Page semi-protected

National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Illustration showing how COVID-19 spreads and the impact of isolation on it.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, national responses have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. As of 16 April 2021, more than 139 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 192 countries and territories, resulting in more than 2.98 million deaths. More than 79.3 million people have recovered from the virus.[1] The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Peru, Mexico, Chile, the United Kingdom, and Iran.[2][3]

Lockdowns

Country / territory Place First lockdown Second lockdown Third lockdown
Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Level
Albania 2020-03-13[4] 2020-06-01[5] 80 National
Algeria Algiers 2020-03-23[6] 2020-05-14[7] 52 City
Blida
Argentina Greater Buenos Aires 2020-03-19[8] 2020-11-08[9] 234 Metropolitan Area
Rest of the country 2020-03-19[8] 2020-05-10[10] 52 National
Armenia 2020-03-24[11] 2020-05-04[12] 41 National
Australia Melbourne 2020-07-08[a][13][14] 2020-10-27[15] 111 2021-02-12[16] 2021-02-17[17] 5 Metropolitan Area
Regional Victoria[b] 2020-08-06[14] 2020-09-16[14] 41 2021-02-12[16] 2021-02-17[17] 5 State
South Australia 2020-11-19[18] 2020-11-22[19] 3
Brisbane 2021-01-08[20] 2021-01-11[20] 3 2021-03-29[21] 2021-04-01[22] 3 Metropolitan Area
Perth 2021-01-31[23] 2021-02-05[23] 5
Peel 2021-01-31[23] 2021-02-05[23] 5 Region
South West 2021-01-31[23] 2021-02-05[23] 5
Northern Beaches 2020-12-19[24] 2021-01-10[25] 22 Local Government Area
Rest of the country[c] 2020-03-23[26] 2020-05-15[27] 52 National
Austria 2020-03-16[28] 2020-04-13[29] 28 2020-11-03[30] 2020-11-30[30] 27 2020-12-26[31] 2021-02-07[32] 43
Azerbaijan 2020-03-31[33] 2020-08-30[33] 152
Bangladesh 2020-03-26[34] 2020-05-16[35] 51 2021-04-05[36] 2021-04-13 8
Barbados 2020-03-28[37] 2020-05-03[37] 36
Belgium 2020-03-18[38] 2020-05-04 [39] 47 2020-11-02[40] 2020-12-14[40] 42 2021-03-27[41] 2021-04-24[42] 28
Bermuda 2020-04-04[37] 2020-05-02[43] 28
Bhutan 2020-08-11[44] 2020-09-01[45] 21
Bolivia 2020-03-22[46] 2020-07-31[47] 131
Botswana 2020-04-02[48] 2020-04-30[48] 28
Brazil Santa Catarina 2020-03-17[49] 2020-04-07[49] 21 State
São Paulo 2020-03-24[50] 2020-05-10[51] 47
Bulgaria 2020-03-13[d][55][56] 2020-06-15[e][58][59] 94 2020-11-28 (de facto)[f][61] 2021-01-31[g][61][62] 65 2021-03-22[h][64] 2021-03-31 10 National
Canada British Columbia 2020-03-18[65] 2020-05-18[66] 61 2020-11-07[67] 2021-01-08[67] 62 Province
Ontario 2020-03-17[68][69] 2020-05-14 58 2021-04-03[70] 2021-05-01 28
Quebec 2020-12-25[71] 2021-01-11[71] 18[71]
Ontario - South 2020-12-26[72] 2021-01-23[72] 28 Region
Ontario - North 2020-12-26[72] 2021-01-09[72] 14
Colombia 2020-03-25[73] 2020-06-30[74] 97 National
Congo 2020-03-31[75] 2020-04-20[75] 20
Costa Rica 2020-03-23[76] 2020-05-01[77] 39
Croatia 2020-03-18[78] 2020-05-11 32 2020-12-22[79] 2020-12-29[80] 7
Cyprus 2020-03-24[81] 2020-04-13[81] 20 2021-01-10[82] 2021-01-31[82] 21
Czech Republic 2020-03-16[28] 2020-04-12[83] 27 2020-10-22[84] 2021-03-28[84] 174
Denmark 2020-03-12[85] 2020-04-13[86] 33 2020-12-25[87] 2021-03-01[88] 66
Ecuador 2020-03-16[89] 2020-03-31[89] 15
El Salvador 2020-03-12[90] 2020-04-02[90] 21
Eritrea 2020-04-02[91] 2020-04-23[91] 21
Estonia 2021-03-11[92] 2021-04-11[93] 31 National
Fiji Lautoka 2020-03-20[94] 2020-04-07[95] 18 City
Suva 2020-04-03[96] 2020-04-17[97] 14
France Nationwide 2020-03-17[98] 2020-05-11[99] 55 2020-10-30[100] 2020-12-15[101] 46 2021-04-04[102] 2021-05-03[103] 29 National
Paris 2021-03-19[104] 2021-04-18 30 Region
Finland 2021-03-08[105] 2021-03-28[105] 20 National
Georgia 2020-03-31[106] 2020-04-21[106] 21
Germany Nationwide 2020-03-22[i][108] 2020-04-20[109][110]
to 2020-05-11[111]
29 to 50 2020-11-02[112] 2021-03-01 to 2021-04-19[113][114] 119 to 168
Berchtesgadener Land 2020-10-20[115] 2020-11-03[116] 14 District
Ghana Accra 2020-03-30[117] 2020-04-12[118] 13 Metropolitan Area
Kumasi
Greece Nationwide 2020-03-23[119] 2020-05-04[120] 42 2020-11-07[121] 2021-03-22[122] 135 National
Thessaloniki 2020-11-03[123] 139 Regional unit
Serres
Guernsey 2020-03-25[124] 2020-06-20[125] 87 2021-01-23[126] 2021-02-22[127] 30 National
Honduras 2020-03-20[128] 2020-05-17[129] 58
Hungary 2020-03-28[130] 2020-04-10[130] 13
India 2020-03-25[131] 2020-06-07[132] 74
Iran 2020-03-14[133] 2020-04-20[134] 37
Iraq 2020-03-22[135] 2020-04-11[136] 20
Ireland All 26 counties 2020-03-12[j][137][138] 2020-05-18[139] 67 2020-10-21[140] 2020-12-01[141] 41 2020-12-24[k][142] 2021-04-12[143] 119
Kildare 2020-08-07[144][145] 2020-08-31[146] 24 Regional
Laois 2020-08-21[147] 14
Offaly
Israel Bnei Brak 2020-04-02[148] 2020-04-16[149] 14 City
Nationwide 2020-09-18[150] 2020-10-18[151] 30 2020-12-27[152] 2021-02-07[153] 42 National
Italy Nationwide 2020-03-09[l][154] 2020-05-18[155] 70 2020-12-24[156][m] 2021-01-06[156] 13 2021-03-15[157] 2021-04-30 46 National
Lombardy 2020-11-06[158] 2020-12-03[159] 27 2021-01-17 [160] 2021-01-30 13 Region
Piedmont 2020-11-06[158] 2020-12-03[159]
Aosta Valley 2020-11-06[158] 2020-12-03[159]
Calabria 2020-11-06[158] 2020-12-03[159]
Sicily 2021-01-17[160] 2021-01-30 13
Province of Bolzano 2021-01-17 [160] 2021-01-30 13 Province
Jamaica Saint Catherine 2020-04-15[161] 2020-04-22[161] 7 Parish
Jordan 2020-03-18[162] 2020-04-30[163] 43 2020-11-10[164] 2020-11-15[164] 5 National
Kosovo 2020-03-14[165] 2020-05-04 [166] 51
Kuwait 2020-05-10[167] 2020-05-31[167] 21
Lebanon 2020-03-15[168] 2020-03-28[168] 13 2020-11-14[169] 2020-11-28 14
Libya 2020-03-22[170] 2020-06-27[171] 97 National
Lithuania 2020-03-16[172] 2020-06-18[173] 94 2020-11-07[174] 2020-11-28 21
Madagascar Antananarivo 2020-03-23[175] 2020-04-20[176] 28 City
Toamasina
Malaysia 2020-03-18[177] 2020-06-09[178] 83 2021-01-13 2021-02-10 28 National
Mexico Nationwide 2020-03-23[179] 2020-06-01[179] 70
Chihuahua 2020-10-23[180] 2020-12-06 44 State
Durango 2020-11-03[181] 2020-12-06 33
Baja California 2020-12-07
Mexico City 2020-12-19[182]
State of Mexico 2020-12-19[182]
Morelos 2021-01-04
Guanajuato 2021-01-04
Mongolia 2020-03-10[183] 2020-03-16[183] 6 2020-11-17[184] 2020-12-01 15 National
Montenegro Tuzi 2020-03-24[185] 2020-05-05[186] 42 Municipality
Morocco 2020-03-19[187] 2020-06-10[188] 83 National
Namibia 2020-03-27[n][189] 2020-05-04[190] 38
Nepal 2020-03-24[191] 2020-07-21[192] 120
Nepal Nepal Kathmandu 2020-03-24[191] 2020-07-21[192] 120 2020-08-20[193] 2020-09-09[193] 21 City
Netherlands 2020-03-15[194] 2020-04-06[195] 22 2020-12-15[196] 2021-03-02[197] 77 National
New Zealand Nationwide 2020-03-26[198] 2020-05-14[199] 49 National
Auckland 2020-08-12[200] 2020-10-07[201] 56 2021-02-14[202] 2021-02-17[203] 3 Region
Nigeria Abuja 2020-03-30[204] 2020-04-12[204] 13 City
Lagos
Ogun State
Northern Cyprus 2020-03-30[205] 2020-05-04[206] 35 National
North Korea Kaesong 2020-07-25[207] 2020-08-14[208] 20 City
Oman Muscat 2020-04-10[209] 2020-05-29[210] 49 Governorate
Jalan Bani Bu Ali 2020-04-16[211] TBD[211] 365 Province
Pakistan 2020-03-24[212] 2020-05-09[213] 46 National
Panama 2020-03-25[214] 2020-05-31
(downgraded to a night and weekend curfew)[215]
67
Papua New Guinea 2020-03-24[216] 2020-04-07[216] 14
Paraguay 2020-03-20[217] 2020-05-03[218] 44
Peru 2020-03-16[219] 2020-06-30[220] 106
Philippines Cebu 2020-03-27[221] 2020-05-15[o][222]
to 2020-05-31[p][223]
49 to 65 Province
Davao Region 2020-03-19[224] 2020-05-15[222] 57 Region
Luzon 2020-03-15[q][225] 2020-04-30[r][226]
to 2020-05-15[s][227]
to 2020-05-31[p][223]
46 to 61 to 77 2020-08-04[228][t] 2020-08-18[228][t] 15 Island group
Soccsksargen 2020-03-23[224] 2020-05-15[229] 53 Region
Poland 2020-03-13[230] 2020-04-11[231] 29 2020-12-28[232] 2021-01-17[232] 20 2021-03-20[233] 2021-04-18[234] 29 National
Portugal 2020-03-19[235] 2020-04-02[231] 14 2021-01-15[236] 2021-02-15[236] 31
Qatar Doha Industrial Area 2020-03-11[237] 2020-06-15[238] 96 Industrial park
Romania 2020-03-25[239] 2020-05-12[240] 48 National
Russia Moscow 2020-03-30[241] 2020-05-12[242][243] 43 Metropolitan area
Rest of the country[u] 2020-03-28[244] 2020-04-30[244] 33 National
Rwanda 2020-03-21[245] 2020-04-19[246] 29
Samoa 2020-03-26[247] 2020-04-08[248] 13
San Marino 2020-03-14[249] 2020-05-05[250] 52
Saudi Arabia Jeddah 2020-03-29[251] 2020-06-21[252] 84 City
Mecca 2020-03-26[251] 87
Medina
Qatif 2020-03-09[253] 104 Area
Riyadh 2020-03-26[251] 87 City
Serbia 2020-03-15[231] 2020-04-21[254]
to 2020-05-04[255]
37 to 50 National
Singapore 2020-04-07[256] 2020-06-01[257] 55
South Africa 2020-03-26[258] 2020-04-30[259] 35
Spain 2020-03-14[260] 2020-05-09[261] 56
Sri Lanka 2020-03-18[262] 2020-06-21[263] 95
Switzerland 2020-03-17[264] 2020-04-27[265] 41 2021-01-18[266] 2021-03-01[267] 42
Thailand 2020-03-25[268] 2020-05-31[269] 67
Trinidad and Tobago 2020-03-17[270] 2020-03-31[270] 14
Tunisia 2020-03-22[271] 2020-04-19[272] 28
Turkey 2020-04-23[273] 2020-04-27[273] 4 Only in 30 metropolitan cities and Zonguldak.
Ukraine 2020-03-17[231] 2020-04-24[231] 38 National
United Arab Emirates 2020-03-26[274] 2020-04-17[275] 22
United Kingdom England 2020-03-23[276] 2020-07-04[277] 103 2020-11-05[278] 2020-12-02[278] 27 2021-01-05[279] 2021-03-29[280] 83
Scotland 2020-06-29[281] 98 2020-12-26[282] 2021-04-02[283] 97
Northern Ireland 2020-07-03[284] 102 2020-11-27[285] 2020-12-11[285] 14 2020-12-26[286] 2021-04-12[287] 107 Country
Wales 2020-07-13[288] 112 2020-10-23[289] 2020-11-09[289] 17 2020-12-20[290] 2021-03-13[291] 83
North West 2020-12-31[292] 2021-03-29 88 Region
North East 2020-12-31[293] 2021-03-29 88
East Midlands 2020-12-31[294] 2021-03-29 88
West Midlands 2020-12-31[295] 2021-03-29 88
Norfolk 2020-12-26[296] 2021-03-29 93 County
Suffolk 2020-12-26[297] 2021-03-29 93
Cambridgeshire 2020-12-26[298] 2021-03-29 93
Essex 2020-12-26[299] 2021-03-29 93
London area 2020-12-20[300] 2021-03-29 99 City
Kent & South East 2020-12-20[300] 2021-03-29 99 Region
Leicester 2020-06-30[301] 2020-07-24[302] 24 County
Glasgow 2020-11-20[303] 2020-12-11[303] 21
East Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
East Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire
North Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
East Ayrshire
South Ayrshire
West Lothian
Stirling
United States California 2020-03-19[304] 2020-05-08[305] 89 2020-12-07[306] 2020-12-28[306] 21 State
Connecticut 2020-03-23[307] 2020-04-22[308] 30 State
Illinois 2020-03-21[309] 2020-05-30[310] 70
Kansas City in Kansas 2020-03-24[311] 2020-04-19[312] 26 City
Massachusetts 2020-03-24[313] 2020-05-04[313] 41 State
Michigan 2020-03-24[314] 2020-04-13[308] 20
New York 2020-03-22[315] 2020-06-13[316] 83
Oregon 2020-03-24[317] 2020-05-15[318] 53
Wisconsin 2020-03-24[319] 2020-05-13[320] 50
Venezuela 2020-03-17[321] 2020-05-13[322] 57 National
Vietnam Nationwide 2020-04-01[323] 2020-04-22[324] 21
Da Nang 2020-07-28[325] 2020-09-05[326] 39 City
Chi Linh 2021-01-28[327] 2021-03-02 33 City
Hai Duong 2021-02-16[328] 2021-03-02 14 Province
Zimbabwe 2020-03-30[329] 2020-05-02[330] 33 National
Outbreak ongoing: Lockdown data as of 16 April 2021

Notes

  1. ^ Stage 3 lockdown imposed on 8 July; Stage 4 lockdown imposed on 2 August 2020
  2. ^ Applies for all Regional Victoria outside Melbourne
  3. ^ Applies for further measures in each Australian state and territory
  4. ^ Initially to last until 13 April 2020, included closures of universities, schools, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on mass gatherings, suspension of sports competitions for more than two months, certain temporary restrictions on the free movement of citizens, but no strict stay-at-home-order.[52] A number of lockdown measures were already eased or lifted in April[53] and May 2020.[54]
  5. ^ Depending on the definition for a lockdown, some sources such as Politico Europe consider it to have ended by 9 May, with a total duration of 57 days.[57]
  6. ^ Closures of all educational institutions, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on most cultural events, all excursions and forms of group tourism, children forbidden to participate in organized sports events, described as a "soft" or "partial" lockdown and officially entered into force at 23:30 on 27 November.[60]
  7. ^ The lockdown was initially to end on 21 December 2020, but was subsequently extended until 31 January 2021, though with a few of the restrictions relaxed, such as children in kindergartens and in grades 1-4 being able to attend in-person classes from January 2021.
  8. ^ Preceded by some measures on the regional level.[63]
  9. ^ Lockdown was started in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria on 20 March 2020. Two days later, it was expanded to the whole of Germany[107]
  10. ^ A national stay-at-home order was officially declared on 27 March
  11. ^ A full third lockdown was declared from 30 December and was repeatedly extended.
  12. ^ Lockdown was first started in Northern Italy on 8 March 2020, then expanded to the rest of Italy the following day
  13. ^ The lockdown was suspended on 28, 29, 30 December 2020 and 4 January 2021
  14. ^ Lockdown was started in the regions of Erongo and Khomas but effectively enforced countrywide. On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May and to all of Namibia.
  15. ^ Except in Cebu City only where it was extended to 16 days
  16. ^ a b Lockdown was extended to areas under high risk COVID-19 zones
  17. ^ Lockdown was started in Metro Manila, but expanded to the rest of Luzon two days later, 17 March 2020
  18. ^ In most Luzon areas only, except Metro Manila and selected areas of Luzon are on high risk COVID-19 zones
  19. ^ Lockdown was extended to Metro Manila and remaining areas of Luzon
  20. ^ a b Metro Manila, Bulacan, Cavite and Rizal only.
  21. ^ Applies for mandatory holidays and further measures in each Russian region


The pandemic has caused worldwide curfews and similar restrictions (stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, shutdowns/lockdowns) established to prevent further spread of COVID-19. The pandemic has resulted in the largest amount of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.[citation needed] By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[331] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April — more than half of the world's population.[332][333]

As of 12 April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, are under some form of lockdown in the United States,[334] more than 50 million people are in lockdown in the Philippines,[335] about 59 million people are in lockdown in South Africa,[336] and 1.3 billion people are in lockdown in India.[337][338]

Africa

Ghana

The first two cases of the coronavirus disease was confirmed on 12 March 2020, when two infected people came to Ghana; one from Norway and the other from Turkey.[339] On 11 March, President Nana Akufo-Addo directed the Minister of Finance, Ken Ofori-Atta, to make the cedi equivalent of $US100 million[340] available to enhance Ghana's coronavirus preparedness and response plan.[341] The Ghana COVID-19 Private Sector Fund was also initiated to aid in the fight against the pandemic.

Bans and lockdowns

Veronica Bucket
Veronica Bucket, a handwashing mechanism originating in Ghana. It is mounted in many open spaces and at entrances for mandatory hand-washing.

On 15 March, at 10 pm, President Nana Akufo-Addo banned all public gatherings including conferences, workshops, funerals, festivals, political rallies, church activities and other related events to reduce the spread of COVID-19 at a press briefing on the state of COVID-19. Basic schools, senior high schools and universities, both public and private, have also been closed. Only BECE and WASSCE candidates were permitted to remain in school under social distancing protocols.[342] The use of Veronica buckets have become very popular in Ghana following the outbreak of the novel coronavirus as citizens engage in frequent hand washing to stem its spread.[343][344] On 30 March, the partial lock down of Accra and Kumasi took effect.[345] In April 2020, At a press briefing, the Director General of the Ghana Health Service, announced the commencement of local production of nose masks as part of efforts to arrest the spread of the pandemic.[346] According to the new Executive Instrument, E.I. 164, signed by the President on 15 June 2020, people who refuse to wear face masks in public could face jail terms of between 4–10 years or a fine of between GHS12,000 (approx US$2,065) and GHS60,000 (approx US$10,320) or both would be made. This came after the mandatory wearing of nose masks [347]

Government responses

From 3 April, over 464 markets were disinfected across the country.[348][349] The second phase of nationwide fumigation begun in July.[350] On 23 September, the MoE with GES collaborated with Zoomlion to disinfect SHS across Ghana to pave way for the reopening of schools.[351] The Finance Minister claimed in his report that the Government spent about 54.3 million Ghana cedis to provide cooked and uncooked food to the vulnerable during the 3-week lockdown.[352] He also claimed Government would provide free electricity and water for the rest of 2020.[353]

The Parliament of Ghana granted a tax waiver of GHS174 million cedis (equivalent to US$30 million) on income taxes of frontline workers. This spanned for three months from July to September 2020.[354][355] On 15 October, the MoH received a COVID-19 AI software for detecting the virus on Chest X-rays.[356] Government also relaunched the GH COVID-19 tracker app after it was launched on 13 April.[357] Various treatment centers were built across the country such as the Ghana Infectious Disease Centre,[358] to help in the National COVID-19 Treatment.[359][360] Ghana became the first country to use drone aircraft in the fight against the pandemic through the transport of COVID-19 test samples.[361][362][363]

Namibia

On 17 March President Hage Geingob declared a state of emergency as a legal basis to restrict fundamental rights. The prohibition of large gatherings was clarified to apply to 50 or more people.[364] Measures such as the closure of all borders, suspension of gatherings were implemented.[365] All public and private schools were also closed for a month.[366] By 14 April, a National lockdown was enforced to all regions in the country.[367]

Access to information and surveillance

A COVID-19 communication hotline (0800100100) was established on 15 March 2020 which is run by the Ministry of Health and Social Services and the Centre for Disease Control of Namibia (CDC).[368] The hotline serves to answer general enquiries of the public, assisting persons seeking guidance from the Ministry and reporting possible symptoms or cases of COVID-19.[369]

The Government also announced on 18 March that it will strengthen their communication to the public via various platforms, such as the COVID-19 communication centre operated by NBC, in an attempt to "mitigate and refute misinformation, fear and panic especially from social media".[369] The centre was fully functional by middle April 2020.[370]

With the establishment of a multi-disciplinary Emergency Response team, the Ministry intensified their surveillance in monitoring the situation of COVID-19 in the country, especially at the borders of Namibia. The response team operates 24/7.[369]

Testing

Before the confirmation of COVID-19 in Namibia, tests could not be done locally. Test samples were instead sent to South Africa, which accounted for longer than usual waiting times. Namibian Institute of Pathology (NIP) started testing locally in Windhoek at the end of March 2020. In late April, private laboratory PathCare started testing samples. Namibia was hit by a lack of reagents at the end of April, which slowed down testing however, private testing at PathCare was expensive compared to that of the state (NIP) which offers free COVID-19 tests.[371]

Economic stimulus package

An Emergency Income Grant was set up by government to distribute N$ 750 to every person whose income was affected by the pandemic or faced difficult conditions due to the lockdown.[367] Over 800,000 people applied for this grant; 346,000 of them were paid by the end of April.[372]

South Africa

Greenmarket Square as it normally appears with many market stalls, seven days before the lockdown.
On the first day of the lockdown only people exempt from the lockdown (security personnel and sanitation workers) can be seen.
Greenmarket Square in Cape Town, South Africa seven days before (left) and on the first day (right) of the COVID-19 national lockdown. After the lockdown the market stall traders that normally setup on the square everyday are not present and only people exempt from the lockdown (security personnel and municipal employees) can be seen.

President Cyril Ramaphosa declared that South Africa would undergo a national lockdown, for a period of 21 days, from 26 March to 16 April 2020. This drastic measure was intended to help keep the viral infection rate as low as possible and save lives.[373] On Thursday 9 April, President Ramaphosa announced an extension of two weeks to the lockdown, until the end of April.[374] Exempt from the lockdown are people deemed necessary for the effective response to the pandemic such as health workers, pharmacy and laboratory personnel, emergency personnel,[375][376] security services,[377][375][376] supermarkets, transportation and logistical services, petrol stations, banks, essential financial as well as payment services[375][376] and those working in industries that can affect the economy when shut down. This include mines and steel mills.[377]

Testing

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) started testing people in South Africa for SARS-CoV-2 on 28 January 2020, and by 7 February had conducted 42 of such tests.[378] State hospitals were offering free COVID-19 testing by mid-March.[379] On 30 March 2020, the government announced its intentions of initiating an enhanced screening and testing programme.[380] By the start of April, 67 mobile testing units had been established and 47000 people had been tested, some in drive-through facilities.[381]

Clinical trials, vaccines and treatment

On 17 March 2020, the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority announced that it would expedite review of treatments, vaccines and clinical trials.[382] A team from 8 universities and 14 hospitals led by Helen Rees and Jeremy Nel from the University of the Witwatersrand participated in the World Health Organization Solidarity Clinical Trials that investigated medications.[383] A COVID-19 vaccine trial was launched in Gauteng province, towards the end of June 2020 in collaboration with the Jenner Institute, University of Oxford and AstraZeneca.[384][385] A second vaccine trial was launched during mid August 2020 in collaboration with a US Maryland based biotechnology company, Novavax, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[386] A third vaccine trial was launched in September 2020 by Johnson & Johnson/Janssen.[385]

Other countries and territories

Asia

China

Masked passengers undergoing temperature checks at Changchun Longjia Airport in northeast China

The first person known to have fallen ill due to the new virus was in Wuhan on 1 December 2019.[387] A public notice on the outbreak was released by Wuhan health authority on 31 December; the initial notice informed Wuhan residents that there was no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the virus, that the disease is preventable and controllable, and that people can wear masks when going out.[388] WHO was informed of the outbreak on the same day.[389] On 7 January 2020, the Chinese Communist Party Politburo Standing Committee discussed novel coronavirus prevention and control.[390][391]

The Wuhan government, which announced a number of new measures such as cancelling the Chinese New Year celebrations, in addition to measures such as checking the temperature of passengers at transport terminals first introduced on 14 January.[392] A quarantine was announced on 23 January 2020 stopping travel in and out of Wuhan.[393] A group tasked with the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic was established on 26 January, led by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang.[394][395] The leading group decided to extend the Spring Festival holiday to contain the outbreak.[396]

China Customs started requiring that all passengers entering and exiting China fill in an extra health declaration form from 26 January. The health declaration form was mentioned in China's Frontier Health and Quarantine Law, granting the customs rights to require it if needed.[397][398] On 27 January, the General Office of the State Council of China, declared a nation-wide extension on the New Year holiday and the postponement of the coming spring semester. The office extended the previously scheduled public holiday from 30 January, to 2 February, while it said school openings for the spring semester would be announced in the future.[399]

Hong Kong's Chief Executive Carrie Lam declared an emergency at a press conference on 25 January, saying the government would close primary and secondary schools for two more weeks on top of the previously scheduled New Year holiday, pushing the date for school reopening to 17 February.[400][401] Macau closed several museums and libraries, and prolonged the New Year holiday break to 11 February for higher education institutions and 10 February for others.[402]

A screen display in Hefei showing "early detection, early reporting, early quarantine, early diagnosis, early treatment" during the coronavirus pandemic

On 1 February 2020, Xinhua News reported that China's Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP) had "asked procuratorates nationwide to fully play their role to create a favourable judicial environment in the fight against the novel coronavirus pandemic." This included severe punishments for those found guilty of dereliction of duty and the withholding of information for officials. Tougher charges were proscribed for commercial criminal activities such as increasing prices, profiteering along with the "production and sale of fake and shoddy protective equipment and medicines." Prosecuting actions against patients who deliberately spread the infection or refuse examination or compulsory isolation along with threats of violence against medical personnel were also urged. The statement also included urging to prosecute those found fabricating and spreading coronavirus-related information and also stressed "harshly punishing the illegal hunting of wildlife under state protection, as well as improving inspection and quarantine measures for fresh food and meat products."[403]

Quarantine

On 23 January 2020, a quarantine on travel in and out of Wuhan was imposed in an effort to stop the spread of the virus out of Wuhan. Flights, trains, public buses, the metro system, and long-distance coaches were suspended indefinitely. Large-scale gatherings and group tours were also suspended.[393] By 24 January 2020, a total of 15 cities in Hubei, including Wuhan, were placed under similar quarantine measures.[404]

Before the quarantine began, some in Wuhan questioned the reliability of the figures from the Chinese government as well as the government response, with some calling for quarantine,[405] and a post also showed sick people and three dead bodies covered in white sheets on the floor of a hospital on 24 January, although many such posts in Weibo about the epidemic have since been deleted.[406][407] Due to quarantine measures, Wuhan residents rushed to stockpile essential goods, food, and fuel; prices rose significantly.[408][409] 5,000,000 people left Wuhan, with 9,000,000 left in the city.[410] The city of Shantou in Guangdong declared a partial lockdown on 26 January,[411] though this was reversed two hours later.[412] Local authorities in Beijing and several other major cities, including Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, announced on the same day that these cities will not impose a lockdown similar to those in Hubei province.[413]

By 6 February 2020, a total of four Zhejiang cities—Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Taizhou—were under the "passport" system, allowing only one person per household to leave their home every two days. These restrictions apply to over 30 million people.[414]

Speciality hospitals

Construction site of Huoshenshan Hospital as it appeared on 24 January.

A speciality hospital named Huoshenshan Hospital has been constructed as a countermeasure against the outbreak and to better quarantine the patients. Wuhan City government had demanded that a state-owned enterprise construct such a hospital "at the fastest speed" comparable to that of the SARS outbreak in 2003.[415] Upon opening, the speciality hospital had 1,000 beds[416] and took up 30,000 square metres. The hospital is modelled after the Xiaotangshan Hospital [zh], which was fabricated for the SARS outbreak of 2003, itself built in only seven days.[417][418]

On 24 January 2020, the authority announced that they would convert an empty building in Huangzhou District, Huanggang to a 1,000-bed hospital named Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Centre. Works began the next day by 500 personnel and the building began accepting patients on 28 January 2020 at 10:30 pm.[419] In Wuhan, authorities seized dormitories, offices and hospitals to create more beds for patients.[420] On 25 January authorities announced plans for Leishenshan Hospital, a second speciality hospital, with a capacity of 1,600 beds;[421] operations are scheduled to start by 6 February.[422][423] The hospital opened on 8 February.

By 16 February 2020, 217 teams of a total of 25,633 medical workers from across China went to Wuhan and other cities in Hubei to help open up more facilities and treat patients.[424] A total of 14 temporary hospitals were constructed in China in total, but all were reported to have closed after the crisis was determined be under control on 10 March 2020.[425]

Censorship and police responses

Document issued by the Wuhan Police ordering Li Wenliang to stop "spreading rumours" about a possible 'SARS virus' dated 3 January.

The early response by city authorities was criticised as prioritising a control of information that might be unfavorable for local officials over public safety, and China was also criticised for cover-ups and downplaying the initial discovery and severity of the outbreak. By the time China had informed the WHO of the new coronavirus on 31 December 2019, The New York Times reported that the government was still keeping "its own citizens in the dark".[426][427] Observers have attributed this to the censorship institutional structure of the country's press and Internet, exacerbated by China's paramount leader Xi Jinping's crackdown on independent oversight such as journalism and social media that left senior officials with inaccurate information on the outbreak and "contributed to a prolonged period of inaction that allowed the virus to spread".[426][427][428][429]

A group of eight medical personnel, including Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist from Wuhan Central Hospital who in late December posted warnings on a new coronavirus strain akin to SARS, were taken into custody by Wuhan police and threatened with prosecution for "spreading rumours" for likening it to SARS.[430][431] Li Wenliang later died of the disease on 7 February, and was widely hailed as a whistleblower in China, but some of the trending hashtags on Weibo such as "Wuhan government owes Dr Li Wenliang an apology" and "We want freedom of speech" were blocked.[432][433][434] His death widespread public anger in the aftermath, in what has been described as "one of the biggest outpourings of online criticism of the government in years," was not a topic that was permitted for coverage.[435]

On 20 January, Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping made his first public remark on the outbreak and spoke of "the need for the timely release of information".[436] One day later, the CPC Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission, the most powerful political organ in China overseeing legal enforcement and the police, wrote "self-deception will only make the epidemic worse and turn a natural disaster that was controllable into a man-made disaster at great cost," and "only openness can minimise panic to the greatest extent." The commission then added, "anyone who deliberately delays and hides the reporting of cases out of self-interest will be nailed on a pillar of shame for eternity."[437][438] Xi Jinping later also instructed authorities "to strengthen the guidance of public opinions", language which some viewed as a call for censorship after social media users became increasingly critical and angry at the government.[439] On 30 January, China's Supreme Court, delivered a rare rebuke against the country's police forces, calling the "unreasonably harsh crackdown on online rumours" as undermining public trust.[440]

As part of the central government's "bifurcated approach to diffuse discontent", citizens were permitted to criticise local officials so long as they did not "question the basic legitimacy of the party".[441] The Cyberspace Administration (CAC) declared its intent to foster a "good online atmosphere," with CAC notices sent to video platforms encouraging them to "not to push any negative story, and not to conduct non-official livestreaming on the virus."[442] Censorship has been observed being applied on news articles and social media posts deemed to hold negative tones about COVID-19 and the governmental response, including posts mocking Xi Jinping for not visiting areas of the epidemic,[443] an article that predicted negative effects of the epidemic on the economy, and calls to remove local government officials.[429][432][444][445] While censorship had been briefly relaxed giving a "window of about two weeks in which Chinese journalists were able to publish hard-hitting stories exposing the mishandling of the novel coronavirus by officials", since then private news outlets were reportedly required to use "planned and controlled publicity" with the authorities' consent.[432][446]

Approval of Chinese responses

On 29 January, President Trump received a briefing on the coronavirus in China.

China's response to the virus, in comparison to the 2003 SARS outbreak, has been praised by some foreign leaders[447] and analysts.[448] UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres stated on February that it was clear "there is a massive effort that is made by China in order to contain the disease and avoid its propagation" and added the effort was "remarkable".[449][450] U.S. President Trump thanked Chinese leader Xi Jinping "on behalf of the American People" on 24 January on Twitter, stating that "China has been working very hard to contain the Coronavirus. The United States greatly appreciates their efforts and transparency."[451] Germany's health minister Jens Spahn, in an interview on Bloomberg TV, said with comparison to the Chinese response to SARS in 2003: "There's a big difference to SARS. We have a much more transparent China. The action of China is much more effective in the first days already." He also praised the international co-operation and communication in dealing with the virus.[452][453] In a letter to Xi, Singaporean president Halimah Yacob applauded China's "swift, decisive and comprehensive measures" in safeguarding the health of the Chinese people, while prime minister Lee Hsien Loong remarked of "China's firm and decisive response" in communities affected by the virus.[454] Similar sentiments were expressed by Russian president Vladimir Putin.[455]

At a Sunday mass at St. Peter's Square in Vatican City on 26 January, Pope Francis praised "the great commitment by the Chinese community that has already been put in place to combat the epidemic" and commenced a closing prayer for "the people who are sick because of the virus that has spread through China".[456] Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates defended the nation's COVID-19 response amidst criticism from the Trump administration, saying "China did a lot of things right at the beginning"[457] and that "they got to zero" with "an effective lockdown".[458]

Papers from academic journals and publishers such as Science Magazine,[459] Nature,[460] The Lancet,[461][462] and Karger[463] have regarded China's measures to contain the coronavirus in its own country to be effective. A study in March published in Science Magazine concluded that the Wuhan travel ban and national emergency response there may have prevented more than 700,000 COVID-19 cases outside the city.[464][465]

India

The Indian government airlifted 324 of its citizens from China on 31 January and 1 February via Air India special chartered flights.[466] After Pakistan's refusal to evacuate its students from Wuhan, the Indian government offered to support them with evacuation along with citizens of other neighbouring countries.[467] On 17 February, India announced a special C-17 Globemaster flight carrying medical supplies to support China in Wuhan and evacuating citizens of India and neighbouring countries. India eventually evacuated 647 people including citizens of Maldives and Bangladesh.[468]

On 15 March, after a video conference of SAARC leaders, PM Narendra Modi allocated 74 crore (US$10 million) of funds classified as COVID-19 Emergency Fund for the SAARC countries.[469]

As a precautionary measure, India closed all of its international land borders on 16 March.[470][471] On 22 March, India locked down places where cases had been confirmed—82 districts in 22 states and Union Territories—until 31 March,[472] although essential services and commodities were to continue.[473][474] 80 cities including major cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur, Varanasi and Raipur were also put under lockdown.[475][476]

On 24 March, the government announced a nationwide lockdown to be in effect for 21 days from 25 March until 14 April.[477] This lockdown included Indian Railways, the biggest employer in India; it was the first shutdown of the trains in 167 years.[478]

Indonesia

Many Indonesians criticised the government for a slow response and downplaying the pandemic. WHO, Australian government, and United States embassy in Indonesia have expressed their doubts about the Indonesian government's response to the pandemic.[479]

The governor of West Sumatra province, Irwan Prayitno faced backlash for accepting 174 tourists from China to the province. 174 Chinese tourists from Kunming arrived at Minangkabau International Airport at Padang Pariaman Regency as Citilink adds Padang – Kunming route. Prayitno received further backlash after welcoming the group of tourists himself at the airport and giving them a "grand welcome" with a cultural parade. The move angered local residents who demanded the governor return the group to China.[480][481]

Health experts are concerned that the country is failing to identify the transmission of the virus.[482] Marc Lipsitch, professor of epidemiology at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, "analysed air traffic out of the Chinese city at the centre of the outbreak in China and suggested in a report ... that Indonesia might have missed cases" of coronavirus.[483][484][485] Western diplomats[486][487][488] as well as local[482][489] and international[490][491][492] news outlets postulated that the lack of cases within Indonesia result from inadequate testing and under reporting, as opposed to sheer luck and divine intervention.[493][494]

The government faced a backlash after instead pledging to set aside IDR 72 billion ($5m) to pay for social media influencers to attract tourists to Indonesia.[495]

Indonesian president Joko Widodo has been criticised by the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry,[496] human rights groups,[497] and by political parties including Golkar and Partai Keadilan Sejahtera[498][499] for a lack of transparency regarding the information on COVID-19. Widodo has insisted not to share with the travel history details of patients tested positive with coronavirus in an attempt to reduce panic and uneasiness in the general public.[500]

Iran

Disinfection of Tehran subway wagons against coronavirus

Iran reported its first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections on 19 February 2020 in Qom, where according to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, both had died later that day.[501][502]

Early measures announced by the government included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events,[503] sporting events,[504] and Friday prayers,[505] closure of universities, higher education institutions and schools,[506] and allocated 5 trillion rials to combat the virus.[507] President Hassan Rouhani said on 26 February 2020 that there were no plans to quarantine areas affected by the outbreak, and only individuals would be quarantined.[508] However, Shia shrines in Qom remained open to pilgrims.[509]

Iran became a center of the spread of the virus after China.[510][511] Amidst claims of a cover-up of the extent of the outbreak in the country,[512] over ten countries have traced their cases back to Iran, indicating that the extent of the outbreak may be more severe than that admitted by the Iranian government.[511][513] The Iranian Parliament was shut down, with 23 of the 290 members of parliament reported to have had tested positive for the virus on 3 March.[514] A number of senior government officials as well as two members of parliament have died from the disease.[515]

Criticism against Iranian government's responses

Deputy Health Minister Iraj Harirchi (left) at a press conference after which he tested positive for the virus.

Iranians criticized government authorities for proceeding with elections while the disease was spreading and closing secular spaces while keeping shrines open, especially in the Shia holy city of Qom.[516] Asif Shuja of the National University of Singapore's Middle East Institute suggested that "the fact that Iran reported deaths on the same day as its first infections right before its parliamentary elections 'can compel anyone' that there has been a cover-up".[517] Scrutiny has also been targeted at the government's unwillingness to implement area-wide quarantine measures like those implemented by China and Italy, with Iranian officials calling quarantines "old-fashioned."[518] There have been concerns that the Iranian government's official counts were an underestimate.[519] The WHO's director-general, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, said that "the WHO has its "own mechanism" for checking facts and has not seen problems with Iran's reported figures".[517]

Japan

On 27 February 2020, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe requested that all Japanese elementary, junior high, and high schools close until early April to help contain the virus.[520]

The outbreak has been a concern for the 2020 Summer Olympics which is scheduled to take place in Tokyo starting at the end of July.[521] The Japanese government has thus been taking extra precautions to help minimise the outbreak's impact.[522] The Japanese government and the International Olympic Committee have negotiated postponement of Summer Olympics until 2021.[523]

Criticism against Japanese government's responses

Foreign Policy and the Guardian reported that the diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened, as South Korea criticized Japan's "ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts". On 5 March, Japan announced that it would strengthen quarantine for new entrants from China and South Korea and add some areas of Iran to the target area. The Chinese authorities showed their understanding of the decision, but the Japanese media and South Korean government criticized it. The Japanese media said that the decision was too late because they were too careful with China, and the Korean government turned it into a political issue. [524][525][526][527][528]

Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has been criticized for a perceived delayed response. Critics have observed that while Japan announced the first case of infection on 28 January, it took until 17 February for the Health Ministry to inform the public on how to reach public screening centers and 25 February, for the government to issue a "basic policy" on outbreak response.

The strict constraints on testing for the virus by Japanese health authorities have drawn accusations from critics such as Masahiro Kami, a hematologist and director of the Medical Governance Research Institute but not an infectious disease expert, towards Abe of wanting to "downplay the number of infections or patients because of the upcoming Olympics."

But the fact-checking in some media later reported to proved that it was fake news that 'the number of infected people was being reduced for the Olympics by the government.'[529][530] Reports that only a small select number of public health facilities were authorized to test for the virus, after which the results could only be processed by five government-approved companies, has created a bottleneck where clinics have been forced to turn away even patients who had high fevers. This has led some experts to question Japan's official case numbers, with Tobias Harris, of Teneo Intelligence in Washington, D.C. stating "You wonder, if they were testing nearly as much as South Korea is testing, what would the actual number be? How many cases are lurking and just aren't being caught?"[531][532] As mentioned above, there were many articles criticizing the small number of PCR tests in Japan compared to South Korea, mainly in the Japanese and Korean media.[533][534] However, the number of PCR tests in Japan at that time was actually not small at all. According to data released by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare the Japanese authorities conducted PCR tests of 10,205 as of 13 and 15 March 655 as of 17 March, except for those returning from China by charter flight and passengers on the cruise ship. The number of tests in Japan appears to be small compared to 320,000 in China, 250,000 in South Korea, 86,000 in Italy, and 77,000 in Russia. However, only 30,000 in the UK, 16,000 in Taiwan, and the United States had a higher number of tests than Japan except for that four countries. In terms of population ratio, the ranking was lower, but the number of tests in Japan was still at the average level.[535][536][537]

The quarantine measures on the cruise ship Diamond Princess has also been criticised, even though there is no obligation under the international law to accept port calls for Japan and except for Japanese nationals on board, there is no obligation in Japan to treat all passengers, and the treatment is a good faith act, and the quarantine was the exercise of provisions in accordance with international and domestic laws.[538] But Kentaro Iwata, an infectious disease professor at Kobe University Hospital, said that "the condition aboard was completely chaotic" and "violating all infection control principles". Dr. Yoshihiro Takayama, a member of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare who helped Iwata board the ship, said that Iwata had fight with DMAT members about his separate action and was forced to disembark in two hours, so he just looked around the lounge.[539][540] A preliminary report by Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) estimated that most of the transmission on the ship had occurred before the quarantine, based on the first 184 cases.[541][542] On 22 February, the Health Ministry admitted that 23 passengers were disembarked without being properly tested for the virus. On 23 February, a Japanese woman who tested negative before disembarking from the cruise ship later tested positive after returning to her home in Tochigi Prefecture. She was not among the 23 passengers. Many passengers who were negative in the PCR test were tested positive after disembarking.[543][544][545][546]

Philippines

The first COVID-19 death outside China occurred in the Philippines on 1 February.[547]

On 9 March 2020, President Rodrigo Duterte suspended classes in all levels in Metro Manila from 10 to 15 March.[548] The class suspension in Metro Manila was extended to 12 April, following the decision of concerned authorities to raise the COVID-19 alert level in the country to Code Red Sublevel 2. Work in the executive branch of the government was also suspended for the same period as part of the Stringent Social Distancing Measures in the National Capital Region (NCR),[549] with the directive for the concerned government agencies to form skeletal forces to ensure the delivery of basic services. Congress and the Judiciary were encouraged to do the same. Agencies providing law enforcement services, health services, and emergency services were enjoined to continue to operate at full capacity.

Other salient directives, contained in a resolution adopted by the Inter-Agency Task Force on Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF-EID) and announced by the Philippine President on 12 March, at the Heroes Hall in Malacañang Palace,[550] included, the prohibition of mass gatherings that could strain the resources of the host community, imposition of community quarantine over Metro Manila, and encouragement of flexible work arrangements for the private sector among others.

A memorandum containing the guidelines for stringent social distancing measures and the management of COVID-19 in the National Capital Region[551] was issued by Executive Secretary Salvador Medialdea by order of the president on 13 March. Among the directives embodied in the memorandum were suspension of classes and all school activities until 14 April, prohibition of mass gatherings, imposition of strict social distancing during essential meetings and religious activities, and provisions for alternative and/or flexible work arrangements.

On 16 March, the president signed Proclamation No. 929[552] declaring a state of calamity throughout the country for a period of six months, bringing into effect the price control of basic needs and commodities, granting of interest-free loans, distribution of calamity funds and hazard allowance for public health workers and government personnel in the fields of science and technology.[553]

President Duterte also placed the island of Luzon (including its associated islands) under enhanced community quarantine on 16 March[554] that further restricted the movement of people through the suspension of mass public transport and the closure of non-essential establishments. Business Process Outsourcing and export-oriented businesses were allowed to continue operation subject to certain conditions. Relevant government agencies were ordered to provide social amelioration measures.[555] Following the sharp increase of confirmed cases, President Duterte called Congress to a special session to "authorize the President to exercise powers necessary to carry out urgent measures to meet the current national emergency related to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)."[556]

South Korea

The first confirmed case of the coronavirus was identified with a 35-year-old Chinese woman on 20 January. The first South Korean national to be infected occurred three days later was a 55-year-old man who worked in Wuhan and returned for a checkup with flu symptoms. The two infection reports were publicly released on 24 January. The sixth patient was the first case in South Korea who had never visited Wuhan. The 56-year-old man caught the virus when visiting a restaurant with the third patient.[citation needed]

Coronavirus infection prevention tips banner in Seoul, South Korea

A woman, who had returned from Thailand after a five-day vacation, was tested positive and confirmed as the sixteenth case on 4 February.[557] Three more cases were confirmed on 5 February, bringing the total case count to 19. The seventeenth and nineteenth patients had attended a conference in Singapore and been in contact with an infected person there.[558] The very same day the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Korea (KCDC) announced that the second patient had been released from hospital after being tested negative in consecutive tests, becoming the country's first coronavirus patient to fully recover.[559]

On 19 February, the number of confirmed cases increased by 20. On 20 February 70 new cases were confirmed,[560] giving a total of 104 confirmed cases, according to the KCDC. According to Reuters, KCDC attributed the sudden jump to 70 cases linked to "Patient No. 31", who had participated in a gathering in Daegu at the Shincheonji Church of Jesus the Temple of the Tabernacle of the Testimony.[560]

On 20 February, the streets of Daegu were empty in reaction to the Shincheonji outbreak. A resident described the reaction, stating "It's like someone dropped a bomb in the middle of the city. It looks like a zombie apocalypse."[560] The first death was reported[561] in a mental ward of Cheongdo Daenam Hospital in Cheongdo County. According to the mayor of Daegu, the number of suspected cases as of 21 February was 544 among 4,400 examined followers of the church.[562] The hospital was suspected as the source of the present outbreak after it was visited by a woman who became the second fatal case of Korea on that day. The infection spread outside via a funeral ceremony attended by members of the church.[563][564]

All South Korean military bases were on lockdown after tests confirmed that three soldiers were indeed positive for the virus.[563] Airlines cut connections and cultural schedules were being cancelled due to fears of further spread.[565][566] United States Forces Korea raised the alert level from low to moderate and cut off non-essential travel to and from USFK Daegu.[567] USFK Daegu's school facilities were closed and non-essential personnel were ordered to stay at home while any visitors going there were not allowed to enter.[567] USFK announced that the widow of a retired soldier who was in Daegu was diagnosed to be positive for the virus on 24 February.[568] Camp Humphreys enacted virus detection protocols, including temperature checks and raised the alert level to high.[569] On 26 February, an American soldier based at Camp Carroll was diagnosed to be positive and was quarantined away from bases via off-base housing unit[570] with contact tracing done that showed his movements to Camp Walker.[571]

The near-empty arrival hall of Seoul–Incheon International Airport in South Korea on 6 March

As of 22 February, among 9,336 followers of the church, 1,261 reported symptoms.[572] At the time, 169 confirmed cases involved the church and another 111 came from the Cheongdo Daenam Hospital.[573] 23 February saw another 123 cases with 75 being from Shincheonji[574] and 24 February saw 161 additional cases with 129 being from the religious group. Over 27,000 people have been tested for the virus with 19,127 negative results.[575]

On 24 February, 15 countries imposed travel restrictions to and from South Korea.[576] It was also reported that a senior health official overseeing the COVID-19 efforts in Daegu tested positive and was also a member of Shincheonji.[577][578] Within a few days, a petition to the nation's president urging for the disbandment of the church had over 750,000 signatures. Their headquarters in Gwacheon was raided by law enforcement; government officials said all 245,000 members of the religious group would be found and tested.[578] On 28 February, over 2,000 confirmed cases were reported,[579] rising to 3,150 on 29 February.[580]

On 8 March, KCDC in South Korea announced that 79.4% of confirmed COVID-19 cases were related to group infection. KCDC also announced that outbreak associated with Shincheonji Church totaled 4,482 infections, accounting for 62.8% of the total confirmed cases.[581][582] 13 March was the first time since the outbreak on 20 January in which the number of recoveries, 177, was larger than the number of those who newly tested positive, 110.[583][584][585]

As infection rates have risen outside Korea leading to increases of sick arriving in the country (476 of 9,661 cases were imported as of 30 March), the KCDC implemented stronger infectious disease control measures for travelers coming from overseas as of 1 April.[586] By 9 April 2020, South Korea had about 10,423 cases and 204 deaths,[587] with over 494,711 people having been tested, a case fatality rate of 1.95%, which is lower than the WHO's global case fatality rate of 4.34%.[588]

Seeing the infodemic on COVID-19 information starting in China and spreading to Korea and the US, fake news researcher Cha Meeyoung of KAIST and the Institute for Basic Science, along with researchers from Ewha Womans University, started the multilingual Facts Before Rumors campaign to separate common claims seen online.[589][590][591][592]

By 17 April, the KCDC stated that it knew of 163 patients who were said to have recovered, but again tested positive. The exact cause was not known but they stated several possibilities.[593] After several days with new infections numbering in the single digits (18, 20, 22 April), the government announced it was going to start lifting restrictions starting with stores, restaurants, gyms, cram schools, bars, and religious services; which is notable as most of the nation's infections came from places of worship. In coming weeks, arboretums, forests and national parks will begin to open with social distancing still in place until at least early May. After seeing Korea successfully lower cases of infection, President Moon Jae-in has engaged in "coronavirus diplomacy" with leaders of other nations, part of which involved exporting test kits to more than 20 countries.[594] On 26 April, confirmed patient number 31 in Daegu was discharged after 67 days.[595]

Criticism against South Korean government's responses

The Ministry of Health and Welfare has been criticized for unilaterally implementing telephone consultation and prescription without discussing with the Korea Medical Association, and for not restricting traffic from China despite several warnings from the association and a petition proposed by the society.

On 22 February, the South Korean government apologized for calling the virus "Daegu Corona 19" in an official report. The term has been widespread on social media and raises concerns about discrimination.

More than 1.5 million South Koreans have signed a petition to impeach President Moon Jae-in over what they claim is the government's mishandling of the outbreak.[596] On 6 March, the South Korean government has only entry restricted to Japanese citizens out of 102 countries that blocked Korea. The action has been widespread on social media and raises concerns about anti-Japanese discrimination.[597][598]

Turkey

On 10 January 2020, ignoring China's insistence on the lack of evidence for human-to-human transmission, Ministry of Health experts stated that they suspected that SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted among people, and accordingly set up the Coronavirus Scientific Advisory Board.[599] 26 experts in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology originally comprised the Coronavirus Advisory Board,[600] which was subsequently enlarged to include five additional experts in intensive care medicine, internal medicine, and virology.[599] The board put forward voluntary recommendations while the government issued legal restrictions for businesses and public gatherings.[600][601]

In the early hours of 11 March 2020 (UTC+03:00), the Minister of Health Fahrettin Koca announced that a Turkish man who had contracted the virus while travelling in Europe was the country's first confirmed coronavirus case.[602] The patient had been placed in isolation at an undisclosed hospital, and family members of the patient were put under observation.[602]

On 12 March 2020, the Ministry of National Education announced that with the exception of schools catering to students with special needs, all schools[603] in Turkey would close starting on 16 March 2020.[604] Given the intense learning needs of students with disabilities, the Ministry of National Education announced that elementary-, middle- and high-school students with special needs will continue to have in-person attendance in fixed small groups, with adults rotating into the class, so as to facilitate contact tracing.[605] The Ministry of National Education subsequently announced that teachers and staff in schools for students with special needs are able to opt out of in-person teaching if they or their families have a health risk.[605]

On 17 March, Minister Selçuk stated that a subset of teachers are focusing on content generation for the national online platform on TRT EBA TV, which became functional on 23 March 2020,[606] with the rest of the teachers matched to students to provide individual assessment, coaching, and tutoring from 23 March to 31 May 2020.[607][608][609]

After the Ministry of National Education announced the closure of all schools[603] (except those catering to students with special needs) on 12 March 2020, the government acknowledged the impact of the closure of schools on the welfare of children. Noting that children with preexisting mental-health issues[610] or who live in non-supportive home environments are likely to suffer[610] from being out of school, the government announced emergency measures, including fund increases for foster children, expansion of the nutrition assistance program, direct payments to families, and a national moratorium on evictions.[610] To alleviate the social isolation of students, Minister Selçuk piloted a project on 27 March, where the Ministry of National Education started paying schools to offer small group activities for students on Mondays and Fridays, with deep cleaning sessions in between.[611]

On 21 March, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure a total curfew for those who are over the age 65 or chronically ill.[612] On 27 March, the Ministry of the Interior issued a new statement regarding gatherings during weekends, announcing that starting from 28 to 29 March, having picnics, fishing at the shores, doing physical exercise outside (including running and walking on the weekends in city and town centers) would be banned until the virus spread has been contained. It was also stated that, should they deem it necessary, local authorities may extend these new measures to weekdays.[613] Also on 27 March, President Erdoğan announced that all overseas flights were terminated, adding that intercity travel was subject to permission by the state governors, and that places such as picnic areas, forests and historical sites would be closed on the weekend.[614] On 3 April 2020, President Erdoğan announced a 15-day entry ban to 30 metropolitan municipalities as well as Zonguldak. Also, the curfew was extended to people younger than 20 years old. Using masks in public places became mandatory.[615]

Criticism against Turkish government's responses

The announced ₺100 billion economic measures package, set to be provided by the government, was criticized by institutions and individuals, including economists and politicians. The lack of a detailed action plan was the center of criticism. Additionally, at a time when people were encouraged to stay at home, the government was criticized for allowing airline passenger transport and tax reductions that support tourism. Critics asked for lowering the down payment of housing loans and emphasized on the need to provide employment support to different sectors.[616][617]

The donation campaign initiated by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was supported by representatives of the ruling party, members of the oppositions had a less favorable reaction to it.[618][619] After the government's decision to take money from the income of several institutions in order to make donations to this campaign, the Confederation of Public Employees' Unions filed a criminal complaint as a result of the salary cuts of the staff of many institutions such as MEB, BOTAŞ, General Directorate of Forestry, Ministry of Justice, Constitutional Court and Social Service Provincial Directorates.[620] Additionally, a similar donation campaign initiated by the metropolitan municipalities with CHP administration was terminated by the Ministry of the Interior and their bank accounts were blocked. Regarding this decision, the Ankara Bar Association issued a statement, saying: "Although the aforementioned circular and blocking process enforced by the Ministry of the Interior are clearly unlawful, the provision of social services belongs neither exclusively to the local governments nor to the central government."[621]

Other countries and territories

Europe

France

Empty streets in Paris, 2020

Although it was originally thought the pandemic reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux, it was later discovered that a person near Paris had tested positive for the virus on 27 December 2019 after retesting old samples.[622][623] A key event in the spread of the disease in the country was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse, which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.[624][625]

On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of all non-essential public places,[626] and on 16 March, French President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement, a policy which was extended at least until 11 May.[627][628][629] As of 14 September, France has reported more than 402,000 confirmed cases, 30,000 deaths, and 90,000 recoveries,[630] ranking fourth in number of confirmed cases.[631] In April, there were riots in some Paris suburbs.[632] On 18 May, it was reported that schools in France had to close again after reopening, due to COVID-19 case flare-ups.[633]

On 12 November, it was reported that France had become the worst-hit country by the COVID-19 pandemic, in all of Europe, in the process surpassing Russia. The new total of confirmed cases was more than 1.8 million and counting; additionally it was indicated by the French government that the current national lockdown would remain in place.[634]

Germany

At the end of January 2020, the first cases occurred in Bavaria in direct connection with the outbreak in Wuhan, China. After initial stagnation, several other cases were reported in different locations. During carnival in February, Heinsberg in Northrhine Westfalia was most affected, and case numbers steadily increased. By the second week of March, all federal states were affected and the first fatality was reported.[635] As of 28 March 2020 the incidence was highest in the city state of Hamburg, followed by Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria.[636] The Robert Koch Institute recommended an initial strategy of containment, until more cases would occur than could be traced back to a known case. The next phase of the epidemic, namely community transmission, was assumed to have begun first in Heinsberg, where a strategy of protection of vulnerable groups was adopted.[635]

Greece

On 26 February, the first case in Greece was confirmed, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy.[637] Within the next days, health and state authorities issued precautionary guidelines and recommendations, while measures up to that point were taken locally and included the closure of schools and the suspension of cultural events in the affected areas (particularly Ilia, Achaea and Zakynthos).[638] Various municipalities around the country began disinfecting schools.[639] The Greek National Public Health Organization (NPHO), in collaboration with local authorities and doctors, is tracking and testing everyone who came in close contact with the confirmed carriers.[640][641]

By 10 March, with 89 confirmed cases and no deaths in the country,[642] the government decided to suspend the operation of all schools, universities, daycare centers and all other educational establishments nationwide and then, on 13 March, to close down all cafes, bars, museums, shopping centres, sports facilities and restaurants in the country.[643][644] On 16 March, all retail shops were also closed and all services in all areas of religious worship of any religion or dogma were suspended. Supermarkets, pharmacies, food outlets that offer take-away and delivery only, as well as some other businesses, remained open.[645][646] On 18 and 19 March, the government announced a series of economic measures of more than 10 billion euros to support the economy, businesses and employees.[647]

On 22 March, the Greek authorities announced significant restrictions on all nonessential transport and movement across the country, starting from 6 a.m. on 23 March. Movement outside the house is permitted only for specific reasons that include moving to or from the workplace, shopping for food or medicine, going to the bank, visiting a doctor or assisting a person in need of help and walking a pet or exercising outside individually or in pairs. Citizens leaving their home are required to carry their police ID or passport, as well as some type of attestation depending on the purpose of travel.[648] All passenger flights to and from Italy, Spain, Albania, North Macedonia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany are suspended until 15 May,[649][650] and land borders with Albania, North Macedonia and Turkey are closed, with exemptions for cargo and sanitary transports, among others.[651][652]

The measures put in place in Greece are some of the most proactive and strict in Europe and have been hailed internationally for slowing the spread of the disease and keeping the number of deaths among the lowest in Europe.[653][654][655][656][657]

Italy

Civil Protection volunteers carrying out health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna

The outbreak was confirmed to have spread to Italy on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.[658] In response, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a state of emergency, with Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte stating that Italy is the first EU country to take this precautionary measure.[659] On 31 January, the Italian Council of Ministers appointed Angelo Borrelli, head of the Civil Protection, as Special Commissioner for the COVID-19 Emergency.[660][661] An unassociated cluster of COVID-19 cases was later further detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy on 21 February,[662] an additional 60 cases on 22 February, and Italy's first deaths reported on the same day.[citation needed]

The Ministry of Health announced new guidelines for reporting cases on 27 February in response to the previous blanket testing that caused case numbers to surge and inflamed public panic.[663] It would no longer report asymptomatic cases (swabs taken from patients which tested positive but were not showing symptoms) which counted as 40 to 50% of all reported cases at the time. These people would undergo isolation at home and would be followed up with new tests until they were negative.[664][665]

On 22 February, the Italian Council of Ministers announced a new decree law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people from 11 different municipalities in northern Italy.[666] Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said "In the outbreak areas, entry and exit will not be provided. Suspension of work activities and sport events has already been ordered in those areas."[667][668] Punishments for violating of the lockdown range from a fine of 206 euros to 3 months imprisonment.[669] Italian military and law enforcement agencies were instructed to secure and implement the lockdown.[670]

On 3 March, Chinese authorities reported that on March first and second, eight virus victims who had returned to the county of Qingtian, in East China's Zhejiang province, were suffering from the virus. All eight appear to have acquired COVID-19 in the northern town of Bergamo, a virus-ravaged municipality, where they had worked at a restaurant, Qingtian officials said. Chinese authorities called these "backflow cases" — virus carriers who contract the disease outside China, then bring it back to their homeland.[671]

On 4 March, the Italian government ordered the full closure of all schools and universities nationwide as Italy reached 100 deaths. Additionally, all major sporting events, including Serie A football matches, would be held behind closed doors until April.[672] On 9 March, all sport was suspended completely for at least one month.[673]

On 21 February, at least ten towns in the Lombardy and Veneto regions of Italy, with a total population of 50,000, were locked down in quarantine procedure following an outbreak in Codogno in Lombardy. Police mandated a curfew closing all public buildings and controlling access through police checkpoints to the so-called 'red zone' which is enforced by penalties for violations ranging from a €206 fine to three months of imprisonment against trespassers who are not health or supply workers.[669] The government of Giuseppe Conte said that sending in the armed forces to enforce the lockdown was a possibility.[670] The governor of Basilicata, Vito Bardi, instituted a mandatory 14-day quarantine for people arriving from areas in northern Italy affected by the outbreak on 24 February.[674] On the same day, 500 extra police officers were assigned to patrol the quarantined areas in Lodi and Veneto.[674]

On the morning of 8 March 2020, Conte said that much of Italy's northern territories, including Milan and Venice, would be quarantined within their region.[675] Conte said the country was locking down all of the populous Lombardy region, with movement restrictions applying to about 16 million people.[676] This will be the most aggressive response taken in any region beyond China, and will paralyse the wealthiest parts of the country as Italy attempts to constrain the rapid spread of the disease.[676] On 8 March 2020, there have been 7,375 confirmed cases, and 366 deaths in Italy.[677]

On the evening of 9 March 2020, the quarantine was expanded to all of Italy.[678]

Criticism against Italian government's responses

Italy's government has drawn criticism from scientists and WHO, for its decision to suspend direct flights to mainland China that while sounding "tough" on paper, was ineffective as "people can still arrive from risk areas via indirect routes." Walter Ricciardi, professor of Hygiene and Public Health at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome and a member of the European Advisory Committee on Health Research has said "Italy was wrong, closing flights from China is of no use when there are indirect ones."

Italy's government has also been criticised for not testing or enforcing lockdowns sufficiently in some regions,[679] sending mixed messages,[680] and downplaying the severity of the situation.[681] Criticism followed disclosures by Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte that protocols had not been followed at the hospital in Codogno, Lombardy that treated "patient 1" which "certainly contributed to the spread" of the virus in Italy, with Conte responding to inquiries by journalists on what protocol was broken with "This is not the time for controversy." In response to a statement by Conte that the central government may need to "revoke regional health policy powers," President of Lombardy Attilio Fontana called Conte's statement "fascist" and "talking nonsense."[citation needed]

On 8 March, plans by the government to quarantine 16 million people in Northern Italy were leaked early by a national newspaper, causing thousands of people to flee the region before it took place. Conte condemned the leak, calling it "unacceptable".[682]

Spain

On 31 January 2020, the first case was confirmed when a tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Spain.[683] On 14 March, due to the increased number of cases, Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez declared a state of alarm, placing all citizens in quarantine except for those working in healthcare or other vital activities, closing all non-critical businesses, and only allowing citizens to go outside for activities such as grocery shopping or walking a pet.[684]

Criticism against Spanish government's responses

Spanish government has received criticism for its perceived slow response to the pandemic, as it did not prevent any concentrations until 11 March when there already were 1,646 infected.[685][686] The large march in Madrid for International Women's Day (8 March), which was attended by around 120,000 people received special criticism, as this event was promoted and attended by members of the government such as Irene Montero who was later confirmed to be infected.[687]

United Kingdom

The nature of devolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of the four countries of the UK had its own response to COVID-19 with different rules and restrictions at different times and many of the UK government actions only applying to England.[688]

On 24 March 2020, the United Kingdom brought in "some of the most far-reaching curbs on personal freedom ever introduced" in peacetime, including a three-week lockdown of the country. This included a ban on public gatherings of more than two people (excluding those one lives with) and the closing down of all non-essential businesses.[689]

Scotland

The first case of COVID-19 in Scotland was confirmed on 1 March[690] with the first death of someone with COVID-19 occurring 12 days later.[691] The following week, on 20 March, the Scottish government instructed a number of businesses to close, including pubs, cafes, cinemas and bingo halls.[692] On 21 May, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon outlined a four-phase "route map" for easing lockdown restrictions in Scotland to take effect from 28 May subject to the number of new cases of COVID-19 continuing to fall.[693]

Other countries and territories

North America

Costa Rica

Since the start of the pandemic, the Ministry of Health, together with the Government, were in charge of informing the general population through a daily press conference. By 6 March, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 is registered after several results obtained by INCIENSA (Costa Rican Institute of Research and Teaching in Nutrition and Health). The 49-year-old American woman was isolated, along with her husband in a San José lodging. There were 2 previous suspected cases under investigation. The positive patient arrived with her husband on Sunday, 1 March without symptoms, at the Juan Santamaría airport, they visited Alajuela and Puntarenas, so investigations were carried out from these areas to follow up on contacts, as well as 152 people traveling on the flight that brought them to the country.[694]

On 9 March, due to the nine confirmed cases of COVID-19, the Ministry of Health in coordination with the National Emergency Commission (CNE) reported that from 10 March, events and concentration activities are canceled massive, both free and paid, while teleworking for public institutions is instructed through the Presidential Directive.[695]

The President Carlos Alvarado and the Minister of Health, Daniel Salas announced, on 12 March, preventive closings to educational centers at risk, the reduction in 50% of the approved capacity of public meeting spaces and suspension of trips abroad for public employees. A telephone line is created for inquiries about COVID-19.[696]

On 15 March, the Ministry of Health made the decision to instruct a total lockdown placing all citizens in quarantine except for those working in healthcare and delivery restaurant and food services. The closure of bars, clubs and casinos and the amusement park was informed. By this date 35 confirmed cases of COVID-19 are registered in the nation.[697]

On 16 March, The Government declares a state of National Emergency, prevents the arrival of foreigners and lessons are suspended in all schools. Costa Ricans and residents who entered the country will have to carry out mandatory preventive isolation for 14 days. 41 cases are confirmed.[698]

The first death of a patient confirmed by COVID-19 is recorded by 18 March. This is an 87-year-old man who was hospitalized in intensive care at the Alajuela Hospital.[699]

By 31 March, were registered 8 in intensive care and 347 people were infected. 4 people recovered.

United States

On 28 January 2020, the federal government publicly released its approach to COVID-19 testing.[700] Despite this, the U.S. testing effort was slow, obscuring the extent of the outbreak.[701][702] Many of the 160,000 test kits produced in February were found to be defective and were not used.[701] Academic laboratories, hospitals and private companies were not allowed to use their own tests until 29 February, when the FDA started issuing approvals for them.[701] Initially, there were eligibility restrictions for receiving a COVID-19 test (based on recent international travel, hospitalization for respiratory illness, or contact with another person already diagnosed with COVID-19). By 27 February, fewer than 4,000 tests had been conducted in the United States.[701] On March 5, the CDC relaxed its restrictions, allowing doctors to decide whom to test;[702] a week later, nearly 14,000 tests had been performed.[703] Federal funding was used to run 41 "community-based testing sites" (CBTS), but the federal government said it would stop this funding on 10 April; as a result of that decision, some of these testing sites were expected to close, shifting demand to hospitals. Those that remain open will likely be funded by states.[704]

On 31 January 2020, President Donald Trump issued a proclamation limiting entry into the United States, as immigrants or nonimmigrants, of all aliens who were physically present within the People's Republic of China, excluding the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, during the 14-day period preceding their entry or attempted entry into the United States.[705]

The first six confirmed deaths in the United States were reported in late February 2020 in the Pacific Northwest state of Washington. By 8 March 2020, there were 22 U.S. deaths and over 500 reported cases.[706] A month later, on 8 April, there were 14,000 U.S. deaths and over 430,000 reported cases.[707]

The U.S. federal government's health inspectors surveyed 323 hospitals in late March, reporting "severe shortages" of test supplies, "widespread shortages" of PPE, and other strained resources due to extended patient stays while awaiting test results.[708][709]

Other countries and territories

Oceania

Fiji

At the beginning of February, the Government of Fiji announced a travel ban to China.[710] As the disease started spreading to other countries, Fiji extended the travel ban to Italy, Iran and South Korea.[711]

However, on 19 March, Fiji confirmed its first case of COVID-19 in Lautoka.[712] As a precautionary measure, the Government of Fiji announced the lockdown of the city until 7 April 2020[713] and the travel ban was further extended to the United States and the whole of Europe including the United Kingdom.[714] On 26 March, the country closed its main international airport in Nadi and all local shipping services was ceased.[715] Later on 2 April, the Government announced a lockdown of Suva, after confirmed cases in the capital.[716]

As the cases rose, Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama announced a nationwide curfew from 8pm to 5am and social gatherings was banned. Schools and non-essential services was closed and the public was advised to stay at home and practice good hygiene.[717]

New Zealand

On 28 January, the Ministry of Health set up the National Health Coordination Centre (NHCC) in response to the outbreak. On 3 February, the New Zealand Government announced that foreign travellers who left from China would be denied entry to New Zealand, with only New Zealand citizens and permanent residents and their family being allowed to enter.

New Zealand confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 28 February, a New Zealand citizen in his 60s who had recently visited Iran. The travel ban was extended to include Iran on the same day.

17 March: Health Minister David Clark announced that the Government would deport foreign tourists who flout self-quarantine restrictions. Immigration New Zealand placed two foreign tourists into forced quarantine for defying Government requirements to self-quarantine for two weeks. Finance Minister Grant Robertson announced a NZ$12.1 billion COVID-19 business package. Logan Park High School in Dunedin closed for 48 hours after one of its students tested positive for the coronavirus.

18 March: The Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association announced that all Anzac Day services, scheduled for 25 April, would be cancelled.

19 March: The government required the cancellation of mass indoor events with more than 100 people. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced the closure of New Zealand's borders to all but New Zealand citizens and residents, with effect after 11:59 pm on Thursday night.

21 March: Local councils in New Zealand's main centres announced the closures of public facilities including swimming pools, libraries, recreation centres, community centres, art galleries, and museums.

23 March: Prime Minister Ardern raised the COVID-19 alert level from two to three and announced the closure of all schools beginning on that day. The Government also announced that they would raise the national alert level to four at 11:59pm on 25 March, which would lead to a nationwide lockdown, for a period of four weeks. While all sporting matches and events as well as non-essential services such as pools, bars, cafes, restaurants, playgrounds are required to close in 48 hours, essential services such as supermarkets, petrol stations, and health services will remain open.[718]

8 June: New Zealand lifts all domestic restrictions from COVID-19 after reporting no new cases for over two weeks. However, entry to New Zealand remained restricted.[719]

16 June: The country gets new cases of COVID after two women returned to New Zealand from the UK after they were given an exemption to travel. In response, David Clark suspended compassionate exemptions.[720]

Other countries and territories

South America

Brazil

Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro has been criticized due to "lax handling" of the outbreak and after calling it a "fantasy".[721] His lack of action has also prompted many protests across the country since 18 March 2020.[722][723] Days before, on 15 March, Bolsonaro received harsh criticism after attending a pro-government demonstration in Brasília on which he had physical contact with more than two hundred people, against the recommendations of his own Minister of Health.[724][725] Following the event, the president of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies, Rodrigo Maia, said that Bolsonaro's acts were an "attack on public health", going against his own government guidelines, while Davi Alcolumbre, president of the Brazilian Senate, classified Bolsonaro's behaviour as "inconsequential".[726] The Brazilian Ministry of Health has also been criticized for not providing enough test kits, which may muddle the efforts to contain the outbreak in the country.[727][728]

Other countries and territories

Debate

The response to the pandemic has resulted in unprecedented expansion of government power. Advocates of small government worry that the state will be reluctant to give up that power once the crisis is over, as has often been the case historically.[729]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  2. ^ "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  3. ^ Gutiérrez, Pablo. "Coronavirus map: how Covid-19 is spreading across the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  4. ^ "Albania extends lockdown till end of coronavirus outbreak". National Post. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Albania: COVID-19 lockdown measures eased from June 1 /update 12". National Post. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  6. ^ "Algeria: Government implements lockdown and curfew in Blida and Algiers March 23 /update 7". garda.com. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  7. ^ "Algeria: Authorities extend movement restrictions until May 14 /update 14". GardaWorld. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Argentina Orders 'Exceptional' Lockdown in Bid to Contain Virus". Bloomberg.com. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  9. ^ "AMBA moves from 'isolation' to 'distancing'; Fernández talks up vaccine hopes". Buenos Aires Times (Perfil). 6 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Argentina extends mandatory lockdown in Buenos Aires and metropolitan area". MercoPress. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  11. ^ "Armenia Extends Coronavirus Lockdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  12. ^ Mejlumyan, Ani (4 May 2020). "Armenia ends lockdown even as COVID cases spiking". Eurasianet. china. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  13. ^ "Melbourne lockdown extended by two weeks". BBC News. 6 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  14. ^ a b c "Regional Victoria stage 3 Covid-19 restrictions and lockdown rules explained". The Guardian. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  15. ^ "Melbourne's coronavirus restrictions ease as Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews announces end to lockdown". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Victoria to enter five-day 'circuit breaker' lockdown from tonight". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Victoria to enter five-day 'circuit breaker' lockdown from tonight". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  18. ^ South Australia ordered into six-day lockdown amid coronavirus outbreak 18 November 2020 Australian Broadcasting Corporation, accessed 18 November 2020
  19. ^ South Australia to end Covid lockdown early as premier 'fuming' over pizza lie 20 November 2020 The Guardian, accessed 20 November 2020
  20. ^ a b "Covid: Brisbane to enter three-day lockdown over single infection". bbc.co.uk. 8 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Greater Brisbane will go into a three-day lockdown after recording 10 new cases of coronavirus, four in the community". ABC News. 29 March 2021.
  22. ^ "Brisbane's lockdown now lifted after only one case of community transmission". ABC News. 1 April 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Covid: Australian city of Perth goes into snap lockdown after guard tests positive". BBC News. 31 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  24. ^ "Sydney's Northern Beaches enter day one of lockdown as NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian flags higher daily COVID-19 cases". ABC News. 20 December 2020.
  25. ^ "Three-week coronavirus lockdown lifts in northern zone of Sydney's northern beaches". ABC News. 10 January 2020.
  26. ^ "Australia starts lockdown measures as coronavirus cases jump". The Straits Times. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  27. ^ Australia's biggest state to ease coronavirus lockdown from May 15 10 May 2020 uk.reuters.com, accessed 31 October 2020
  28. ^ a b red, ORF at/Agenturen (16 March 2020). "Ausgangsbeschränkungen: Was nun erlaubt ist und was nicht". news.ORF.at (in German). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  29. ^ AFP (20 March 2020). "Austria extends confinement measures until April 13". The Local. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  30. ^ a b Austria goes into 4-week partial lockdown starting Tuesday, imposes curfew and restrictions on private gatherings pendect.com, accessed 2 November 2020
  31. ^ "Austria to introduce new lockdown until January 18". apa.az. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ a b "Azərbaycan Respublikasının ərazisində xüsusi karantin rejiminin müddətinin uzadılması barədə" [On the Extension of the Special Quarantine Regime on the Territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan] (in Azerbaijani). Cabinet of Azerbaijan. 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Coronavirus: Bangladesh declares public holiday from March 26 to April 4". Dhaka Tribune. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  35. ^ "Bangladesh Eases Some Restrictions, Extends Lockdown to May 16". US News. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  36. ^ https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/world/bangladesh-to-impose-1-week-lockdown-from-monday-234126
  37. ^ a b c "Curfew extended". nationnews.com. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Belgium enters lockdown over coronavirus crisis – in pictures". The Guardian. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  39. ^ Brzozowski, Alexandra (24 April 2020). "Belgian government to relax lockdown measures in three phases, starting 4 May". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  40. ^ a b Belgium announces six-week lockdown in Covid-19 crackdown 30 October 2020 www.lbc.co.uk, accessed 31 October 2020
  41. ^ https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/belgium-enters-new-four-week-easter-lockdown/
  42. ^ https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/belgium-enters-new-four-week-easter-lockdown/
  43. ^ "Fifth person dies as Bermuda extends lockdown to May 2". jamaicaobserver.com. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  44. ^ "Bhutan govt imposes nationwide lockdown to curb coronavirus spread". Business Standard. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  45. ^ Bhutan eases nationwide lockdown in phases 2020-09-01, www.xinhuanet.com, accessed 6 November 2020
  46. ^ "Under siege: island braces for 24-hour lockdown". royalgazette.com. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  47. ^ "Bolivia amplía un mes más la cuarentena ante el aumento de casos de COVID-19". www.efe.com.
  48. ^ a b Ngatane, Nthakoana (31 March 2020). "Botswana declares state of emergency, lockdown in wake of COVID-19 cases". Eyewitness News. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  49. ^ a b "Casos de pacientes com coronavírus sobe para 197 em SC e governo prorroga quarentena | Santa Catarina | G1". G1.globo.com. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  50. ^ Soares, Regiane (24 March 2020). "Quarentena começa a valer nesta terça-feira em todo o estado de SP". Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  51. ^ Santiago, Tatiana (17 April 2020). "Doria prorroga quarentena no estado de SP até 10 de maio devido a pandemia de coronavírus". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  52. ^ Nikolov, Krassen (9 July 2020). "Bulgaria extends 'epidemic emergency' and mulls tightening COVID-19 restrictions". euractiv.com. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  53. ^ Kirov, Nikolay (21 April 2020). "Борисов: България облекчи 5 мерки от вчера и днес". vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  54. ^ "Облекчаване на мерките: разрешават се посещения на кина и концерти". btvnovinite.bg (in Bulgarian). 11 May 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  55. ^ "Bulgaria Closes Schools, Restricts Travel Over Coronavirus". usnews.com. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  56. ^ Krasimirov, Angel (3 May 2020). "Easing lockdown measures, Bulgaria to allow movement outside local communities". reuters.com. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  57. ^ Hirsch, Cornelius (21 June 2020). "Europe's post-lockdown rules compared". politico.eu. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  58. ^ "Covid-19 in Bulgaria: All but social measures fall away on June 15, PM says". sofiaglobe.com. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  59. ^ "След разпореждане на премиера Борисов дискотеките ще отворят още на 15 юни". svobodnaevropa.bg (in Bulgarian). 13 June 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  60. ^ "Борисов одобри частичния локдаун, предложен от здравния министър" (in Bulgarian). economic.bg. 25 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  61. ^ a b "България в мек локдаун до Коледa: Какво затваря и какво не" (in Bulgarian). mediapool.bg. 25 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  62. ^ "Частичният локдаун официално се удължава до 31 януари" (in Bulgarian). economic.bg. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  63. ^ "Заведенията за локдауна: Всичко или нищо" (in Bulgarian). mediapool.bg. 17 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  64. ^ Bozukova, Martina (18 March 2021). "България влиза в 10-дневен локдаун от понеделник" (in Bulgarian). mediapool.bg. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  65. ^ "B.C. declares state of emergency in response to coronavirus pandemic". Global News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  66. ^ Engagement, Government Communications and Public. "Phase 1| BC's Restart Plan". www2.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  67. ^ a b "B.C. extends ban on social gatherings until Jan. 8, restricting Christmas and New Year's events". Global News. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  68. ^ Rodrigues, Gabby (17 March 2020). "Ontario government declares state of emergency amid coronavirus pandemic". Global News. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  69. ^ "Today's coronavirus news: Parts of Ontario now in Stage 3 report slow start to reopening; province takes over another LTC home; masks will be mandatory on GO Transit". thestar.com. 17 July 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  70. ^ https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/ontario-to-enter-four-week-provincewide-covid-19-shutdown-on-saturday-1.5371041
  71. ^ a b c "Quebec heads into 18-day lockdown; non-essential businesses to close from Dec. 25 to Jan. 11". Montreal. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  72. ^ a b c d "Ontario to implement provincewide lockdown on Christmas Eve, sources say | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  73. ^ Gamba, Laura (21 March 2020). "Colombia announces lockdown as coronavirus cases surge". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  74. ^ "Gobierno amplía aislamiento obligatorio hasta el 1 de julio". El Espectador. 28 May 2020.
  75. ^ a b "COVID-19: Lagos, Brazzaville lockdown begins". Africanews. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  76. ^ "The government tightens sanitary measures to avoid contagion.Closed beaches and quarantine nationwide". Ministry of Health. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  77. ^ Costa Rica begins easing some coronavirus measures Alejandro Zúñiga 27 April 2020 ticotimes.net, accessed 31 October 2020
  78. ^ Simmonds, Lauren (18 March 2020). "Croatia COVID-19 Lockdown: Bars, Restaurants etc to Close Midnight March 18, 2020". Total Croatia News. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  79. ^ Thomas, Mark. "County lockdown across Croatia from December 22 as Covid-19 measures tighten - The Dubrovnik Times". www.thedubrovniktimes.com. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  80. ^ "Ukidaju se propusnice za cijelu Hrvatsku". Grad Rijeka (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  81. ^ a b [2]
  82. ^ a b [3]
  83. ^ "Ministry of the Interior, Czech Republic". Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  84. ^ a b Janicek, Karel (22 October 2020). "Czechs enter 2nd lockdown to avoid health system collapse". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  85. ^ "Denmark goes on lockdown". www.themayor.eu. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  86. ^ "Denmark: Lockdown extended until April 13 due to COVID-19 /update 6". GardaWorld. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  87. ^ [4]
  88. ^ https://www.eureporter.co/world/denmark/2021/02/25/denmark-to-ease-some-covid-19-restrictions-from-1-march/
  89. ^ a b "Ecuador shrimp, tuna processors endure despite lockdown, curfew". undercurrentnews.com. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  90. ^ a b Reuters (12 March 2020). "El Salvador bans mass gatherings as virus spreads – as it happened". The Guardian.
  91. ^ a b "Eritrea enforces 21-day lockdown to contain spread of COVID-19". Xinhua News Agency. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  92. ^ "Prime minister unveils plan for lockdown from March 11". Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  93. ^ "Prime minister unveils plan for lockdown from March 11". Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  94. ^ "Fiji city sealed off as first COVID-19 case confirmed". 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  95. ^ Vacala, Kelly (7 April 2020). "Part of Kashmir in Lautoka under lockdown". Fijian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  96. ^ Tahana, Jamie (2 April 2020). "Fiji confirms two new Covid-19 cases, Suva will go into lockdown". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  97. ^ Susu, Aqela (2 April 2020). "COVID-19: Suva to go on lockdown from tomorrow". The Fiji Times. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  98. ^ "France imposes 15-day lockdown and mobilises 100,000 police to enforce coronavirus restrictions". The Independent. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  99. ^ Cuthbertson, Anthony (13 April 2020). "Coronavirus: France extends lockdown until 11 May". The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  100. ^ Coronavirus: Macron declares second national lockdown in France 29 October 2020, www.bbc.com, accessed 31 October 2020
  101. ^ Coronavirus: France lifts second lockdown and imposes new curfew www.france24.com/, accessed 18 December 2020
  102. ^ https://operawire.com/france-enters-third-nationwide-lockdown/
  103. ^ https://operawire.com/france-enters-third-nationwide-lockdown/
  104. ^ https://www.northumberlandgazette.co.uk/read-this/paris-begins-month-long-lockdown-as-france-faces-a-third-wave-of-covid-19-3171569
  105. ^ a b "Finland announces March shutdown". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  106. ^ a b "COVID-19: Georgia Announces Nationwide Lockdown, Partial Curfew". Civil Georgia. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  107. ^ Bayerische Staatregierung pbs.twimg.com, accessed 31 October 2020
  108. ^ "Germany outlines plan for scaling back coronavirus lockdown".
  109. ^ "Germany won't lift coronavirus restrictions before April 20: Chancellory".
  110. ^ "Coronavirus: Germany relaxes shop closures".
  111. ^ "German social distancing will be extended to May 10: Merkel aide".
  112. ^ Coronavirus: France and Germany have announced second national lockdowns 28 October 2020, news.sky.com accessed 31 October 2020
  113. ^ "Coronavirus: Germany extends lockdown with plan to relax restrictions".
  114. ^ "Coronavirus: Germany's Merkel reverses plans for Easter lockdown".
  115. ^ "Lockdown ist in Kraft - diese Regeln gelten im Berchtesgadener Land". Der Tagesspiegel. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  116. ^ "Coronavirus: German Alpine region goes into lockdown". BBC News. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  117. ^ "West African countries are trying to shut down to contain the coronavirus spread". qz.com. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  118. ^ Nyabor, Jonas (5 April 2020). "We'll decide on extension of lockdown this week – Akufo-Addo". Citi Newsroom. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  119. ^ "Greece imposes lockdown after coronavirus infections jump". Greece. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  120. ^ Kathimerini (23 April 2020). "Greece extends lockdown until May 4|ΕΛΛΑΔΑ". kathimerini.gr (in Greek). Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  121. ^ "Greece tightens COVID-19 lockdown, shuts primary schools". www.reuters.com. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  122. ^ "Greece lifts some COVID-19 restrictions to relieve lockdown fatigue". Reuters. 20 March 2021.
  123. ^ Greece imposes lockdown on second largest city 2 November 2020 medicalxpress.com, accessed 3 November 2020
  124. ^ "'Strict' lockdown measures from midnight". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. BBC. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  125. ^ "Coronavirus: Guernsey to lift nearly all lockdown restrictions". BBC News. 11 June 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  126. ^ https://www.itv.com/news/channel/2021-01-24/guernsey-lockdown-what-you-need-to-know
  127. ^ https://covid19.gov.gg/guidance/exit
  128. ^ "Absolute Curfew for the entire country". COVID-19 Honduras (in Spanish). Secretaria de Seguridad. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  129. ^ "Se extiende toque de queda absoluto hasta el 17 de mayo y se restringe circulación a un dígito por día" [Curfew has been extended to 17 May and circulation restricted to one digit per day] (in Spanish). Secretaría de Seguridad. 3 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  130. ^ a b "Hungary PM imposes lockdown, sees coronavirus peak by July". Reuters. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  131. ^ "Coronavirus in India LIVE Updates: PM Modi announces 21-day national lockdown, says extremely necessary to take this step". India Today. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  132. ^ "Lockdown 5.0 Guidelines in India (state-wise): New Lockdown Extension rules announced; night curfew relaxed". The Financial Express. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  133. ^ "Iran: Natiowide lockdown implemented as over 11,300 COVID-19 cases confirmed March 13 /update 12". garda.com. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  134. ^ "Why Hassan Rouhani Ended Iran's Lockdown". foreignpolicy.com. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  135. ^ "Iraq on total lockdown until March 28 over virus fears". thestar.com.my. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  136. ^ "Iraq extends coronavirus lockdown until mid-April". alarabiya.net. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  137. ^ Leahy, Pat; Cullen, Paul; Lynch, Suzanne; Kelly, Fiach (12 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Schools, colleges and childcare facilities in Ireland to shut". The Irish Times. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  138. ^ Carroll, Rory (27 March 2020). "'Stay home': Varadkar announces sweeping two-week lockdown". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  139. ^ "Ireland extends Covid-19 lockdown to 18 May before phased exit". The Guardian. 2 May 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  140. ^ "Coronavirus: Republic of Ireland to move to highest restrictions". BBC News. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  141. ^ Lehane, Mícheál (27 November 2020). "Country moves to Level 3 'with modifications' on Tuesday". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  142. ^ Moloney, Eoghan; McQuinn, Cormac; Armstrong, Kathy (22 December 2020). "Ireland to return to Level 5 restrictions from Christmas Eve amid projections of up to 2,000 cases per day by New Year's Eve". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2020. "Ireland placed on Level 5 Restrictions of the Plan for Living with COVID-19 - with a number of specific adjustments". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 22 December 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  143. ^ Bray, Jennifer; Horgan-Jones, Jack; McGee, Harry; O'Halloran, Marie; Carswell, Simon; Clarke, Vivienne (30 March 2021). "'We are on the final stretch of this terrible journey' insists Taoiseach as he announces phased changes to Covid-19 restrictions". The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 March 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  144. ^ Kenny, Aisling (7 August 2020). "Taoiseach makes address as local restrictions announced". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  145. ^ Hosford, Paul; Neville, Steve (7 August 2020). "Kildare, Offaly and Laois residents not permitted to travel outside their counties". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  146. ^ Hurley, Sandra (31 August 2020). "Kildare Covid-19 restrictions lifted with immediate effect". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  147. ^ Kane, Conor (21 August 2020). "Kildare restrictions extended as cases remain high". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  148. ^ The Times of Israel (2 April 2020). "Government declares virus-hit city of Bnei Brak a 'restricted zone'". Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  149. ^ The Times of Israel (16 April 2020). "Cabinet eases Bnei Brak lockdown, extends Jerusalem neighborhoods closure".
  150. ^ "Israelis brace for unpopular second Covid lockdown". Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  151. ^ Israeli Experts Plan to Ease Lockdown Within Week Save for 14 ‘Red’ Towns www.haaretz.com, accessed 31 October 2020
  152. ^ staff, T. O. I. "Israel enters 3rd lockdown; commercial activity shuts down, schools remain open". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  153. ^ staff, T. O. I. "Israel's Third Lockdown To Ease Sunday Morning As Death Toll Climbs To 5057". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  154. ^ Legorano, Eric Sylvers and Giovanni (9 March 2020). "As Virus Spreads, Italy Locks Down Country". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  155. ^ "Italy begins reopening bars and cafes as rate of deaths and new infections falls again – as it happened". The Guardian. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  156. ^ a b "Covid: Italy latest European country to order Christmas lockdown". 19 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  157. ^ "Covid, Italia verso lockdown fino a maggio: solo zone rosse e arancioni" (in Italian). Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  158. ^ a b c d Dpcm, lockdown in Lombardia, Piemonte, Calabria e Valle d’Aosta. Ecco le regioni in zona rossa e arancione e cosa si può fare 4 November 2020 Corriere della Sera, accessed 6 November 2020
  159. ^ a b c d Calabria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Val d'Aosta declared COVID red zones 5 November 2020 www.ansa.it, accessed 6 November 2020
  160. ^ a b c "Regioni in zona arancione e rossa, la nuova mappa dell'Italia: 'lockdown' per Lombardia, Sicilia e Bolzano" [Regions in the orange and red zone, the new map of Italy: 'lockdown' for Lombardy, Sicily and Bolzano]. Il Riformista (in Italian). 15 January 2021.
  161. ^ a b "St. Catherine COVID-19 Lockdown". jis.gov.jm. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  162. ^ Sharif, Osama Al (19 March 2020). "Jordan announces lockdown in effort to contain coronavirus". Al-Monitor.
  163. ^ "Jordan extends coronavirus lockdown to end of April". The National. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  164. ^ a b Jordan: Authorities to impose lockdown from November 10-15 /update 47 10 November 2020 www.garda.com, accessed 19 November 2020
  165. ^ "The government declares a state of emergency public health". telegrafi.com. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  166. ^ "The new government measures are valid until May 4!". indeksonline.net. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  167. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Kuwait to impose full lockdown, curfew for 20 days starting May 10". 10 May 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  168. ^ a b AFP (15 March 2020). "Lebanon announces two-week lockdown over coronavirus". France 24. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  169. ^ "Coronavirus:Lebanon to impose new lockdown despite economic cost". 10 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  170. ^ "Libya on lockdown from 6.00 PM to 6.00 AM amid Coronavirus preventive measures". libyanexpress.com. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  171. ^ https://www.garda.com/crisis24/news-alerts/351771/libya-gna-authorities-extend-lockdown-until-june-27-update-8
  172. ^ "Karantinas kol kas – pusei mėnesio: ką nuo pirmadienio uždraudė Vyriausybė?". 15min.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  173. ^ [citation needed]
  174. ^ Lithuania to enter three-week COVID lockdown on Saturday 4 November 2020 ca.reuters.com, accessed 19 November 2020
  175. ^ "'Everyone stay at home' - Madagascar orders lockdown of two main cities in virus fight". news24.com. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  176. ^ AFP (20 April 2020). "Lockdown in 3 Madagascar cities set to ease". Medicalxpress. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  177. ^ "Covid-19: Movement Control Order imposed with only essential sectors operating". New Straits Times. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  178. ^ "Conditional MCO extended for another four weeks to June 9". The Star. 10 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  179. ^ a b Mexico begins to lift coronavirus lockdown Washington Post.
  180. ^ News, A. B. C. "Mexican border state of Chihuahua returns to lockdown". ABC News. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  181. ^ "2nd Mexican state goes to highest COVID-19 alert, lockdown". AP NEWS. 3 November 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  182. ^ a b "Mexico City, suburbs return to partial coronavirus lockdown". AP NEWS. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  183. ^ a b "Mongolia: Government places Ulaanbaatar and other cities on lockdown due to COVID-19 March 10 /update 7". garda.com. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  184. ^ "Mongolia: Authorities extend nationwide lockdown until December 1 /update 17". 15 November 2020. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  185. ^ "Montenegro Places First Town under Total Quarantine". 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  186. ^ Montenegrins Return to Streets as Coronavirus Restrictions Eased balkaninsight.com, accessed 2 November 2020
  187. ^ H24info. "URGENT. Le Maroc déclare l'état d'urgence sanitaire". H24info (in French). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  188. ^ Eljechtimi, Ahmed (18 May 2020). "Morocco extends coronavirus lockdown to June 10". Reuters. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  189. ^ Shikongo, Arlana (25 March 2020). "Partial lockdown in effect from Friday". The Namibian. p. 1.
  190. ^ Ngatjiheue, Charmaine (30 April 2020). "Namibia to reopen economy ... moves to 'stage two', post-lockdown". The Namibian. p. 1.
  191. ^ a b "Nepal locks down for a week to stem coronavirus spread". The Jakarta Post. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  192. ^ a b Times, Nepali. "Nepal ends COVID-19 lockdown". Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  193. ^ a b "Lockdown extended in Kathmandu Valley with spike in COVID-19 cases". WION. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  194. ^ https://metro.co.uk/2020/03/15/netherlands-becomes-latest-country-go-lockdown-battle-coronavirus-12401825/
  195. ^ https://metro.co.uk/2020/03/15/netherlands-becomes-latest-country-go-lockdown-battle-coronavirus-12401825/
  196. ^ Daventry, Michael (14 December 2020). "Coronavirus: Netherlands begins imposing tough new five-week lockdown". euronews. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  197. ^ https://www.garda.com/crisis24/news-alerts/438281/netherlands-authorities-extend-covid-19-lockdown-restrictions-to-march-2-update-26
  198. ^ "Covid-19 coronavirus: What the lockdown means for you and how it will be enforced". The New Zealand Herald. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  199. ^ Small, Zane (11 May 2020). "Livestream: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern reveals if New Zealand will shift to COVID-19 alert level 2". Newshub. New Zealand. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  200. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/live/world-53733309
  201. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/08/new-zealand-whole-again-as-auckland-lockdown-ends
  202. ^ https://www.lbc.co.uk/news/auckland-new-zealand-announces-three-day-covid-lockdown-jacinda-ardern/
  203. ^ https://www.lbc.co.uk/news/auckland-new-zealand-announces-three-day-covid-lockdown-jacinda-ardern/
  204. ^ a b Mbah, Fidelis (30 March 2020). "Nigeria announces lockdown of major cities to curb coronaviruss". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  205. ^ "Son dakika haberi: KKTC'de sokağa çıkma yasağı kararı alındı". 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  206. ^ The four phases of Cyprus' lockdown exit roadmap knews.kathimerini.com.cy, accessed 31 October 2020
  207. ^ Cha, Sangmi; Smith, Josh (25 July 2020). "North Korea declares emergency in border town over first suspected COVID-19 case". Reuters. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  208. ^ Cha, Sangmi (August 14, 2020). "North Korea lifts lockdown in border town after suspected COVID-19 case 'inconclusive'" Reuters.
  209. ^ "Muscat lockdown from Friday". Oman Observer. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  210. ^ "Muscat governorate lockdown extended". Oman Observer. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  211. ^ a b "Commercial market in Jaalan Bani Bu Ali locked down". Oman Observer. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  212. ^ "Coronavirus pandemic: Pakistan to extend lockdown for 2 more weeks as death toll reaches 31". The Statesman. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  213. ^ Shehzad, Rizwan (24 April 2020). "Countrywide lockdown stretched till May 9". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  214. ^ "Ejecutivo decreta cuarentena total de manera indefinida | La Prensa Panamá". www.prensa.com. 25 March 2020.
  215. ^ "Decreto Ejecutivo 644 del 29 de mayo de 2020" (PDF). Gaceta Oficial de Panamá. 29 May 2020.
  216. ^ a b "Papua New Guinea in lockdown: what it means for you and your business". businessadvantagepng.com. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  217. ^ "Paraguay Confirms First Death Due to Coronavirus: Health Ministry". NY Times. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  218. ^ "Paraguay plans switch to 'smart' quarantine after coronavirus curve flattens". Reuters. 24 April 2020.
  219. ^ "Coronavirus en Perú: Gobierno anuncia cuarentena obligatoria por 15 días por coronavirus". Gestión (in Spanish). 15 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  220. ^ "Perú extiende cuarentena hasta 30 de junio". Associated Press (in Spanish). 22 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  221. ^ "Cebu province placed under enhanced community quarantine due to COVID-19 threat". CNN Philippines. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  222. ^ a b Ranada, Pia (24 April 2020). "Cebu, Davao City, other areas in VisMin on lockdown until May 15". Rappler. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  223. ^ a b Merez, Arianne (12 May 2020). "'Modified' lockdown set in Metro Manila, 2 other areas". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  224. ^ a b "Sara Duterte says no more localized quarantines as Davao Region lockdown begins". Rappler. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  225. ^ Luna, Franco. "Travel to and from Manila suspended from March 15 as Code Red Sublevel 2 raised over COVID-19". Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  226. ^ Merez, Arianne (7 April 2020). "Philippines extends lockdown of millions in Luzon to April 30". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  227. ^ Calonzo, Andreo (24 April 2020). "Philippines Extends Lockdown of Manila and Nearby Areas to May 15". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  228. ^ a b Dela Cruz, Enrico (3 August 2020). "Philippines to reimpose stricter coronavirus lockdown in capital as cases spike". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  229. ^ "Metro Manila, Laguna, 7 other areas shift to modified ECQ". GMA News. 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  230. ^ Jones, Ewan (13 March 2020). "Poland in COVID-19 LOCKDOWN! PM orders bars, restaurants, shopping centres and borders closed - and cancels ALL flights". The First News. Polish Press Agency. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  231. ^ a b c d e "Coronavirus: What are the lockdown measures across Europe?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  232. ^ a b "Poland to impose nationwide lockdown from Dec. 28 to Jan. 17 - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  233. ^ https://www.politico.eu/article/poland-goes-into-near-lockdown-as-covid-19-pandemic-accelerates/
  234. ^ https://www.thenationalherald.com/coronavirus/arthro/poland_extends_its_lockdown_by_another_week-2154163/
  235. ^ "State of Emergency Explained". Portugal News Newspaper. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  236. ^ a b [5]
  237. ^ Pattisson, Pete; Sedhai, Roshan (20 March 2020). "Covid-19 lockdown turns Qatar's largest migrant camp into 'virtual prison'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  238. ^ Qatar to lift lockdown in four phases from June 15 8 June 2020 www.reuters.com, accessed 6 November 2020
  239. ^ "Klaus Iohannis anunță carantină totală în România: Tot ce era până acum recomandare, devine obligatoriu. Măsurile, în vigoare de mâine". Digi24 (in Romanian). 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  240. ^ "Romania: Government to extend COVID-19 state of emergency by 30 days from week of April 13 /update 5". GardaWorld. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  241. ^ "Moscow goes into lockdown, urges other regions to take steps to slow coronavirus". France 24. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  242. ^ "Moscow extends partial lockdown over coronavirus until May 1". Reuters. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  243. ^ "Coronavirus in Russia: The Latest News | 1 May". Moscow Times. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  244. ^ a b "COVID-19 Information". U.S. Embassy in Russia. 30 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  245. ^ "Coronavirus: Rwanda imposes Africa's first lockdown". dw.com. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  246. ^ Tasamba, James (2 April 2020). "Rwanda extends nationwide lockdown until April 19". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  247. ^ "Samoa officially on lock down". Radio New Zealand. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  248. ^ "Samoa officially on lock down". Fijian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  249. ^ Rtv, San Marino (14 March 2020). "Nuovo decreto legge in vigore fino al 6 aprile". San Marino Rtv.
  250. ^ "San Marino, lockdown fino al 5 maggio ma via libera alle vendite a domicilio". libertas SM. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  251. ^ a b c "Saudi Arabia puts fourth city on lockdown over coronavirus". thestar.com.my. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  252. ^ Saudi Arabia eases coronavirus lockdown restrictions www.arabnews.com, accessed 2 November 2020
  253. ^ "Saudi locks down Qatif as coronavirus surges in the Gulf". aljazeera.com. 8 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  254. ^ "Serbia to let some businesses reopen in partial easing of coronavirus lockdown". Reuters. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  255. ^ "Cafes, restaurants to reopen as Serbia eases lockdown". New Straits Times. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  256. ^ Cheong, Danson (3 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Most workplaces to close, schools will move to full home-based learning from next week, says PM Lee". The Straits Times. Singapore. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  257. ^ Lai, Linette (21 April 2020). "Covid-19 circuit breaker to be extended by one month to June 1: PM Lee". The Straits Times. Singapore. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  258. ^ Burke, Jason (23 March 2020). "South Africa to go into 21-day lockdown on Thursday night". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  259. ^ Ramaphosa, Cyril. "South Africa's coronavirus lockdown extended by 2 weeks". BusinessTechSA. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  260. ^ "Pedro Sánchez anuncia el estado de alarma para frenar el coronavirus 24 horas antes de aprobarlo". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  261. ^ "Spain Extends Lockdown as Virus Cases Rise Again in Europe". Bloomberg.com. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  262. ^ "SPOLICE CURFEW FOR PUTTALAM". Hiru News (in Spanish). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  263. ^ "Spain Extends Lockdown as Virus Cases Rise Again in Europe". Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  264. ^ "Verordnung 2 über Massnahmen zur Bekämpfung des Coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF). web.archive.org. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  265. ^ "Measures, ordinance and explanations". web.archive.org. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  266. ^ https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/switzerland-returns-to-lockdown-amid-concerns-over-more-contagious-virus-strain/46283172
  267. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-24/switzerland-eases-lockdown-by-reopening-shops-and-museums
  268. ^ Nortajuddin, Athira (26 March 2020). "Surviving the virus lockdown". The Asean Post. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  269. ^ Reuters (27 April 2020). "Thailand to Extend Coronavirus Emergency Measures, Sees Improvement". USNews. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  270. ^ a b "Trinidad on lockdown". Nation News. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  271. ^ "Tunisia orders army into streets to enforce coronavirus lockdown". Reuters. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  272. ^ "Tunisia extends lockdown by two weeks, releases prisoners". Al Jazeera. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  273. ^ a b "Turkey to impose four-day lockdown". Hürriyet. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  274. ^ "UAE: Three-day lockdown scheduled March 26-29 /update 16". garda.com. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  275. ^ "Dubai imposes two-week lockdown as Gulf states step up coronavirus fight". Reuters. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  276. ^ "Boris Johnson orders UK lockdown to be enforced by police". The Guardian. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  277. ^ Coronavirus lockdown eased: what you can and can't do from 4 July www.theguardian.com, accessed 31 October 2020
  278. ^ a b uk-lockdown-boris-johnson-coronavirus-winter-death-latest-update www.independent.co.uk, accessed 31 October 2020
  279. ^ "Covid: Boris Johnson set to announce new England lockdown". 4 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  280. ^ "England's roadmap out of lockdown unveiled". 22 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  281. ^ Coronavirus: Shops in Scotland to reopen from 29 June 18 June 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 31 October 2020
  282. ^ Scotland tightens Covid rules at Christmas 19 December 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 19 December 2020
  283. ^ "Hairdressers to reopen on 5 April as rules ease". 16 March 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  284. ^ Coronavirus: NI's hotels and bars can reopen from 3 July 15 June 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 1 November 2020
  285. ^ a b "Coronavirus: NI to face new lockdown measures from next Friday". 19 November 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  286. ^ "Coronavirus: NI facing six-week lockdown from 26 December". 17 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  287. ^ "Stay-at-home order lifted as restrictions ease". Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  288. ^ Coronavirus in Wales: Pubs and restaurants can open outdoors from 13 July 2 July 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 1 November 2020
  289. ^ a b "Covid: Wales to go into 'firebreak' lockdown from Friday". BBC News. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  290. ^ "Covid: Two household limit at Christmas to be made law in Wales". BBC News. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  291. ^ https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/lockdown-rules-wales-dates-changes-20094603
  292. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-55497524
  293. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-55497524
  294. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-55497524
  295. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-55497524
  296. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-norfolk-55424767
  297. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-suffolk-55424755
  298. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cambridgeshire-55422386
  299. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-essex-55424855
  300. ^ a b "London Put in Emergency Lockdown as U.K. Fights New Strain". Bloomberg.com. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  301. ^ "Leicester lockdown tightened as coronavirus cases rise". 30 June 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  302. ^ "Coronavirus: Reopening shops during Leicester lockdown 'pointless'". 24 July 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  303. ^ a b Covid in Scotland: Level 4 lockdown to be imposed in 11 council areas 18 November 2020 www.bbc.co.uk accessed 19 November 2020
  304. ^ Yap, Jennifer Calfas, Margherita Stancati and Chuin-Wei (20 March 2020). "California Orders Lockdown for State's 40 Million Residents". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  305. ^ California eases Covid-19 restrictions, allowing some businesses to reopen 5 May 2020 www.theguardian.com, accessed 1 November 2020
  306. ^ a b Batey, Eve (3 December 2020). "Three-Week Lockdown Announced For All of California". Eater SF. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  307. ^ Associated Press; NBC (20 March 2020). "Coronavirus Outbreak Latest: No New Cases in Wuhan; US States Order Lockdowns". NBC Connecticut. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  308. ^ a b Perper, Rosle; Al-Arshani, Sarah; Secon, Holly (27 March 2020). "Nearly a third of Americans are now under orders to stay home — here's a running list of coronavirus lockdowns in US states and cities". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  309. ^ Petrella, Dan; St. Clair, Stacy; Johnson, Steve; Pratt, Gregory (20 March 2020). "Gov. J.B. Pritzker issues order requiring residents to 'stay at home' starting Saturday". Chicago Tribune. Chicago. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  310. ^ Ahern, Mary Ann (23 April 2020). "Illinois' Stay-at-Home Order Modified, Extended Through May, Pritzker Announces". NBC 5 Chicago. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  311. ^ Carpenter, Tim; Smith, Sherman (21 March 2020). "Kansas coronavirus update: 30-day quarantine ordered for KC; state records second death, 55 cases". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  312. ^ Hauck, Grace; Reyes, Lorenzo; L. Ortiz, Jorge (21 March 2020). "'Stay Home, Stay Healthy': These states have ordered residents to avoid nonessential travel amid coronavirus". USA Today. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  313. ^ a b Impelli, Matthew (9 April 2020). "WHICH STATE LOCKDOWNS IN THE U.S. HAVE BEEN EXTENDED?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  314. ^ "Michigan governor issues 'stay-at-home' order as COVID-19 cases increase". WDIV-TV. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  315. ^ Stracqualursi, Veronica (20 March 2020). "Cuomo orders all nonessential New York workers to stay home". CNN. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  316. ^ Lardieri, Alexa (15 May 2020). "Lockdown extended for most of coronavirus-battered New York". CBS News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  317. ^ Rogoway, Mike (23 March 2020). "Oregon governor issues 'stay home' order to enforce coronavirus restrictions". The Oregonian. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  318. ^ Oregonian/OregonLive, Ted Sickinger| The (7 May 2020). "Oregon reopening starts May 15 under governor's coronavirus plan". oregonlive. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  319. ^ "Wisconsin Governor Issues Order Closing Businesses". NBC Chicago. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  320. ^ "Wisconsin Supreme Court Overturns The State's Stay-At-Home Orders". NPR. 13 May 2020.
  321. ^ "Venezuela's to implement nationwide quarantine as coronavirus cases rise to 33". Reuters. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  322. ^ Baibhawi, Riya (12 April 2020). "Venezuela Extends Lockdown Till May 13 Amid Coronavirus Pandemic". republicworld. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  323. ^ "Vietnam: Borders closed with Laos and Cambodia as nationwide lockdown implemented April 1". GardaWorld. 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  324. ^ Fages, Véronique Maeva (29 May 2020). "Here are 4 ways Viet Nam has managed to control COVID-19". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Vietnam relied on four relatively cost-effective solutions to combat the virus, including strategic testing, contact tracing through apps and effective public communication campaigns. As well as these, it implemented a national lockdown between 1st and 22nd April.
  325. ^ "Da Nang to introduce social distancing measures from 0:00 hour on July 28". People's Army Newspaper. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  326. ^ "Crawl back to normalcy: Da Nang after social distancing eased". VnExpress. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  327. ^ "Vietnamese City on Lockdown After New Coronavirus Outbreak". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  328. ^ "Hai Duong urged to implement COVID-19 combat measures on wider scale". Vietnamplus. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  329. ^ "Zimbabwe Begins Lockdown to Fight COVID19". voanews.com. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  330. ^ Reuters (19 April 2020). "Zimbabwe president extends coronavirus lockdown by two more weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  331. ^ Jones S, Kassam A (26 March 2020). "Spain defends response to coronavirus as global cases exceed 500,000". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  332. ^ "Coronavirus: Half of humanity now on lockdown as 90 countries call for confinement". Euronews. 3 April 2020.
  333. ^ "A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown—here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions". Business Insider. 28 March 2020.
  334. ^ "About 90% of Americans have been ordered to stay at home. This map shows which cities and states are under lockdown". Business Insider. 2 April 2020.
  335. ^ "Philippines isolates hundreds of health workers as coronavirus cases rise in south-east Asia". The Guardian. 23 March 2020.
  336. ^ Chutel L, Dahir AL (27 March 2020). "With Most Coronavirus Cases in Africa, South Africa Locks Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  337. ^ Nair S (29 March 2020). "For a billion Indians, lockdown has not prevented tragedy". The Guardian.
  338. ^ "Chaos and hunger amid India coronavirus lockdown". Al Jazeera. 27 March 2020.
  339. ^ Duncan, Jude (12 March 2020). "Two cases of coronavirus confirmed in Ghana". Citi Newsroom. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  340. ^ "Panic 'hits' social media as Ghana confirms first cases of coronavirus". www.ghanaweb.com.
  341. ^ "Coronavirus: MPs to have temperature tested before entering chamber – Speaker". GhanaWeb. 12 March 2020.
  342. ^ Nyabor, Jonas (15 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Government bans religious activities, funerals, all other public gatherings". Citi Newsroom. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  343. ^ "Saving Lives with a Little Soap and Water: New Behavior Change Communication Package promotes healthy hygiene practices – Global Communities Ghana". www.globalcommunitiesgh.org. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  344. ^ "Banks in Suhum step up measures against coronavirus spread". www.msn.com. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  345. ^ Acheampong, Kwame. "Covid-19: Accra, Kumasi empty as lockdown takes effect | Starr Fm". Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  346. ^ "Ghana starts local production of nose masks to fight COVID-19". Graphic Online. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  347. ^ "Failing to wear face mask to attract hefty fine, 10-year jail term". Citinewsroom – Comprehensive News in Ghana. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  348. ^ "Northern, North East, Savannah regions disinfect markets". Graphic Online. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  349. ^ "Coronavirus: 198 markets in Eastern region disinfected". Graphic Online. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  350. ^ "COVID-19: Markets, public places in Kumasi to be disinfected on Tuesday". Citinewsroom – Comprehensive News in Ghana. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  351. ^ "3rd phase of national disinfection exercise in SHSs begins". Graphic Online. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  352. ^ "COVID-19: GH¢54.3 million spent on food for vulnerable during lockdown". Citinewsroom – Comprehensive News in Ghana. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  353. ^ "Govt announces free electricity for the rest of the year". Graphic Online. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  354. ^ Arhinful, Mensah Opoku, Ernest, Duke (15 August 2020). "Parliament approves GHS174M tax waiver for frontline health workers". Citi Newsroom. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  355. ^ "Parliament approves GHS174M tax waiver for frontline health workers". Citinewsroom – Comprehensive News in Ghana. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  356. ^ "GHS Gets AI Software to Enhance Covid-19 Detection". DailyGuide Network. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  357. ^ "Ghana's COVID-19 Tracker App upgraded". Graphic Online. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  358. ^ "Bawumia Commissions Ghana's First Infectious Disease Centre". DailyGuide Network. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  359. ^ "ICU bed facilities, treatment centre to be constructed in Greater Accra, Ashanti Regions – Nana Addo". Citinewsroom – Comprehensive News in Ghana. 21 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  360. ^ "Coronavirus: Government to expand isolation centers". Graphic Online. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  361. ^ "In Ghana, Drones Are Turning Out to Be a Key Tool for Transporting COVID-19 Tests". Global Citizen. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  362. ^ "Zipline begins drone delivery of COVID-19 test samples in Ghana". CNBC. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  363. ^ "In fight against Coronavirus, Ghana uses drones to speed up testing". The World. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  364. ^ Ngatjiheue, Charmaine (18 March 2020). "Govt raises Covid-19 surveillance". The Namibian. p. 1.
  365. ^ "Namibia declares State of Emergency due to COVID-19 | United Nations in Namibia". namibia.un.org. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  366. ^ Shikongo, Arlana (16 March 2020). "Namibia battles coronavirus". The Namibian. p. 1.
  367. ^ a b Ngutjinazo, Okeri (15 April 2020). "Informal sector gets lifeline". The Namibian. p. 1.
  368. ^ "Ministry of Health and Social Services-Namibia". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  369. ^ a b c "Ministry of Health and Social Services-Namibia". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  370. ^ "Namibia launches COVID-19 Communication Centre". WHO | Regional Office for Africa. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  371. ^ Marketing, Intouch Interactive. "Pathcare to test locally for corona - Health - Namibian Sun". www.namibiansun.com. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  372. ^ Ikela, Selma (30 April 2020). "Lockdown: 4 potential exit strategies". New Era. p. 1.
  373. ^ Ramaphosa, Cyril. "National Address: South Africa on lockdown from Thursday". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  374. ^ Ramaphosa, Cyril. "South Africa's coronavirus lockdown extended by 2 weeks". BusinessTechSA. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  375. ^ a b c "Essential services to remain in place as SA enters lockdown". SAnews. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  376. ^ a b c "This is who is exempt from national lockdown – and what will be closed". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  377. ^ a b "Your 21 day national house imprisonment order – NDZ – DOCUMENTS". politicsweb.co.za. GOVERNMENT GAZETTE 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020 – via Politicsweb.
  378. ^ "COVID-19 update". NICD. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  379. ^ Ferial Haffajee; Maverick Citizen; Maverick Insider Team (19 March 2020). "Coronavirus Explainer: Maverick Insider Covid-19 Questions, Answered". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  380. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Update on Coronavirus COVID-19 lockdown". South African Government. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  381. ^ Harding, Andrew (3 April 2020). "South Africa's ruthlessly efficient fight against coronavirus". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  382. ^ "SAHPRA responds to coronavirus (COVID-19): Medicines/medical devices supply challenges" (PDF). South African Health Products Regulatory Authority. 17 March 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  383. ^ Baleta, Adele (1 April 2020). "COVID-19: SA to start enrolling patients in landmark WHO trial". Spotlight. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  384. ^ "First COVID-19 vaccine trials begin in Africa". The Week. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  385. ^ a b Karim, Aisha Abdool (17 September 2020). "COVID vaccines 101: Breaking down the good, the bad, and the promise of the frontrunners". Bhekisisa. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  386. ^ "Coronavirus Vaccine Trial By MD Biotech Company Novavax Underway In South Africa". 17 August 2020. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  387. ^ Cohen, Jon (26 January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb0611. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  388. ^ "Archived copy" 武汉市卫健委关于当前我市肺炎疫情的情况通报. Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (in Chinese). 31 December 2019. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  389. ^ "Novel Coronavirus". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  390. ^ 习近平:在中央政治局常委会会议研究应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情工作时的讲话. Xinhua News Agency (in Chinese). 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  391. ^ "Xi began fighting the virus earlier than previously known, a newly published speech indicates". The New York Times. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  392. ^ Griffiths, James; Gan, Nectar (22 January 2020). "China confirms Wuhan virus can be spread by humans". CNN.
  393. ^ a b "China halts flights and trains out of Wuhan as WHO extends talks". Channel NewsAsia. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  394. ^ "China to extend Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus pandemic". Xinhua News Agency. Beijing. 26 January 2020.
  395. ^ "Chinese Premier Li visits Wuhan, epicenter of virus outbreak". Reuters. Beijing. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  396. ^ 李雪晴. "China's State Council extends Spring Festival holiday – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  397. ^ "Archived copy" 海关总署公告2020年第16号(关于重新启动出入境人员填写健康申明卡制度的公告). General Administration of Customs, P.R. China (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  398. ^ Liu, Hongxia (26 January 2020). 海关总署宣布重新启动出入境人员填写健康申明卡制度 [The General Administration of Customs announced they will restart the system for filling health declaration forms for passengers exit and enter the border]. Xinhua News Agency (in Chinese). Beijing. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  399. ^ "China extends Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus pandemic". Xinhua News Agency. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  400. ^ Lum, Alvin; Sum, Lok-kei (25 January 2020). "China coronavirus: Hong Kong leader hits back at criticisms of being slow". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  401. ^ "Wuhan bans cars, Hong Kong closes schools as virus spreads". Associated Press. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  402. ^ Wang, Chenxi (24 January 2020). 澳门关闭博物馆延期开学防控新型冠状病毒疫情 [Macau closed museums and delayed school-openings to control coronavirus pandemic]. Xinhua News Agency (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  403. ^ "Chinese prosecutors urged to toughen crackdown on epidemic-related crimes". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  404. ^ "Archived copy" 武汉肺炎病毒持续扩散 湖北下令封15个城市 (in Chinese). Germany: Deutsche Welle. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  405. ^ Coleman, Alistair; Allen, Kerry (22 January 2020). "Chinese social media users worry over virus". BBC News.
  406. ^ "Coronavirus Crisis Exposes Cracks in China's Facade of Unity". The New York Times. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  407. ^ Smith, Nicola; Newey, Sarah (26 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Fears rise of Chinese cover-up as 56 million in lockdown and hospitals overwhelmed". The Telegraph.
  408. ^ "Residents of China's Wuhan rush to stock up as transport links severed". Reuters. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  409. ^ 武汉一线 [Wuhan First-line: Rising vegetable prices, napa cabbages 35 CNY each]. 澎湃新闻-The Paper (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  410. ^ "China warns coronavirus strengthening as Lunar New Year holiday extended three more days to discourage travel". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  411. ^ "Wuhan virus: China imposes partial lockdown in Shantou, the first city to face measure outside virus epicentre". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  412. ^ "China's Shantou city will not ban cars, ships, people from entering, state media reports". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  413. ^ Ying, Rui (27 January 2020). 北京、深圳、广州、南京,这些城市官宣"不封城" [Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Nanjing – these cities officially announced they "will not lock down"]. The Beijing News (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  414. ^ "Coronavirus: Shanghai neighbour Zhejiang imposes draconian quarantine". South China Morning Post. 6 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  415. ^ 比照SARS集中醫治 武漢擬6天建千床醫療站 – 兩岸 – 重點新聞. Central News Agency (in Chinese). 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  416. ^ 李克强督战武汉"小汤山"医院建设:把这里建成遏制疫情蔓延的"安全岛". gov.cn (in Chinese). 28 January 2020.
  417. ^ "Wuhan to follow Beijing's SARS treatment model in new coronavirus control". Xinhua News Agency. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  418. ^ Siddique, Haroon (24 January 2020). "Chinese city plans to build coronavirus hospital in days". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  419. ^ Hartley-Parkinson, Richard (29 January 2020). "China completes 1,000-bed coronavirus hospital in just 48 hours". Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  420. ^ Yu, Sun; McMorrow, Ryan (12 February 2020). "China seizes hotels, hospitals and cars to fight coronavirus". Financial Times.
  421. ^ "雷神山医院病床增至1600张". bjnews.com.cn. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  422. ^ "火神山、雷神山医院将于2月3日和2月6日收治病人". 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  423. ^ He, Guanghua; Tian, Doudou (25 January 2020). 武汉将再建一个"小汤山"医院 [Wuhan to build another "Xiaotangshan" hospital]. People's Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  424. ^ 各地逾2.5万名医疗队员支援湖北. People's Daily (in Chinese). 16 February 2020.
  425. ^ "Coronavirus: China says disease 'curbed' in Wuhan and Hubei". BBC. 10 March 2020.
  426. ^ a b "The true cost of China's coronavirus cover-up: How state censorship let the outbreak spread". Financial Times. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020 – via Nationalpost.com.
  427. ^ a b Griffiths, James. "Wuhan is the latest crisis to face China's Xi, and it's exposing major flaws in his model of control". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  428. ^ Kristof, Nicholas (29 January 2020). "Coronavirus Spreads, and the World Pays for China's Dictatorship". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  429. ^ a b "China's slow response to coronavirus has shown the weakness of its centralised model". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  430. ^ "新冠肺炎吹哨醫師 李文亮病逝 民眾激憤". 世界新聞網 (in Chinese). 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  431. ^ "Coronavirus kills Chinese whistleblower doctor". BBC News. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  432. ^ a b c Zhong, Raymond (27 January 2020). "As Virus Spreads, Anger Floods Chinese Social Media". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  433. ^ "Li Wenliang: Coronavirus death of Wuhan doctor sparks outpouring of anger". BBC News. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  434. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (6 February 2020). "'Hero who told the truth': Chinese rage over coronavirus death of whistleblower doctor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  435. ^ "Li Wenliang's death is a new crisis for China's rulers". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  436. ^ "Xi orders resolute efforts to curb virus spread". Xinhua News Agency. 20 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  437. ^ Fifield, Anna; Sun, Lina H.; Bernstein, Lenny (22 January 2020). "Chinese officials try to contain virus outbreak as first case confirmed in U.S." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  438. ^ Zheng, William; Lau, Mimi (21 January 2020). "China's credibility on the line as it tries to dispels fears it will cover up spread of Wuhan virus". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  439. ^ Wei, Lingling (28 January 2020). "China Strains to Stamp Out Coronavirus Criticisms at Home". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  440. ^ Rourke, Alison; Blackall, Molly; Gayle, Damien; Weaver, Matthew; Murray, Jessica; Doherty, Ben (31 January 2020). "Virus death toll reaches 213 in China – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  441. ^ "In coronavirus pandemic, China's leaders scramble to avert a Chernobyl moment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  442. ^ "China's online censors tighten grip after brief coronavirus respite". Reuters. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  443. ^ Kuo, Lily (4 February 2020). "Taking credit, avoiding blame? Xi Jinping's absence from coronavirus frontline". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  444. ^ Griffiths, James. "China is waking up to the dangers of knee-jerk censorship in a crisis". CNN. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  445. ^ Gilbert, David (30 January 2020). "You Can Now Go to Jail in China for Criticizing Beijing's Coronavirus Response". Vice. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  446. ^ "China's online censors tighten grip after brief coronavirus respite". Reuters. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  447. ^ AFP (25 January 2020). "Trump praises China 'efforts and transparency' on virus". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  448. ^ Donald McNeil Jr. (25 March 2020). "The Virus Can Be Stopped, but Only With Harsh Steps, Experts Say". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  449. ^ "UN's Guterres praises China's 'remarkable' coronavirus response". ABS-CBN, Agence France-Presse. 8 February 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  450. ^ "Guterres praises China's response to coronavirus - RTHK". news.rthk.hk. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  451. ^ "Trump praises China 'efforts and transparency' on Wuhan virus". The Straits Times. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  452. ^ "Coronavirus reaches Europe as France confirms 3 cases". Deutsche Welle. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  453. ^ "China Doing Good Job in Combating Virus, German Minister Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  454. ^ "Singapore leaders stand in solidarity with China over COVID-19 outbreak". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  455. ^ "Russia and China pledge to maintain special relationship despite Moscow's slow response to coronavirus". South China Morning Post. 16 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  456. ^ "Pope Francis praises China's efforts to contain coronavirus". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  457. ^ "Bill Gates defends China's COVID-19 response, says it did 'lot of things right'". The Week. April 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  458. ^ Feuer, Will (6 October 2020). "Bill Gates says U.S. coronavirus testing is still 'truly a sad thing'". CNBC. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  459. ^ Maier, Benjamin; Brockmann, Dirk (15 May 2020). "Effective containment explains subexponential growth in recent confirmed COVID-19 cases in China". Science. 368 (6492): 742–746. Bibcode:2020Sci...368..742M. doi:10.1126/science.abb4557. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 7164388. PMID 32269067.
  460. ^ Cyranoski, David (17 March 2020). "What China's coronavirus response can teach the rest of the world". Nature. 579 (7800): 479–480. Bibcode:2020Natur.579..479C. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00741-x. PMID 32203360. S2CID 214628991.
  461. ^ Burki, Talha (1 November 2020). "China's successful control of COVID-19". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 20 (11): 1240–1241. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30800-8. ISSN 1473-3099. PMC 7544475. PMID 33038941.
  462. ^ Lancet, The (25 July 2020). "COVID-19 and China: lessons and the way forward". The Lancet. 396 (10246): 213. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31637-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7377676. PMID 32711779.
  463. ^ AlTakarli, Nourah S. (2020). "China's Response to the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Model for Epidemic Preparedness and Management". Dubai Medical Journal. 3 (2): 44–49. doi:10.1159/000508448. ISSN 2571-726X. S2CID 219505913.
  464. ^ "China lockdown may have blocked 700,000 virus cases: researchers". France 24. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  465. ^ "China's Controls May Have Headed Off 700,000 COVID-19 Cases: Study". U.S. News & World Report. April 2020.
  466. ^ Sharma, Niharika. "Air India pilot recalls the "deathly quiet" in Wuhan amidst coronavirus evacuation". Quartz India. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  467. ^ Delhi7 February, India Today Web Desk New; 7 February, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 18:50. "India had offered to evacuate Pakistani students from coronavirus-hit Wuhan, Jaishankar tells Rajya Sabha". India Today. Retrieved 9 March 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  468. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (22 February 2020). "Chinese wall stopping evacuation of Indian nationals from Wuhan". The Economic Times. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  469. ^ "PM Modi proposes Covid-19 emergency fund to SAARC leaders, offers $10 mn". Livemint. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  470. ^ "NewinstructionsDt14032020Restirctiononinternationalpassengertraffic.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  471. ^ "GuidelinesDT13032020.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  472. ^ "82 districts under lockdown over Covid-19: What is shut and where". Hindustan Times. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  473. ^ Jagannath, J. (22 March 2020). "Delhi lockdown to start at 6 am Monday, until 31 March: Kejriwal". Livemint. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  474. ^