List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Chinese people refers to the Han 漢 people which is often misunderstood as Han Chinese, are the largest ethnic group, where (as of 2010) some 91.51% of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," perhaps from the Qin dynasty. Besides the Han-Chinese majority of 92%, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.
The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).
Ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China
||2010 National Shares||2010 PopulationB
||Year of recognitionC|
|Han Chinese1||Han||HA||Hàn Zú||汉族||91.6474%||1,220,844,520||1,139,773,008||1,042,482,187||1954|
|Miao (includes Hmong)3||Miao||MH||Miáo Zú||苗族||0.7072%||9,426,007||8,945,538||7,398,035||1954|
|Undistinguished||—||none||Wèi Shìbié Mínzú||未识别民族||0.0480%||640,101||734,438||749,341||-|
|Naturalized Citizen||—||none||Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí||外国人加入中国籍||0.0001%||1,448||941||3,421||-|
AGB 3304－91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes";
BThe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan);
CFor ethnic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954 and 1964;
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong;
4including Amdowa and Khampa, as well as roughly half of Pumi speakers, the remainder of whom are classified as a separate Pumi ethnicity;
5Also known as Kam;
6Also included are the Sangkong;
7This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi;
8Also included are the Mosuo;
9Also included are the 木佬人 (Qago);
10Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
11Also included are the Then;
12Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
13The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
14Known as Palaung in Myanmar;
15The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
16A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan.
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The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民族; pinyin: Yuánzhùmínzú), as Gaoshan (Chinese: 高山族; pinyin: Gāoshānzú), whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 16 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.
citation needed] have in the past claimed that they have Plains Aboriginal (Chinese: 平埔族; pinyin: Píngpuzú), ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence, claiming an identity different from that of mainland Chinese. However, genetic tests showed differences between them and plains aborigines, and given that they usually were recent migrants, their claims were rejected by descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.[
"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups
- Äynu people (艾努人 Àinǔ rén)
- Gejia (家人 Gèjiā rén)
- Bajia (八甲人 Bājiǎ rén)
- Deng (僜人 Dèng rén)
- Hu (户人 Hù rén)
- Khmu (克木人 Kèmù rén)
- Kucong (Yellow Lahu / Lahu Shi; 苦聪人 / 苦聰人 Kǔcōng rén)
- Mang (芒人 Máng rén)
- Sherpas (夏尔巴人 / 夏爾巴人 Xià'ěrbā rén)
- Tankas (疍家人 / 蜑家人 Dànjiā rén) including Fuzhou Tanka
- Tebbu people (迭部人 Diébù rén)
- Tuvans (图瓦人 Túwǎ rén)
- Waxiang (瓦乡人 Wǎxiāng rén)
- Yi (羿人 Yì rén)
- Jews (犹太人 / 猶太人 Yóutài rén) (Jewish people of China and Jews in general)
- Yamatos (大和民族 Dàhé mínzú) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族 Liúqiú mínzú) living as permanent residents in Taiwan and Northeast China
- Macanese (土生葡人 Tǔshēng pú rén), mixed race Catholic Portuguese speakers who lived in Macau since 16th century of various ethnic origins
- Utsuls (回辉人 Huíhuī rén), descendants of Cham Muslims who fled Vietnamese invasions of Champa
During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups". Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.
Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau
Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or Southeast Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Nepalese, and Pakistanis) live in Hong Kong.
- Affirmative action in China
- Demographics of China
- Demographics of Taiwan
- Taiwanese people
- Ethnic minorities in China
- Han Chinese subgroups
- Hua–Yi distinction
- Languages of China
- List of endangered languages in China
- Tai–Kadai ethnic groups in China
- Taiwanese aborigines
- Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
- Zhonghua minzu
- "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- 2010 Population Census of the People's Republic of China
- 胡鸿保 张丽梅 “民族识别原则的变化与民族人口” 《西南民族大学学报》（人文社科版）2009/04 总第212期
- GB 3304－91 Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes.
- First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
- Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
- Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- 第五次人口普查数据(2000年). 表1—6. 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口 ( Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000). Table 1-6: Population of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities by ethnicity). (in Chinese)
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