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National symbols of the Philippines

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The national symbols of the Philippines consist of symbols that represent Philippine traditions and ideals and convey the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity of the Filipino people.[1] Some of these symbols are stated in the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, which is also known as Republic Act 8491.[1] The national language of the Philippines is Filipino as stated in the Constitution of the Philippines.[2] Aside from those stated symbols in the Constitution and in Republic Act 8491, there are only five official national symbols of the Philippines enacted through law, namely sampaguita as national flower, narra as national tree, the Philippine eagle as national bird, Philippine pearl as national gem and arnis as national martial art and sport.

There are symbols such as the carabao (national animal), mango (national fruit) and anahaw (national leaf) that are widely known as national symbols but have no laws recognizing them as official national symbols.[3] Even Jose Rizal, who is widely considered as a national hero, has not been declared officially as a national hero in any existing Philippine law according to historical experts.[3][4] Although in 2003, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was officially declared by the President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as a national hero by an executive order.[5] A National Artist of the Philippines is a rank or a title given to a Filipino citizen in recognition to the recipient's contributions to Philippine arts and letters and they are not considered as a national symbol that represents traditions and ideals.[6]

On 17 February 2014, Bohol First District Representative Rene Relampagos filed a bill at the Philippine House of Representatives that seeks to declare or re-declare and to recognize a number of national symbols.[7] The proposed bill, House Bill 3926 or the "Philippine National Symbols Act of 2014", aims also to encourage nationalism and unity; to guarantee respect, preservation and promotion of national symbols; and to correct the "unofficial" status of the symbols.[7] Among the proposed national symbols listed in the measure are Jose Rizal as the only historical Filipino to be recognized as national hero, adobo as national food and jeepney as national vehicle.[8] It also includes the previous ten official national symbols.[8] The bill is still pending to become a law and once the bill turned into law, all the symbols stated in the bill would be official national symbols of the Philippines.

Development of the symbols[edit]

Governor-General Frank Murphy declared sampaguita and narra as national symbols during the Commonwealth era.

Republic Act 8491, known also as Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, stipulates the code for national flag, anthem, motto, coat-of-arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines.[1] According to Article XIV Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the national language of the Philippines is Filipino.[2] Apart from RA 8491 and the Constitution, the Philippines has only five official national symbols enacted either through a proclamation by the executive department or through a Republic Act by the legislative department, namely sampaguita, narra, the Philippine eagle, the Philippine pearl and arnis. In 1934, during the Commonwealth era, Governor-General Frank Murphy declared sampaguita[9] and narra[10] as national flower and national tree, respectively, through Proclamation No. 652. Philippine President Fidel Ramos proclaimed the Philippine eagle as the national bird in 1995 through Proclamation No. 615.[11] Ramos also declared the South Sea Pearl or Philippine Pearl as the national gem in 1996 through Proclamation No. 905.[12] In 2009, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared arnis as the national sport and martial art through Republic Act 9850.[13]

In February 2013, the Philippine Senate passed a bill declaring waling-waling (Vanda sanderiana) as the national flower alongside Sampaguita.[14] A similar bill in the House of Representatives[15] had already been passed in 2012.[16] Normally, the bill would become law after being signed by the President.[17] However, it was vetoed by President Benigno Aquino III.[18] The veto did not grant the waling-waling as the second national flower due to the confusion that it would create.[19]

A year later, on 17 February 2014, Representative Rene Relampagos, a congressman from the First District of Bohol, proposed a measure at the Philippine House of Representatives that seeks to declare or re-declare and to recognize a number of national symbols.[7] The bill dubbed as House Bill 3926 or the "Philippine National Symbols Act of 2014", aims also to encourage nationalism and unity; to guarantee respect, preservation and promotion of national symbols; and to correct the "unofficial" status of the symbols.[7] It lists 26 symbols including the previous ten official national symbols.[7][8]

In February 2016, the House of Representatives approved on final reading the House Bill 6366, which declares the ancient boat balangay at the national boat of the Philippines.[20][21] The bill is not yet a law, therefore, the symbol is not yet official. For the balangay to become a national boat, there should be a senate concurrence and the President of the Philippines must sign the bill.[17]

Making a national symbol official[edit]

A Philippine national symbol will be considered official once it is declared through a law or a proclamation. National symbols such as the cariñosa, carabao, bangus (milkfish), and anahaw (footstool palm) that are circulating through various sources have no official status and have not established by law.[3][4] According to Nestor Castro, a Filipino cultural anthropologist, most of these unofficial symbols were passed on as tradition in schools every start of the school year when students were asked to buy posters containing the supposed national symbols.[3] While official national symbols are declared through law, Castro and National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) Section Chief Teodoro Atienza considered[3] that the public must be consulted first before declaration of national symbol.[3]

Filipinos as national symbol[edit]

Jose Rizal is considered as one of the national heroes of the Philippines but according to Ambeth Ocampo, no historical Filipino personage has been declared officially as being a National Hero through law.

According to the NHCP Section Chief Teodoro Atienza,[3] and Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo,[4] there is no Filipino historical figure officially declared national hero through law or executive order.[22][23] Although, there were laws and proclamations honoring Filipino heroes. In the Rizal Law principally sponsored by Claro M. Recto and enacted in 1956, Jose Rizal is mentioned as a national hero in the "whereas" clause of the law.[24] Although, "whereas" clauses function as a preamble or introduction and it is not part of the provisions.[25] On 15 November 1995, the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee, created through Executive Order No. 5 by former President Fidel Ramos, recommended nine Filipino historical figures to be National Heroes: Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Apolinario Mabini, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat, Juan Luna, Melchora Aquino, and Gabriela Silang.[23] No action has been taken for these recommended National Heroes[23] until it was revisited in one of the proceedings of the 14th Congress in 2009.[26]

On 3 August 2009, shortly after the death of former President Corazon Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr., legislative measures have been filed calling for her official recognition as a national hero.[27][28] Congresswoman Liwayway Vinzons-Chato filed a house resolution declaring Corazon Aquino a national hero.[26] Although, a week after she filed the resolution, she realized that there is no Filipino historical figure declared through law. On 10 August 2009, she cited on her privilege speech in Congress the nine Filipino heroes recommended by National Heroes Committee in 1995. She then urge Congress to sign the resolutions declaring the nine Filipinos recommended by the National Heroes Committee plus Benigno Aquino, Jr. and Corazon Aquino as national heroes.[29] Congressman Salvador Escudero interpellated Vinzons-Chato's speech and stated that heroes are made in the hearts and minds of people and not through legislation.[29] After the interpellation, it was moved by House of Representatives to refer the privilege speech of Vinzons-Chato to the Committee of Basic Education and Culture.[29]

In 2013, Bayan Muna Congressmen Neri Colmenares and Carlos Isagani Zarate filed House Bill 3431 aiming to declare Andres Bonifacio as National Hero due to his actual participation in the Philippine Revolution against Spain.[30][31] Another measure filed by Congressman Rene Relampagos from Bohol in February 2014 seeks to declare Jose Rizal as the sole Filipino national hero. According to the bill, he was a nationalist and well known for his Philippine reforms advocacy during the Spanish colonial era.[7]

Filipinos awarded with the rank or title National Artist of the Philippines are not considered to be national symbols because the title is given in recognition to the recipient's contributions to Philippine arts and letters and not as a symbol that represents traditions and ideals and convey the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity.[6]

Despite declaration from historical experts that there is no historical person declared as a national hero, in 2003, an executive order by then President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo officially declared Beningno Aquino Jr. as one of the national heroes.[5] Due to laws declaring the heroism of Rizal and Bonifacio, their recognition as National Heroes is considered implied.[31][32]

List of national symbols[edit]

Official[edit]

Here are list of national symbols excluding national heroes that were enacted through Philippine law.

Type Symbol Image Adopted Legal basis
National flag
Flag of the Philippines
National Flag
12 June 1898
(Reaffirmed 11 June 1998)
Proclamation of President Emilio Aguinaldo
Reaffirmed by Republic Act No. 8491
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the Philippines
Coat of arms of the Philippines
3 July 1946
(Reaffirmed 11 June 1998)
Commonwealth Act No. 731
Reaffirmed by Republic Act No. 8491[Note 1]
National anthem
Lupang Hinirang

Problems playing this file? See media help.
Music : 11 June 1898
Lyrics : 26 May 1958
(Reaffirmed 11 June 1998)
Music : Proclamation of President Emilio Aguinaldo
Lyrics : Department of Education Administrative Order
Reaffirmed by Republic Act No. 8491
National motto
National motto of the Philippines
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa"
("For God, People, Nature, and Country")
12 February 1998 Republic Act No. 8491, Chapter III, Section 40
National language
Filipino
11 February 1987 Article XIV, Sec. 6 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines
National flower
Sampaguita
Jasminum sambac Blanco1.6.jpg
1 February 1934[19][33] Executive Proclamation No. 652, issued by Governor General Frank Murphy
National tree
Narra
Pterocarpus indicus Blanco1.205.png
1 February 1934[33] Executive Proclamation No. 652
National bird
Philippine eagle
Sir Arny(Philippine Eagle).jpg
4 July 1995[34] Proclamation No. 615
National gem
Philippine pearl
Pinctada maxima 01 by Line1.JPG
15 October 1996[12] Proclamation No. 905
National sport and martial art
Arnis (Eskrima/Kali)
GM Abaya.jpg
11 December 2009[35] Republic Act No. 9850

Notes

...

  1. 1 The description of the Philippines' coat of arms can be found under section 14 of Executive Order No. 292 (Book I/Chapter 4), which is also known as the Administrative Code of 1987.[36]

Unofficial[edit]

Here are the lists of national symbols that have no official status.

From failed and proposed laws[edit]

Rice topped with chicken adobo. Adobo is being considered as the National Dish.
The Philippine jeepney is being considered as the National Vehicle.

From various sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Republic Act No. 8491 of the Philippines". Web Portal of the Philippine Government. Philippine government. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – ARTICLE XIV". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ty, Ralph Angelo (24 April 2012). "'Rizal is not our official national hero' and other facts about PHL's national symbols". GMA News. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Ambeth Ocampo (3 March 2009). "Looking Back: What is 'Philippine' or 'national'?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c Villanueva, Marichu (8 November 2003). "Ninoy officially a national hero". philstar.com. The Philippine Star. Retrieved 17 September 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Briefer on the Order of National Artists". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "House Bill No. 3926 - Philippine National Symbols Act of 2014" (PDF). Philippine House of Representatives. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Bacani, Louis (28 February 2014). "House bill officially declares adobo as national food". The Philippine Star (Philippines: Philstar Daily Inc.). Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  9. ^ "Philippine Fast Facts, National Flower: Sampaguita". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2009. 
  10. ^ "Philippine Fast Facts, National Tree: Narra". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  11. ^ "Philippine Fast Facts, National Bird: Philippine Eagle". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Philippine Fast Facts, National Gem: Philippine Pearl". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Lizares, George (20 December 2009). "Arnis now a national sport". inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  14. ^ "Senate passes bill declaring Waling-waling nat’l flower alongside Sampaguita". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Christina Mendez (30 January 2013). "Waling-waling soon a national flower". Philippine Star. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  16. ^ "From the BIS Online Query of the Philippine Congress". Philippine Congress. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  17. ^ a b "Legislative Process". Official Website of the Senate of the Philippines. Philippine government. 
  18. ^ Calonzo, Andreo (4 June 2013). "For PNoy, 66 bills not good enough to become laws". GMA News (Philippines: GMA Network). Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c "Veto Message of President Aquino on House Bill No. 5655". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  20. ^ a b Romero, Paolo (3 February 2016). "'Balangay' to be declared national boat". philstar.com. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  21. ^ Rosario, Ben; Quismorio, Ellson (1 March 2014). "Bill pushes declaration of National Symbols". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  22. ^ "Philippine Fast Facts". gov.ph. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2009. 
  23. ^ a b c "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring Filipino Historical Figures". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  24. ^ "Republic Act No. 1425". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "The "whereas" clause". TransLegal. 23 November 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c "Congressional Record: Plenary Proceedings of the 14th Congress, Third Regular Session" (PDF). Philippine House of Representatives. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Avendaño, Christine; Salaverria, Leila (5 August 2009). "2 Lawmakers urge: 'Declare Cory Aquino a national hero'". INQUIRER.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  28. ^ a b Ager, Maila; Dalangin-Fernandez, Lira (6 August 2009). "Bids to make Aquino a hero gain support". INQUIRER.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  29. ^ a b c "Congressional Record: Plenary Proceedings of the 14th Congress, Third Regular Session" (PDF). Philippine House of Representatives. 10 August 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  30. ^ "House Bill No. 3431 - AN ACT DECLARING ANDRES BONIFACIO AS NATIONAL HERO" (PDF). Philippine House of Representatives. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  31. ^ a b Geronimo, Jee (29 November 2013). "Solons: Make Bonifacio our official national hero". Rappler. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  32. ^ Manto-Beltran, Lea (29 August 2015). "The making of a Philippine national hero". The Manila Times. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  33. ^ a b Pangilinan Jr., Leon (3 October 2014). "In Focus: 9 Facts You May Not Know About Philippine National Symbols". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  34. ^ "Proclamation No. 615, s. 1995". Philippine government. 4 July 1995. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  35. ^ "Palace declares arnis as national martial art and sport". GMA News. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  36. ^ "Executive Order No. 292 [BOOK I/Chapter 4-National Symbols and Official Languages]". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. 25 July 1987. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  37. ^ Dela Paz, Gino (14 April 2012). "Juan direction". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  38. ^ Maniebo, Eana (11 October 2014). "A look back at some of the exceptional Manila Times editors". The Manila Times. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  39. ^ "'Juan dela Cruz' pilot episode earns good reviews on Twitter". thesummitexpress.com. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  40. ^ "#CNNFood challenge: What's your country's national dish?". CNN. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  41. ^ "The Philippines Declared the Guinness World Record Holder for the Largest Serving of Lechon". thedailymeal.com. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  42. ^ "Mga pambansang sagisag, muling pag-aralan sa 'Investigative Documentaries'". GMA News Online (in Tagalog). 29 January 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  43. ^ "Ano ang dapat na pambansang ulam?". Bandera (in Tagalog). 19 January 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  44. ^ Joble, Rey (5 June 2015). "SEA Games: Philippines' sepak takraw bets proud to carry on 'sipa' tradition, aiming high in Singapore". InterAksyon. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  45. ^ Villaruz, Basilio Esteban S. (2006). Treading Through: 45 Years of Philippine Dance. University of the Philippines Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-971-542-509-4. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  46. ^ "Philippine National dance - Tinikling". likha.org. Retrieved 23 March 2016.