
  • 5 years (age 3–18)
  • 10 years (age >18)[114]

Note: validity expires on birthday[115]

Municipality of residence on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior[112][113] 29 September 2022
Latvia
Latvia
EMV

NFC
[116]
[117]

National identity card compulsory for Latvian citizens aged 15 or over.[118]
  • €14.23
  • €7.11 (age <20, retirees)
  • 2 years (age <5)
  • 5 years (age 5–20)
  • 10 years (age ≥20)[119]
Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs 12 October 2021
Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein

NFC Identity documentation is optional
  • CHF65 (adults aged 18 or over)
  • CHF30 (children under 18)
  • 10 years (adults aged 15 or over)
  • 3 years (children under 15)
Immigration and Passport Office, Vaduz 3 January 2024
Lithuania
Lithuania
EMV

NFC
[120]

National identity card optional; however, a national identity card or passport is compulsory for Lithuanian citizens aged 16 or over.
  • €8.6
  • 10 years (adults aged 16 or over)
  • 5 years (children under 16)
Migration Department 17 August 2021
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
NFC
[121]
National identity card compulsory for Luxembourgian citizens resident in Luxembourg aged 15 or over
  • 14€ (people aged 15 or over)
  • 10€ (children aged 4–14)
  • 5€ (children under 4)
  • 10 years (applicants aged 15 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged 4–14)
  • 2 years (children under 4)
Ministry of the Interior 2 August 2021
Malta
Malta

NFC National identity card compulsory for Maltese citizens aged 18 or over
  • Free of charge for first issue or renewal of data
  • €22 for renewal if lost, stolen or destroyed
  • €16.50 for renewal if defaced
  • 10 years

Identity Malta[122]

28 September 2020[123][124]

Netherlands
Netherlands
NFC
[125]
National identity card optional; however, valid identity documentation is compulsory for all persons aged 14 or over.
  • €40.92 (age <18)[126]
  • €75.80 (age ≥18)[126]
  • €87.00 (age <18, abroad)[127]
  • €121.95 (age ≥18, abroad)[127]
Municipality 2 August 2021[130]
Norway
Norway
NFC Identity documentation is optional
  • NOK 750 (adults and children aged 10 or older)
  • NOK 450 (children under 10)[4]
  • 5 years (adults and children aged 10 or older)
  • 3 years (children aged 5–9)
  • 2 years (children aged 0–4)[4]
Norwegian Police Service 29 July 2021[131][132]
Poland
Poland
NFC National identity card compulsory for Polish citizens resident in Poland aged 18 or over and optional for those under 18 and those residing abroad. Free of charge
  • 10 years (people over 12 years of age)
  • 5 years (minors under 12 years of age)
Municipality 8 November 2021
Portugal
Portugal
EMV

NFC
[80]

Front Back National identity card (called "Citizen Card") compulsory for Portuguese citizens aged 20 days or over[133]
  • Free of charge (age <1)
  • €15 (age 1–25, in Portugal)
  • €18 (age >25, in Portugal)
  • €20 (age 1–25, abroad)
  • €23 (age >25, abroad)
  • €30 to €70 (expedited)
  • 10 years (age >25)
  • 5 years (age <25)
Institute of Registries and Notary 11 June 2024
Romania
Romania

EMV National identity card compulsory for Romanian citizens aged 14 or over with permanent residence in Romania 7 RON
  • No expiry (age ≥55)
  • 10 years (age 25–54)
  • 7 years (age 18–24)
  • 4 years (age 14–17)
Ministry of Internal Affairs through the Directorate for Persons Record and Databases Management 2 August 2021 (Only available in the Cluj County)

1 January 2024 (Available in the entire country)

Slovakia
Slovakia
EMV

NFC

National identity card compulsory for Slovak citizens aged 15 or over with permanent residence in Slovakia [134]
  • Free of charge (first card, renewal after expiration)
  • €16.50 (reissue of lost or stolen card, free of change if stolen during a robbery)
  • €4.50 (reissue for all other reasons)
  • 10 years (age >15)
  • 5 years (age 6–15)
  • 2 years (age <6)
Police 1 December 2022
Slovenia
Slovenia
EMV

NFC
[135]

National identity card optional; however, a form of ID with photo is compulsory for Slovenian citizens permanently resident in Slovenia aged 18 or over
  • €22.27 (age <3)
  • €24.07 (age 3–12)
  • €24.93 (age 12–18)
  • €29.53 (age >18)
  • 3 years (age <3)
  • 5 years (age 3–18)
  • 10 years (age 18–70)
  • No expiry (age >70)
Administrative unit 28 March 2022
Spain
Spain
EMV

NFC
[136]

National identity card compulsory for Spanish citizens aged 14 or over
  • €12 (first issued, expired, lost or damaged)
  • Free of charge (change of residency, "large family" status[137])
  • No expiry (adults over 70)
  • 10 years (adults aged 30–70)
  • 5 years (applicants under 30)

National Police Corps

2 August 2021
Sweden
Sweden
NFC Identity documentation is optional SEK 400
  • 5 years (adults and children aged 12 or older)
  • 3 years (children under 12 years)
Swedish Police Authority 1 January 2022[138]
Switzerland
Switzerland
No Identity documentation is optional
  • CHF 70 (adults)
  • CHF 35 (children)
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (children)
Federal Office of Police through canton / municipality of residence 3 March 2023[139][140]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The legal acquis has been identified as EEA-relevant by the EU Commission, which makes it under scrutiny for incorporation into the EEA Agreement by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.[68] However, the legal basis rely on Article 21 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, an article which is not reflected in the EEA Agreement.[69]
  1. ^ The British Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia has no border control to Cyprus and follows the visa policy of the Schengen Area, but requires permits for stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period.[26][27] These rules were not affected by Brexit.[28]
  2. ^ a b c National ID cards only accepted for short-term visits, and a passport is required to take up residency.
  3. ^ Open border with the Schengen Area due to open borders with the Nordic countries (Nordic Passport Union). Citizens of EU/EFTA countries can use an ID card.
  4. ^ Except for Nordic citizens, national ID cards are only accepted for short-term visits, and a passport is required to take up residency
  5. ^ Not valid for Norwegian or Icelandic citizens.
  6. ^ On 31 December 2020, Spain and UK signed an agreement to begin negotiations for Gibraltar to join the Schengen Area.[33]
  7. ^ a b c Monaco is de facto part of the Schengen Area under an arrangement with France, while San Marino and Vatican City are enclaves of Italy with open land borders. For further information, see: Schengen Area § Status of the European microstates.
  8. ^ Up to 14 days and only for passengers in transit to another destination. French citizens can visit Montserrat up to 6 months with their ID cards, if in possession of a return ticket to their origin country. (as stated at page 69, Section 17 of Chapter 13.01 Immigration Act)[37]
  9. ^ Not valid for Irish citizens.
  10. ^ Not valid for Liechtenstein citizens.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]