List of ethnic groups in China

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Ethnolinguistic map of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group, where (as of 2010) some 91.51%[1] of the population was classified as Han Chinese (~1.3 billion). Besides the majority Han Chinese, 55 other ethnic groups are recognised in mainland China by the PRC government, numbering approximately 105 million people, mostly concentrated in the northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Uyghur (11.5 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).

Officially recognized ethnic groups in mainland China[edit]

In order of population, this is the list of the 56 ethnic groups in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. The number of officially recognized ethic groups in China used to be 39 in 1954, which increased to 54 by 1964. The last change was the addition of the Jino people in 1979, bringing the number of recognized ethnic groups to the current 56.[2]
Several ethnic groups including the Punti, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka ("boat dwellers")[3] reside in Hong Kong and Macau.[clarification needed]

English Name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
2010 National Shares 2010 PopulationB
2000 PopulationB
1990 PopulationB
Year of recognitionC
Han1 Han HA Hàn Zú 汉族 91.6474% 1,220,844,520 1,139,773,008 1,042,482,187 1954
Zhuang Zhuang ZH Zhuàng Zú 壮族 1.2700% 16,926,381 16,187,163 15,489,630 1954
Hui2 Hui HU Huí Zú 回族 0.7943% 10,586,087 9,828,126 8,602,978 1954
Manchu Man MA Mǎn Zú 满族 0.7794% 10,387,958 10,708,464 9,821,180 1954
Uyghur Uyghur UG Wéiwú'ěr Zú 维吾尔族 0.7555% 10,069,346 8,405,416 7,214,431 1954
Miao3 Miao MH Miáo Zú 苗族 0.7072% 9,426,007 8,945,538 7,398,035 1954
Yi Yi YI Yí Zú 彝族 0.6538% 8,714,393 7,765,858 6,572,173 1954
Tujia Tujia TJ Tǔjiā Zú 土家族 0.6268% 8,353,912 8,037,014 5,704,223 1964
Tibetan4 Zang ZA Zàng Zú 藏族 0.4713% 6,282,187 5,422,954 4,593,330 1954
Mongol Mongol MG Měnggǔ Zú 蒙古族 0.4488% 5,981,840 5,827,808 4,806,849 1954
Dong Dong DO Dòng Zú 侗族 0.2161% 2,879,974 2,962,911 2,514,014 1954
Bouyei Bouyei BY Bùyī Zú 布依族 0.2153% 2,870,034 2,973,217 2,545,059 1954
Yao Yao YA Yáo Zú 瑶族 0.2098% 2,796,003 2,638,878 2,134,013 1954
Bai Bai BA Bái Zú 白族 0.1451% 1,933,510 1,861,895 1,594,827 1954
Korean Chosen CS Cháoxiǎn Zú 朝鲜族 0.1374% 1,830,929 1,929,696 1,920,597 1954
Hani5 Hani HN Hāní Zú 哈尼族 0.1246% 1,660,932 1,440,029 1,253,952 1954
Li Li LI Lí Zú 黎族 0.1098% 1,463,064 1,248,022 1,110,900 1954
Kazakh Kazak KZ Hāsàkè Zú 哈萨克族 0.1097% 1,462,588 1,251,023 1,111,718 1954
Dai6 Dai DA Dǎi Zú 傣族 0.0946% 1,261,311 1,159,231 1,025,128 1954
She She SH Shē Zú 畲族 0.0532% 708,651 710,039 630,378 1964
Lisu Lisu LS Lìsù Zú 傈僳族 0.0527% 702,839 635,101 574,856 1954
Dongxiang Dongxiang DX Dōngxiāng Zú 东乡族 0.0466% 621,500 513,826 373,872 1954
Gelao Gelao GL Gēlǎo Zú 仡佬族 0.0413% 550,746 579,744 437,997 1964
Lahu Lahu LH Lāhù Zú 拉祜族 0.0365% 485,966 453,765 411,476 1954
Va Va VA Wǎ Zú 佤族 0.0322% 429,709 396,709 351,974 1954
Sui Sui SU Shuǐ Zú 水族 0.0309% 411,847 407,000 345,993 1954
Nakhi7 Naxi NX Nàxī Zú 纳西族 0.0245% 326,295 309,477 278,009 1954
Qiang Qiang QI Qiāng Zú 羌族 0.0232% 309,576 306,476 198,252 1954
Tu Tu TU Tǔ Zú 土族 0.0217% 289,565 241,593 191,624 1954
Mulao8 Mulao ML Mùlǎo Zú 仫佬族 0.0162% 216,257 207,464 159,328 1964
Xibe Xibe XB Xībó Zú 锡伯族 0.0143% 190,481 189,357 172,847 1954
Kyrgyz Kirgiz KG Kē'ěrkèzī Zú 柯尔克孜族 0.0140% 186,708 160,875 141,549 1954
Jingpo9 Jingpo JP Jǐngpō Zú 景颇族 0.0111% 147,828 132,158 119,209 1954
Daur Daur DU Dáwò'ěr Zú 达斡尔族 0.0099% 131,992 132,747 121,357 1964
Salar Salar SL Sālā Zú 撒拉族 0.0098% 130,607 104,521 87,697 1954
Blang Blang BL Bùlǎng Zú 布朗族 0.0090% 119,639 91,891 82,280 1964
Maonan10 Maonan MN Máonán Zú 毛南族 0.0076% 101,192 107,184 71,968 1964
Tajik11 Tajik TA Tǎjíkè Zú 塔吉克族 0.0038% 51,069 41,056 33,538 1954
Pumi Pumi PM Pǔmǐ Zú 普米族 0.0032% 42,861 33,628 29,657 1964
Achang Achang AC Āchāng Zú 阿昌族 0.0030% 39,555 33,954 27,708 1964
Nu Nu NU Nù Zú 怒族 0.0028% 37,523 28,770 27,123 1964
Evenki Ewenki EW Èwēnkè Zú 鄂温克族 0.0023% 30,875 30,545 26,315 1954
Gin12 Gin GI Jīng Zú 京族 0.0021% 28,199 22,584 18,915 1964
Jino Jino JN Jīnuò Zú 基诺族 0.0017% 23,143 20,899 18,021 1979
De'ang Deang DE Dé'áng Zú 德昂族 0.0015% 20,556 17,935 15,462 1964
Bonan Bonan BO Bǎo'ān Zú 保安族 0.0015% 20,074 16,505 12,212 1954
Russian Russ RS Éluósī Zú 俄罗斯族 0.0012% 15,393 15,631 13,504 1954
Yugur Yugur YG Yùgù Zú 裕固族 0.0011% 14,378 13,747 12,297 1954
Uzbek Uzbek UZ Wūzībiékè Zú 乌孜别克族 0.0008% 10,569 12,423 14,502 1954
Monba Monba MB Ménbā Zú 门巴族 0.0008% 10,561 8,928 7,475 1964
Oroqen Oroqen OR Èlúnchūn Zú 鄂伦春族 0.0006% 8,659 8,216 6,965 1954
Derung Derung DR Dúlóng Zú 独龙族 0.0005% 6,930 7,431 5,816 1964
Hezhen13 Hezhen HZ Hèzhé Zú 赫哲族 0.0004% 5,354 4,664 4,245 1964
Gaoshan14 Gaoshan GS Gāoshān Zú 高山族 0.0003% 4,009 4,488 2,909 1954
Lhoba Lhoba LB Luòbā Zú 珞巴族 0.0003% 3,682 2,970 2,312 1965
Tatars Tatar TT Tǎtǎ'ěr Zú 塔塔尔族 0.0003% 3,556 4,895 4,873 1954
Undistinguished none Wèi Shìbié Mínzú 未识别民族 0.0480% 640,101 734,438 749 341 -
Naturalized Citizen none Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí 外国人加入中国籍 0.0001% 1,448 941 3,421 -

AGB 3304-91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes";[4]
BThe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan);
CFor ethic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954 [5] and 1964;[6]
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong;
4including Amdowa and Khampa;
5Also included are the Sangkong;
6This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi;
7Also included are the Mosuo;
8Also included are the 木佬人 (Qago);
9Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
10Also included are the Then;
11Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
12The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
13The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
14A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan.

Taiwanese aborigines[edit]

Main article: Taiwanese Aborigines

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines as Gaoshan, whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 14 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial. Also, scientific research conducted by Chen Shun-sheng of the Kaohsiung Hospital’s psychiatric department confirms DNA studies of Taiwan’s people revealed a large percentage of the population has mixed Han Chinese and aboriginal bloodlines.[citation needed]

When Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" tried to claim Plains Aboriginal ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence and try to claim an identity different from that of mainland Chinese in spite of the fact that their own ancestry is overwhelmingly that of recent migrants from China and genetic tests show differences between them and plains aborigines, their claims were decidedly rejected by the actual descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines, who seek to preserve their own traditional culture since the abuse of claiming their ancestry by Taiwanese "blood nationalists" to create a unique Taiwanese identity based on blood negates the actual significance of having Plains Aboriginal ancestors.[7]

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups[edit]

Part of a poster in Beijing showing the 56 ethnic groups of China

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups".[8] Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or South East Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indian, Indonesians, Nepalese and Pakistani) live in Hong Kong.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  2. ^ 胡鸿保 张丽梅 “民族识别原则的变化与民族人口” 《西南民族大学学报》(人文社科版)2009/04 总第212期
  3. ^ Ward, Barbara, (1977) "Readers and Audiences: An Exploration of the Spread of Traditional Chinese Culture" from Jain, Ravindra K., Text and Context: The Social Anthropology of Tradition pp.181-203, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues
  4. ^ GB 3304-91 Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes.
  5. ^ First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  6. ^ Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  7. ^ Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  8. ^ 第五次人口普查数据(2000年). 表1—6. 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口 ( Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000). Table 1-6: Population of provinces, autonomous regions, and minicipalities by ethnicity). (Chinese)

External links[edit]