National poet

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A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.[1] The national poet as culture hero is a long-standing symbol, to be distinguished from successive holders of a bureaucratically-appointed poet-laureate office. The idea and honoring of national poets emerged primarily during Romanticism, as a figure that helped consolidation of the nation states, as it provided validation of their ethno-linguistic groups.[1]

Most national poets are historic figures, though a few contemporary writers working in relatively new or revived national literatures are also considered "national poets." Some nations may have more than one national poet; the idea of a single one is always a simplification. It has been argued that a national poet "must write poetry that closely identifies with the nation's cause – or is thought to do so",[2] with an additional assumption being "that a national poet must write in a national language".[3]

The following is a list of nations, with their associated national poets. It is not a list of sovereign states or countries, though many of the nations listed may also be such. The terms "nation" (as cultural concept), "country" (as geographical concept) and "state" (as political concept) are not synonyms.

Africa[edit]

Country Poet
 Algeria Si Mohand
 Angola Agostinho Neto
 Egypt Ahmed Shawqi
 Ethiopia Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin
 Mali Fily Dabo Sissoko
 Morocco Mohammed Awzal
 Nigeria Chinua Achebe
 Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor
 Somalia Hadrawi
 South Africa Mazisi Kunene
 Sudan Gely Abdel Rahman
 Tanzania Shaaban bin Robert[4]
 Tunisia Aboul-Qacem Echebbi

Asia[edit]

Country Poet
 Afghanistan Khushal Khattak,[5] Ferdowsi
 Azerbaijan Fuzûlî, Imadaddin Nasimi, Samad Vurgun
 Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam[6]
 China Du Fu, Li Bai, Lu Xun
 Cambodia Preah Botumthera Som, Krom Ngoy, Chuon Nath
 India Ramdhari Singh Dinkar [7]
 Indonesia Chairil Anwar
 Iran Ferdowsi, Rumi, Hafez, Rudaki, Nezami Ganjavi, Saadi, Omar Khayyám, Nasir Khusraw, Adib Boroumand
 Iraq Maarouf Al Rasafi
 Israel Hayim Nahman Bialik
 Japan Koizumi Yakumo, Murasaki Shikibu
 Jordan Mustafa Wahbi al-Tal
 Kazakhstan Abai Qunanbaiuli
 Korea Kim Sowol, Ko Un
 Kurdistan Khana Qubadi
 Kyrgyzstan Toktogul Satylganov
 Lebanon Kahlil Gibran, Said Akl
 Malaysia Usman Awang
 Mongolia Dashdorjiin Natsagdorj, Byambyn Rinchen, Hadaa Sendoo
 Myanmar Min Thu Wun
   Nepal Laxmi Prasad Devkota, Motiram Bhatta
 Pakistan Allama Muhammad Iqbal
 Palestine Mahmoud Darwish
 Philippines Francisco Balagtas
 Saudi Arabia Ghazi Abdul Rahman Al Gosaibi
 Sri Lanka Ananda Samarakoon
 Syria Nizar Qabbani
 Tajikistan Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Saadi, Molavi, Nasir Khusraw, Sadriddin Ayni, Gulnazar Keldi
 Thailand Sunthorn Phu
 Turkmenistan Magtymguly Pyragy
 Uzbekistan Abdulla Oripov, Erkin Vohidov, Gʻafur Gʻulom, Mirtemir
 Vietnam Nguyễn Du, Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Hàn Mặc Tử
 Yemen Abdullah Al-Baradouni

Europe[edit]

Country Poet
 Albania Gjergj Fishta, Naim Frashëri
 Andorra Albert Salvadó
 Armenia Hovhannes Tumanyan, Sayat-Nova, Yeghishe Charents
 Austria Franz Grillparzer, Peter Rosegger, Johann Nepomuk Nestroy
 Belarus Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas
 Belgium Emile Verhaeren, Maurice Maeterlinck
 Flanders Hendrik Conscience, Guido Gezelle, Hugo Claus
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Izet Sarajlić
 Republika Srpska Aleksa Šantić, Gordana Kukić
 Bulgaria Hristo Botev,[8] Ivan Vazov
 Croatia Marko Marulić, Miroslav Krleža
 Cyprus Vasilis Michaelides
 Czech Republic Karel Hynek Mácha, Božena Němcová, Jan Neruda
 Denmark Adam Oehlenschläger
 Faroe Islands William Heinesen
 England William Shakespeare[9]
 Estonia Lydia Koidula, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
 Finland Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot
 France Victor Hugo, Charles Baudelaire
 Georgia Shota Rustaveli
 Germany Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller
 Gibraltar Héctor Licudi
 Greece Homer, Dionysios Solomos
 Guernsey George Métivier
 Hungary Sándor Petőfi, János Arany
 Iceland Jónas Hallgrímsson, Hallgrímur Pétursson, Halldór Laxness
 Ireland Thomas Moore, William Butler Yeats
 Italy Dante Alighieri, Giosuè Carducci, Giacomo Leopardi, Ugo Foscolo, Gabriele D'Annunzio
 Latvia Rainis, Andrejs Pumpurs
 Liechtenstein Peter Kaiser
 Lithuania Kristijonas Donelaitis, Maironis
 Luxembourg Edmond de la Fontaine, Michel Rodange, Michel Lentz
 Macedonia Kočo Racin, Georgi Pulevski and Kole Nedelkovski
 Malta Dun Karm Psaila
 Moldova Mihai Eminescu, Grigore Vieru
 Monaco Louis Notari
 Montenegro Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
 Netherlands Joost van den Vondel, Jacob Cats
 Friesland Gysbert Japicx (or Japiks)
 Norway Henrik Wergeland
 Poland Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Zygmunt Krasiński, Jan Kochanowski
 Portugal Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa
 Romania Mihai Eminescu
 Russia Alexander Pushkin
 Dagestan Rasul Gamzatov
 North Ossetia-Alania Kosta Khetagurov
 San Marino Pio Chiaruzzi
 Scotland Robert Burns, Hugh MacDiarmid, John Barbour, Edwin Morgan
 Serbia Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, Vladislav Petković Dis, Oskar Davičo, Desanka Maksimović (Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro)[10]
 Kosovo Din Mehmeti, Ali Podrimja
 Slovakia Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav
 Slovenia France Prešeren
 Spain Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega,[1] Federico García Lorca
 Catalonia Jacint Verdaguer, Salvador Espriu
 Galicia Rosalía de Castro
 Basque Country Xabier de Lizardi, Nicolás Ormaechea, Gabriel Aresti
 Sweden Carl Michael Bellman, Gustaf Fröding, Verner von Heidenstam, Esaias Tegnér
  Switzerland Gottfried Keller, Carl Spitteler
 Turkey Mehmet Akif Ersoy
 Ukraine Taras Shevchenko
 Wales Dylan Thomas, Dafydd ap Gwilym

North America[edit]

Country Poets
 Canada Pauline Johnson
 Quebec Émile Nelligan, Gaston Miron, Octave Crémazie, Gilles Vigneault, Félix Leclerc
 Cuba José Martí
 Dominican Republic Pedro Mir
 Guatemala Miguel Ángel Asturias
 Haiti Jacques Roumain
 Mexico Ramón López Velarde, Octavio Paz
 Nicaragua Rubén Darío
 Panama Ricardo Miró[11]
 Saint Lucia Derek Walcott
 United States Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Carl Sandburg, Maya Angelou

Oceania[edit]

Country Poets
 Australia Henry Lawson, Adam Lindsay Gordon, Dorothea Mackellar, A. B. "Banjo" Paterson
 New Zealand Katherine Mansfield, Janet Frame

South America[edit]

Country Poets
 Argentina José Hernández,[12]Jorge Luis Borges, Leopoldo Lugones
 Brazil Gonçalves Dias, Olavo Bilac, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Machado de Assis
 Chile Pablo Neruda, Gabriela Mistral
 Colombia Rafael Pombo
 Ecuador José Joaquín de Olmedo, Jorge Enrique Adoum
 Peru César Vallejo
 Uruguay Juan Zorrilla de San Martín
 Venezuela Rómulo Gallegos, Andrés Eloy Blanco

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nemoianu, Virgil (2002). Esterhammer, Angela, ed. "'National Poets’ in the Romantic Age: Emergence and Importance." Romantic Poetry. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 537. ISBN 9789027234506. 
  2. ^ John Neubauer, "Figures of National Poets", in Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer, eds., Figures of National Poets (2004), p. 11.
  3. ^ Michael Baron, Language and Relationship in Wordsworth's Writing (1995), p. 13.
  4. ^ J. Cameron; W. A. Dodd (17 May 2014). Society, Schools and Progress in Tanzania: The Commonwealth and International Library: Education and Educational Research. Elsevier Science. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-4831-5914-0. 
  5. ^ Morgenstierne, G. (1960). "Khushhal Khan—the national poet of the Afghans". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. 47: 49–57. doi:10.1080/03068376008731684. 
  6. ^ Aparna Chatterjee, Kaazi Nazrul Islam; The National Poet of Bangladesh : A Profile Study on The Literary Shelf, Boloji.com. Accessed 9 March 2007.
  7. ^ Ramdhari singh Dinkar
  8. ^ Hristo Botev’s birth anniversary, Radio Bulgaria History and Religion, posted January 6, 2007, updated on January 12, 2007, accessed 9 March 2007
  9. ^ Michael Dobson (17 November 1994), The Making of the National Poet - Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660-1769, Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-818323-5 
  10. ^ Balazsr2=Michal Kopecek (1 November 2006). National Romanticism: The Formation of National Movements. Central European University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-963-7326-60-8. Characteristically, although Njegoš saw himself as a definitely Serbian poet, his epic came to be later canonized as the most important work of 'Yugoslav' literature [...] 
  11. ^ Daniel Balderston, Mike (2004). Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900-2003. Routledge. p. 666. ISBN 0-415-30687-6. 
  12. ^ James Woodall, Borges: A Life, Basic Books (1996). ISBN 0-465-04361-5. Relevant excerpt available on the New York Times web site, accessed 9 March 2007.

Further reading[edit]