American Indian boarding schools
Native American boarding schools were established in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to educate Native American children and youths according to Euro-American standards. These boarding schools were first established by Christian missionaries of various denominations, who often started schools on reservations and founded boarding schools to provide opportunities for children who did not have schools nearby, especially in the lightly populated areas of the West. The government paid religious societies to provide education to Native American children on reservations. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) founded additional boarding schools based on the assimilation model of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names (to both "civilize" and "Christianize"). The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Historian Brenda Child reports that boarding schools cultivated pan-Indian-ism and made possible cross-tribal coalitions that have helped many different tribes collaborate in the 20th century. She argues:
People formerly separated by language, culture, and geography lived and worked together in residential schools. Students formed close bonds and enjoyed a rich cross-cultural change. Graduates of government schools often married former classmates, found employment in the Indian Service, migrated to urban areas, returned to their reservations and entered tribal politics. Countless new alliances, both personal and political, were forged in government boarding schools.
Since those years, tribal nations have increasingly insisted on community-based schools and have also founded numerous tribal colleges and universities. Community schools have also been supported by the federal government through the BIA and legislation. The largest boarding schools have closed. In some cases, reservations or tribes were too small or poor to support independent schools and they still wanted an alternative for their children, especially for high school. By 2007, most of the schools had been closed down and the number of Native American children in boarding schools had declined to 9,500. In this same period, more Native Americans are living in urban environments and having to accommodate to majority culture.
History of education of Native Americans
How different would be the sensation of a philosophic mind to reflect that instead of exterminating a part of the human race by our modes of population that we had persevered through all difficulties and at last had imparted our Knowledge of cultivating and the arts, to the Aboriginals of the Country by which the source of future life and happiness had been preserved and extended. But it has been conceived to be impracticable to civilize the Indians of North America — This opinion is probably more convenient than just.— Henry Knox to George Washington, 1790s.
In the late eighteenth century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans (as opposed to relegating them to reservations), adopted the practice of educating native children in current American culture, which was at the time largely based on rural agriculture, with some small towns and few large cities. The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American education, often at schools established in Indian communities.
Moses Tom sent his children to an Indian boarding school.
I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families. Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting. A little land cultivated, and a little labor, will procure more provisions than the most successful hunt; and a woman will clothe more by spinning and weaving, than a man by hunting. Compared with you, we are but as of yesterday in this land. Yet see how much more we have multiplied by industry, and the exercise of that reason which you possess in common with us. Follow then our example, brethren, and we will aid you with great pleasure ...— President Thomas Jefferson, Brothers of the Choctaw Nation, December 17, 1803
Non-reservation boarding schools
In 1634, Fr. Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Maryland, and the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of an Indian tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven." The mission's annual records report that by 1640, they had founded a community they named St. Mary's, and the Indians were sending their children there "to be educated among the English." This included the daughter of the Pascatoe Indian chief Tayac, which exemplifies not only a school for Indians, but either a school for girls, or an early co-ed school. The same records report that in 1677, "a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress. Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St. Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honour of being first in their class. So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation."
Harvard College had an Indian College on its campus in the mid-1600s, supported by the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel. Its few Indian students came from New England, at a time when higher education was very limited for all classes and colleges were more similar to today's high schools. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, "from the Wampanoag...did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period". In early years, other Indian schools were created by local communities, as with the Indian school in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1769, which gradually developed into Dartmouth College. Other schools were created in the East, where Indian reservations were less common than they became in the late nineteenth century in western states.
West of the Mississippi, schools near Indian settlements and on reservations were first founded by religious missionaries, who believed they could extend education and Christianity to Native Americans. Some of their efforts were part of the progressive movement after the Civil War. As Native Americans were forced onto reservations following the Indian Wars, missionaries founded additional schools with boarding facilities, to accommodate students who lived too far to attend on a daily basis.
The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, founded by the US Army officer Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 at a former military installation, became a model for others established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Pratt said in a speech in 1892, "A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man." Pratt professed "assimilation through total immersion." He conducted a "social experiment" on Apache prisoners of war at a fort in Florida. He cut their long hair, put them in uniforms, forced them to learn English, and subjected them to strict military protocols. He had arranged for the education of some of the young Indian men at the Hampton Institute, now a historically black college, after he had supervised them as prisoners at a fort in Florida. Hampton Institute was established in the 1870s and in its original form, created a formal education program for Native Americans in 1875 at the end of the American Indian Wars. The United States Army sent seventy-two warriors from the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo Nations, to imprisonment and exile in St. Augustine, Florida. Essentially they were considered hostages to persuade their peoples in the West to keep peace. From this funding Hampton was able to grow into a university, though over time the student population shifted to Black students.
At the prison, he tried to have the Indians taught English and United States culture, while giving them leeway to govern themselves. From seeing the progress of both his younger prisoners and the ones who attended Hampton, he came to believe that removing Indians from their native culture could result in their successful assimilation into the majority culture of the United States. As at the Hampton Institute, he included in the Carlisle curriculum vocational training for boys and domestic science for girls, including chores around the school and producing goods for market. They also produced a newspaper, had a well-regarded chorus and orchestra, and developed sports programs. The vocational training reflected the administration's understanding of skills needed at most reservations, which were located in rural areas, and reflected a society still based on agriculture. In the summer, students often lived with local farm families and townspeople to continue their immersion in European-American culture, and provide labor at low cost to the families. Carlisle and its curriculum became the model for the Bureau of Indian Affairs; by 1902 there were 25 federally funded non-reservation schools in 15 states and territories, with a total enrollment of over 6,000 students. Federal legislation required Native American children to be educated. Parents had to authorize their children's attendance at boarding schools, but sometimes officials used coercion to gain a quota of students from any given reservation.
As the model of boarding schools was adopted more widely by the US government, many Native American children were separated from their families and tribes when they were sent or sometimes taken to boarding schools far from their home reservations. These schools ranged from those similar to the federal Carlisle Indian Industrial School, which became a model for BIA-run schools; to the many schools sponsored by religious denominations.
In that period, when students arrived at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names; sometimes these were based on their own, other times they were assigned at random, and sometimes children chose new names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees.
The 1928 Meriam Report noted that infectious disease was often widespread at the schools due to insufficient funding for meals providing good nutrition, overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions (an element shared by many towns in the early 20th century) and students weakened by overwork. The report said that death rates for Native American students were six and a half times higher than for other ethnic groups.
Meriam Report of 1928
In 1926, the Department of the Interior (DOI) commissioned the Brookings Institution to conduct a survey of the overall conditions of the American Indians and to assess federal programs and policies. The Meriam Report, officially titled The Problem of Indian Administration, was submitted February 21, 1928 to the Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work. Related to education of Native American children, it recommended that the government:
- Abolish The Uniform Course of Study, which taught only European-American cultural values;
- Educate younger children at community schools near home, and have older children attend non-reservation schools for higher grade work
- Have the Indian Service (now Bureau of Indian Affairs) provide American Indians the education and skills the need to adapt both in their own communities and United States society
Despite the Meriam Report, attendance in Indian boarding schools generally grew throughout the first half of the 20th century and doubled in the 1960s. Enrollment reached its highest point in the 1970s. In 1973, 60,000 American Indian children are estimated to have been enrolled in an Indian boarding school. The rise of pan-Indian activism, tribal nations' continuing complaints about the schools, and studies in the late 1960s and mid-1970s (such as the Kennedy Report and the National Study of American Indian Education) led to passage of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975. This emphasized decentralization of students from boarding schools to community schools. As a result, many large Indian boarding schools closed in the 1980s and early 1990s. By 2007, 9,500 American Indian children were living in Indian boarding school dormitories. This figure includes those in 45 on-reservation boarding schools, seven off-reservation boarding schools, and 14 peripheral dormitories. From 1879 to the present day, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of American Indians as children attended Indian boarding schools.
Today, a few off-reservation boarding schools still operate, but funding for them is in decline. Some American Indians found their experiences and education at such schools to be valuable and have wanted to retain the schools as alternatives to reservation-based education. Many others found their times at boarding schools to be repressive.
Implications of assimilation
To spread a unified national vision, the U.S. federal government recognized a need for assimilation of diverse people; specifically, assimilation of the Native Americans. From 1810 until 1917 the U.S. federal government subsidized the creation of and education within mission and boarding schools. (16) "By 1885, 106 [Indian Schools] had been established, many of them on abandoned military installations" using military personnel and Indian prisoners Native American boarding schools in the United States were seen as the means for the government to achieve assimilation of American Indians into mainstream American culture. Some of their efforts included cutting their hair, making them learn Christianity, making them speak English, and live in a strict military fashion.
When students arrived at boarding schools, the routine was the same. First, the students were stripped of their tribal clothing and their hair was cut. Second, "[t]o instill the necessary discipline, the entire school routine was organized in martial fashion, and every facet of student life followed a strict timetable" (276). Since many military personnel ran the boarding schools, military principles mechanized the daily routines. One student recalled, "A small bell was tapped, and each of the pupils drew a chair from under the table. Supposing this act meant that they were to be seated, I pulled out mine and at once slipped into it from one side. But when I turned my head, I saw that I was the only one seated, and all the rest at our table remained standing. Just as I began to rise, looking shyly around to see how chairs were to be used, a second bell was sounded. All were seated at last, and I had to crawl back into my chair again. I heard a man's voice at one end of the hall, and I looked around to see him. But all the others hung their heads over their plates. As I glanced at the long chain of tables, I cause the eyes of a paleface woman upon me. Immediately I dropped my eyes, wondering why I was so keenly watched by the strange woman. The man ceased his mutterings, and then a third bell was tapped. Everyone picked up his knife and fork and began eating. I began crying instead, for by this time I was afraid to venture anything more."
Besides mealtime routines, administrators 'educated' Indians on how to farm using European-based methods. Some boarding schools worked to become small agrarian societies where the school became its own self-sufficient community.
From the moment students arrived at school, they could not "be Indian" in any way".(19). To aid in their assimilation to U.S. Anglo culture, boarding school administrations "forbade, whether in school or on reservation, tribal singing and dancing, along with the wearing of ceremonial and 'savage' clothes, the practice of native religions, the speaking of tribal languages, the acting out of traditional gender roles" (11). School administrators argued that young women needed to be specifically targeted due to their important place in continuing assimilation education in their future homes. Educational administrators and teachers were instructed that "Indian girls were to be assured that, because their grandmothers did things in a certain way, there was no reason for them to do the same" (282). Reservation schools had been established to help students learn about the dominant European history of the U. S. However, "removal to reservations in the West in the early part of the century and the enactment of the Dawes or General Allotment Act in 1887 eventually took nearly 50 million acres of land from Indian control" (12). On-reservation schools were either taken over by Anglo leadership or destroyed in the process. Indian-controlled school systems became non-existent while "the Indians [were] made captives of federal or mission education" (12).
Although some schools used verbal corrective means to enforce assimilation, other boarding schools took more violent measures. Archuleta et al. (2000) noted cases where students had "their mouths washed out with lye soap when they spoke their native languages; they could be locked up in the guardhouse with only bread and water for other rule violations; and they faced corporal punishment and other rigid discipline on a daily basis". (42). Beyond physical and mental abuse, some school authorities sexually abused students as well. One former student retold, "Intimidation and fear were very much present in our daily lives. For instance, we would cower from the abusive disciplinary practices of some superiors, such as the one who yanked my cousin's ear hard enough to tear it. After a nine-year-old girl was raped in her dormitory bed during the night, we girls would be so scared that we would jump into each other's bed as soon as the lights went out. The sustained terror in our hearts further tested our endurance, as it was better to suffer with a full bladder and be safe than to walk through the dark, seemingly endless hallway to the bathroom. When we were older, we girls anguished each time we entered the classroom of a certain male teacher who stalked and molested girls". (42).
Women taken from their families and placed into boarding schools, such as the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, were moved to accomplish the U.S. federal government's vision of "educating Indian girls in the hope that women trained as good housewives would help their mates assimilate" into U.S. mainstream culture (272).
Students were expected to return to their tribes and induce European assimilation there. Many students who returned to their reservations not only struggled to respect elders, but also received resistance from family and friends when trying to initiate changes. Since former students who were visited by faculty were rated as successful by the following criteria: "orderly households, 'citizen's dress', Christian weddings, 'well-kept' babies, land in severalty, children in school, industrious work habits, and leadership roles in promoting the same 'civilized' lifestyles among family and tribe" (39), many students returned to the boarding schools. General Richard Henry Pratt, who was a main administrator, began to recognize that "[t]o civilize the Indian, get him into civilization. To keep him civilized, let him stay."
A similar system in Canada was known as the Canadian Indian residential school system. On June 11, 2008, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a 3,600-word formal apology to First Nation, Métis and Inuit people for the legacy of Indian Residential Schools, which he called a "sad chapter in our history." The Anishinabek Nation Grand Council Chief John Beaucage said, "Our first thoughts today are for our elders, many of them have suffered lifelong physical and emotional pain because of their residential school experiences."
Similarly, the Anglican Church of Canada, which ran many of the boarding schools and was sued for abuses, has issued an official apology in addition to paying court-ordered settlements. It has further adopted a policy of a "living apology" and has been working to support First Nations and other indigenous peoples within their own cultures.
List of Native American boarding schools
- Absentee Shawnee Boarding School, near Shawnee, Indian Territory open 1893–99
- Albuquerque Indian School, Albuquerque, New Mexico
- Anadarko Boarding School, Anadarko, Oklahoma open 1911–33
- Arapaho Manual Labor and Boarding School, Darlington, Indian Territory opened in 1872 and paid with by federal funds, but run by the Hicksite (Liberal) Friends and Orthodox Quakers. Moved to Concho Indian Boarding School in 1909.
- Armstrong Academy, near Chahta Tamaha, Indian Territory
- Asbury Manual Labor School, near Fort Mitchell, Alabama open 1822–30 by the United Methodist Missions.
- Asbury Manual Labor School, near Eufaula, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, open 1850–88 by the United Methodist Missions.
- Bacone College, Muscogee, Oklahoma, 1881–present
- Bloomfield Female Academy, originally near Achille, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory. Opened in 1848 but relocated to Ardmore, Oklahoma around 1917 and in 1934 was renamed Carter Seminary.
- Bond's Mission School or Montana Industrial School for Indians, run by Unitarians, Crow Indian Reservation near Custer Station, Montana, 1886–97 
- Burney Institute, near Lebanon, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1854–87 when name changed to Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School and operated by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
- Cameron Institute, Cameron, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1893–early 20th century, was operated by the Presbyterian Church
- Cantonment Indian Boarding School, Canton, Indian Territory run by the General Conference Mennonites from September, 1882 to 1 July 1927
- Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, open 1879–1918
- Carter Seminary, Ardmore, Oklahoma 1917-2004 when the facility moved to Kingston, Oklahoma and was renamed the Chickasaw Children's Village.
- Chamberlain Indian School, Chamberlain, South Dakota
- Chemawa Indian School, Salem, Oregon
- Cherokee Female Seminary, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1851–1910
- Cherokee Male Seminary, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1851–1910
- Cherokee Orphan Asylum, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory opened in 1871
- Cheyenne-Arapaho Boarding School, Darlington, Indian Territory opened 1871 became the Arapaho Manual Labor and Boarding School in 1879
- Cheyenne Manual Labor and Boarding School, Caddo Springs, Indian Territory, opened 1879 and paid with by federal funds, but run by the Hicksite (Liberal) Friends and Orthodox Quakers. Moved to Concho Indian Boarding School in 1909.
- Chickasaw (male) Academy, near Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma Opened in 1850 by the Methodist Episcopal Church and changed its name to Harley Institute around 1889.
- Chickasaw Children's Village, on Lake Texoma near Kingston, Oklahoma opened 2004
- Chickasaw National Academy, near Stonewall, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open about 1865 to 1880
- Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School (formerly Burney Academy) near Lebanon, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1887–1906
- Chilocco Indian Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, open 1884–1980
- Chinle Boarding School, Many Farms, Arizona
- Chuala Female Seminary (also known as the Pine Ridge Mission School), near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1838–61 by the Presbyterian Church
- Circle of Nations Indian School , Wahpeton, North Dakota
- Colbert Institute, Perryville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1852-57 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
- Collins Institute, near Stonewall, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open about 1885 to 1905
- Concho Indian Boarding School, Concho, Oklahoma open 1909–83
- Creek Orphan Asylum, Okmulgee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory opened 1895
- Darlington Mission School, Darlington, Indian Territory run by the General Conference Mennonites from 1881 to 1902
- Dwight Mission, Marble City, Oklahoma
- Elliott Academy (formerly Oak Hill Industrial Academy), near Valliant, Oklahoma, 1912–36
- El Meta Bond College, Minco, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, open 1890–1919
- Emahaka Mission, Wewoka, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1894–1911
- Euchee Boarding School, Sapulpa, Creek Nation, Indian Territory open 1894–1947
- Eufaula Dormitory, Eufaula, Oklahoma name changed from Eufaula High School in 1952. Still in operation
- Eufaula Indian High School, Eufaula, Creek Nation, Indian Territory replaced the burned Asbury Manual Labor School. Open in 1892–1952, when the name changed to Eufaula Dormitory
- Flandreau Indian School, South Dakota
- Folsom Training School, near Smithville, Oklahoma open 1921–32, when it became an all-white school
- Fort Bidwell School, Fort Bidwell, California
- Fort Coffee Academy, Fort Coffee, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1840–63 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
- Fort Shaw Indian School, Fort Shaw, Montana
- Fort Sill Indian School (originally known as Josiah Missionary School), near Fort Sill, Indian Territory opened in 1871 by the Quakers, remained open until 1980
- Fort Totten Indian Industrial School, Fort Totten, North Dakota. Boarding and Indian Industrial School in 1891–1935. Became a Community and Day School from 1940 to 1959. Now a Historic Site run by the State Historic Society of North Dakota.
- Genoa Indian Industrial School, Genoa, Nebraska
- Goodland Academy & Indian Orphanage, Hugo, Oklahoma
- Greenville School, California
- Hampton Institute, began accepting Native students in 1878
- Harley Institute, near Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma Prior to 1889 was known as the Chickasaw Academy and was operated by the Methodist Episcopal Church until 1906.
- Haskell Indian Industrial Training School, Lawrence, Kansas, 1884–present
- Hayward Indian School, Hayward, Wisconsin
- Hillside Mission School, near Skiatook, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1884–1908 by the Quakers
- Holbrook Indian School, Holbrook, Arizona
- Ignacio Boarding School, Colorado
- Iowa Mission School, near Fallis, Iowa Reservation, Indian Territory open 1890–93 by the Quakers
- Intermountain Indian School, Utah
- Jones Academy, Hartshorne, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory/Oklahoma Opened in 1891
- Koweta Mission School Coweta, Creek Nation, Indian Territory open 1843–61
- Levering Manual Labor School, Wetumka, Creek Nation, Indian Territory Open 1882–91, operated by the Southern Baptist Convention.
- Many Farms High School, near Many Farms, Arizona
- Marty Indian School, Marty, South Dakota
- Mekasukey Academy, near Seminole, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1891–1930
- Morris Industrial School for Indians, Morris, Minnesota, open 1887–1909
- Mount Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, Alaska, established as a BIA school, now operated by the State of Alaska
- Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 1893–1934
- Murray State School of Agriculture, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, est. 1908
- Nenannezed Boarding School, New Mexico
- New Hope Academy, Fort Coffee, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1844 –96 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
- Nuyaka School and Orphanage (Nuyaka Mission, Presbyterian), Okmulgee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, 1884–1933
- Oak Hill Industrial Academy, near Valliant, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1878–1912 by the Presbyterian Mission Board. The Choctaw freedmen's academy was renamed as the Elliott Academy (aka Alice Lee Elliott Memorial Academy) in 1912.
- Oak Ridge Manual Labor School, near Holdenville, Indian Territory in the Seminole Nation. Open 1848–60s by the Presbyterian Mission Board.
- Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls, Durant, Oklahoma
- Oklahoma School for the Blind, Muskogee, Oklahoma
- Oklahoma School for the Deaf, Sulphur, Oklahoma
- Oneida Indian School, Wisconsin
- Osage Boarding School, Pawhuska, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1874–1922
- Park Hill Mission School, Park Hill Indian Territory/Oklahoma opened 1837
- Pawnee Boarding School, Pawnee, Indian Territory, open 11 November 1878 – 22 May 1958
- Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Arizona
- Pierre Indian School, Pierre, South Dakota
- Pine Ridge Boarding School, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
- Pine Ridge Mission School, near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory see Chuala Female Seminary
- Pinon Boarding School, Pinon, Arizona
- Pipestone Indian School, Pipestone, Minnesota
- Quapaw Industrial Boarding School, Quapaw Agency Indian Territory open 2 September 1872 – 1900
- Rainy Mountain Boarding School, near Gotebo, Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation, Indian Territory, open 1893–1920
- Rapid City Indian School, Rapid City, South Dakota
- Red Moon School, near Hammon, Indian Territory open 1897–1922
- Riverside Indian School, Anadarko, Oklahoma open 1871–present
- Sac and Fox Boarding School, near Stroud, Indiant Territory, open 1872–1919 by the Quakers
- Sacred Heart College, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1884–1902
- Sacred Heart Institute, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–1929
- St. Agnes Academy, Ardmore, Oklahoma
- St. Agnes Mission, Antlers, Oklahoma
- St. Boniface Indian School, Banning, California
- St. Elizabeth's Boarding School, Purcell, Oklahoma
- St. John's Boarding School, Gray Horse, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1888–1913 and operated by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions
- St. Joseph's Boarding School, Chickasha, Oklahoma
- St. Mary's Academy, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–1946
- St. Louis Industrial School, Pawhuska, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1887–1949 and operated by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions
- St. Mary's Boarding School, Quapaw Agency Indian Territory/Oklahoma open 1893–1927
- St. Patrick's Mission and Boarding School, Anadarko, Indian Territory open 1892–1909 by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. It was rebuilt and called the Anadarko Boarding School.
- San Juan Boarding School, New Mexico
- Santa Fe Indian School, Santa Fe, New Mexico
- Sasakwa Female Academy, Sasakwa, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–92 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
- Seger Indian Training School, Colony, Indian Territory
- Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandotte Industrial Boarding School, Wyandotte, Indian Territory
- Sequoyah High School, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory
- Shawnee Boarding School, near Shawnee, Indian Territory, open 1876–1918
- Shawnee Boarding School, Shawnee, Oklahoma open 1923–61
- Sherman Indian High School, Riverside, California
- Shiprock Boarding School, Shiprock, New Mexico
- Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico
- Spencer Academy (sometimes referred to as the National School of the Choctaw Nation), near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1842–1900
- Springfield Indian School, Springfield, South Dakota
- Stewart Indian School, Carson City, Nevada
- Sulphur Springs Indian School, Pontotoc County, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1896–98
- Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School, founded in 1923 in buildings of the U.S. Army's closed Fort Apache, Arizona, as of 2016 still in operation as a tribal school
- Thomas Indian School, near Irving, New York
- Tomah Indian School, Wisconsin
- Tullahassee Mission School, Tullahassee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory opened 1850 burned 1880
- Tullahassee Manual Labor School, Tullahassee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory open 1883–1914 for Creek Freedmen
- Tushka Lusa Institute (later called Tuska Lusa or Tushkaloosa Academy), near Talihina, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory opened 1892 for Choctaw Freedmen
- Tuskahoma Female Academy, Lyceum, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1892–1925
- Wahpeton Indian School, Wahpeton, North Dakota, 1904–93. In 1993 its name was changed to Circle of Nations School and came under tribal control. Currently open.
- Wapanucka Academy (also sometimes called Allen Academy), near Bromide, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1851–1911 by the Presbyterian Church.
- Wealaka Mission School Wealaka, Indian Territory open 1882–1907
- Wewoka Mission School, (also known as Ramsey Mission School) near Wewoka, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory Open 1868–80 by the Presbyterian Mission Board.
- Wheelock Academy, Millerton, Oklahoma closed 1955
- White's Manual Labor Institute, Wabash, Indiana Open 1870–95 and operated by the Quakers
- White's Manual Labor Institute, West Branch, Iowa, open 1881–87
- Wetumka Boarding School, Wetumka, Creek Nation, Indian Territory Levering Manual Labor School transferred from the Baptists to the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in 1891 and they changed the name to the Wetumka Boarding School. Operated until 1910.
- Wittenberg Indian School, Wittenberg, Wisconsin
- Yellow Springs School, Pontotoc County, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1896–1905
- Education for Extinction
- Native Americans in the United States
- Canadian residential school system
- Native schools in New Zealand
- Our Spirits Don't Speak English, documentary on Native American boarding schools
- School segregation in the United States
- Stolen Generations, children of Australian Aboriginal descent who were removed from their families by the Australian and state government agencies
- Tobeluk vs Lind, a landmark case in Native education where 27 teenaged Alaskan Native plaintiffs brought suit against the State of Alaska claiming that their boarding school experiences were racial discrimination and educational inequity
- "What Were Boarding Schools Like for Indian Youth?". authorsden.com. Retrieved February 8, 2006.
- Stephen Magagnini. "Long-suffering urban Indians find roots in ancient rituals". Sacramento Bee. California's Lost Tribes. Archived from the original on August 29, 2005. Retrieved February 8, 2006.
- "Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved February 8, 2006.
- Brenda J. Child, Boarding schools In Frederick E. Hoxie, ed. Encyclopedia of North American Indians: Native American History, Culture, and Life From Paleo-Indians to the Present (1996) p 80 online
- Eric Miller (1994). "Washington and the Northwest War, Part One". Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans and Whites in the Progressive Era, Tom Holm, http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exholgre.html
- Saunt, Claudia (2005). Black, White, and Indian. Oxford University Press. p. 155.
- "To the Brothers of the Choctaw Nation". Yale Law School. 1803. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- Foley, Henry. Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus. 1875. London: Burns and Oates. p. 352.
- Foley, p. 379
- Foley, p. 394
- Monaghan, E. J., Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America, University of Massachusetts Press. Boston: MA, 2005, p. 55, 59
- Charla Bear, "American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many", Part 1, NPR, 12 May 2008, accessed 5 July 2011
- cite Jennifer Jones, Dee Ann Bosworth, Amy Lonetree, "American Indian Boarding Schools: An Exploration of Global Ethnic & Cultural Cleansing", Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture & Lifeways, 2011, accessed 25 January 2014
- Bosworth, Dee Ann. "American Indian Boarding Schools: An Exploration of Global, Ethnic & Cultural Cleansing" (PDF). www.sagchip.org. Mount Pleasant, Michigan: The Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture & Lifeways. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Author unlisted (2001). Native American Issue: "The Challenges and Limitations of Assimilation", The Brown Quarterly 4(3), accessed 6 July 2011
- Smith, Andrea. "Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools", Amnesty Magazine, from Amnesty International website, 
-  Union of Ontario Indians press release: "Time will prove apology's sincerity", says Beaucage.
- Lomawaima & Child & Archuleta (2000). Away from Home: American Indian Boarding School Experiences. Heard Museum.
- Hutchinson, Elizabeth (2001). "Modern Native American art: Angel DeCora's transcultural aesthetics". The Art Bulletin New York (83): 740–756.
- Sa, Zitkala (2000). The school days of an Indian girl in The American 1890s: A cultural reader. Duke University Press. p. 352.
- Hultgren, Mary Lou (1989). To lead and to serve: American Indian education at Hampton institute 1878-1923. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy in cooperation with Hampton University.
- Hutchinson, Elizabeth (2001). "Modern Native American art: Angel DeCora's transcultural aesthetics". The Art Bulletin New York. 83: 740–756. doi:10.2307/3177230.
- Moyer, Kathryn. "Going back to the blanket.': New outlooks on art instruction at the Carlisle Indian Industrial school. In Visualizing a mission: Artifacts and imagery of the Carlisle Indian School, 1879-1918" (PDF).
- "BIA Schools". National Archives. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1899 Part I ()". http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 1 February 2015. External link in
- Carter, Kent, compiler. "Preliminary Inventory of the Office of the Five Civilized Tribes Agency Muscogee Area of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (Record Group 75). Appendix VI: List of Schools (Entry 600 and 601)" RootsWeb. 1994 (retrieved 25 Feb 2010)
- White, James D. "St. Patrick's Mission". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Everett, Dianna. "SEGER, JOHN HOMER (1846-1928)". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- McKellips, Karen K (October 1992). "Educational Practices in Two Nineteenth Century American Indian Mission Schools". Journal of American Indian Education. 32 (1).
- Federal Writers Project of the WPA (1941). Oklahoma: A Guide to the Sooner State. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 372–373. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Asbury Manual Labor School and Mission". General Commission on Archives & History The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Lupo, Mark R. "Asbury School and Mission". Alabama Historical Markers. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Warde, Mary Jane (1999). George Washington Grayson and the Creek nation : 1843 - 1920. Norman, Okla.: Univ. of Oklahoma Press. pp. 43 and 149. ISBN 0-8061-3160-8. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Doucette, Bob (April 29, 2002). "Chickasaws plan to move seminary". News OK. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Margery Pease, A Worthy Work in a Needy Time: The Montana Industrial School for Indians (Bond's Mission ) 1886-1897, Self-published in 1986. Reprinted in Billings, Mont.: M. Pease, 
- "Burney Academy". cumberland.org. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- O'Dell, Larry. "Cameron". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Petter, Rodolphe (1953). "Cantonment Mennonite Mission (Canton, Oklahoma, USA)". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Cantonment School. (1903 - 07/01/1927)". Archives.gov. US National Archives. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs." National Archives. (retrieved 25 Feb 2010)
- "American Indian Boarding Schools." 15 Sept 2003 (retrieved 25 Feb 2010)
- Lance, Dana (August 2014). "Chickasaw Children's Village Celebrates 10 Years of Service". Chickasaw Times. p. 12. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Agnew, Brad. "Cherokee Male and Female Seminaries". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Conley, Robert L. A Cherokee Encyclopedia. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007:214. (Retrieved through Google Books, 23 July 2009.) ISBN 978-0-8263-3951-5.
- Chisholm, Johnnie Bishop (June 1926). "Harley Institute". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 4 (2). Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Burris, George W (June 1942). "Reminiscences Of Old Stonewall". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 20 (2). Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Davis, Caroline (December 1937). "Education of the Chickasaws 1856-1907". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 15 (4). Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Indian Boarding and Residential Schools Sites of Conscience Network." International Coalition of Sites of Conscience. (retrieved 25 Feb 2010)
- Gibson, Arrell Morgan (1981). Oklahoma, a History of Five Centuries. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 95 and 111. ISBN 978-0806117584. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Cassity, Michael; Goble, Danney (2009). Divided hearts : the Presbyterian journey through Oklahoma history. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8061-3848-0.
- Wright, Muriel H. (June 1930). "Additional Notes on Perryville, Choctaw Nation". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 8 (2). Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Fowler, Loretta (2010). Wives and husbands : gender and age in Southern Arapaho history. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8061-4116-9.
- Gamino, Denise (August 17, 1983). "Judge Approves Closing Concho Indian School". News OK. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Acts and Resolutions of the Creek National Council". 23 October 1894. p. 9. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Peyer, Bernd (editor) (2007). American Indian Nonfiction: An Anthology of Writings, 1760s-1930s. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8061-3708-7. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Thiesen, Barbara A (June 2006). "Every Beginning Is Hard: Darlington Mennonite Mission, 1880-1902". Mennonite Life. 61 (2).
- "Remembering Oak Hill Academy for Choctaw Freedmen". african-nativeamerican.blogspot. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Marsh, Raph (June 3, 1958). "Minco College History Deep". Chickasha Daily Express. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Emahaka Mission". Seminole Nation. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Euchee Mission Boarding School". Exploring Oklahoma History. blogoklahoma.us. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Muskogee Area Office. Eufala High School". National Archives. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Eufaula Dormitory". eots.org. Eastern Oklahoma Tribal Schools. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Site Markers - Folsom Training School". Broken Bow Chamber of Commerce. Broken Bow Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Smith, Tash (2014). Capture these Indians for the lord : Indians, Methodists, and Oklahomans, 1844-1939. University of Arizona Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8165-3088-5. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form - Comanche Indian Mission Cemetery" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior National Park Service. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Biskupic, Joan M. (May 13, 1983). "Tribes' Hopes of Reopening Fort Sill Indian School Fading". News OK. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Miller, Floyd E. (September 1926). "Hillside Mission". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 4 (3): 225. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Rofini, Diane (editor); Peterson, Diana Franzusoff (editor). "Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs" (PDF). Haverford, Pennsylvania: Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
transferring efforts from Hillside to another more pioneer station
- Ragland (1955), pp. 177–178
- "Jones Academy". Jones Academy. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Starr, Myra. "Creek (Mvskoke) Schools". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Foreman, Carolyn Thomas (1947). "Israel G. Vore and Levering Manual Labor School" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 25: 206. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior National Park Service: 3. 16 May 1974. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Mekasukey Academy". Seminole Nation. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- City of Morris: Morris Human Rights Commission
- Miles, Dennis B. "Choctaw Boarding Schools". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Flickinger, Robert Elliott (1914). The Choctaw Freedmen and The Story of Oak Hill Industrial Academy (PDF). Presbyterian Board of Missions for Freedmen. p. 103. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Flickinger (1914), pp. 210–215
- Koenig, Pamela. "Seminole Schools". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Osage Agency. Osage Boarding School. (01/01/1874 - 12/31/1922)". National Archives. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Pirtle III, Caleb (2011). Trail of Broken Promises. Venture Galleries LLC. ISBN 978-0-9842-0837-1. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Kresge, Theda GoodFox (15 June 2009). "The gravy had no lumps". Native American Times. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Johnson, Larry G. (2008). Tar Creek : a history of the Quapaw Indians, the world's largest lead and zinc discovery, and the Tar Creek Superfund site. Mustang, Okla.: Tate Pub. & Enterprises. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-60696-555-9. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Ellis, Clyde. "Rainy Mountain Boarding School". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Red Moon School and Agency.". archives.gov. U.S. National Archives. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Koenig, Pamela. "Riverside Indian School". Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Ragland, Hobert D (1955). "Missions of the Society of Friends, Sac and Fox Agency" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 33 (2): 172. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Ragland, Hobart D (1951). "Some Firsts In Lincoln County" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 29 (4): 420. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Wright, Catherine; Anders, Mary Ann (April 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form: Sacred Heart Mission Site" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Harley, Bruce (1994). Readings in Diocesan Heritage. 8, Seek and ye shall find: St. Boniface Indian Industrial School, 1888–1978. San Bernardino, CA: Diocese of San Bernardino. pp. i–137. OCLC 29934736.
- Nieberding, Velma (1954). "Catholic Education Among the Osage" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 32: 12–15. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Jackson, Joe C. (1954). "Schools Among the Minor Tribes in Indian Territory" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 32: 64–65. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Baker, Terri M. (editor); Henshaw, Connie Oliver (co-editor) (2007). Women who pioneered Oklahoma : stories from the WPA narratives. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3845-9. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Gilstrap, Harriet Patrick (1960). "Memoirs of a Pioneer Teacher" (PDF). Chronicles of Oklahoma. 38 (1): 21. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- WPA 1941, p. 308
- Spring, Joel (2012). Corporatism, social control, and cultural domination in education : from the radical right to globalization : the selected works of Joel Spring. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-415-53435-2. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Choctaw Schools and Missions". Rootsweb. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Constitution and Laws of the Chickasaw Nation together with the Treaties of 1832,1833, 1834, 1837, 1852, 1855 and 1866. Library of Congress: Chickasaw Nation. 15 October 1896. p. 366. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Tullahassee Manual Labor School (1850-1924)". blackpast.org. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Tushka Lusa Academy - A School For Choctaw Freedmen". Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Stewart, Paul (26 November 1931). "Choctaw Council House, Tuskahoma, Oklahoma". Antlers American. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Wright, Muriel H. (December 1934). "Wapanucka Academy, Chickasaw Nation". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 12 (4). Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Settlers Claim Land". Bixby Historical Society. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Chief Alice Brown Davis". Seminole Nation. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Fixico, Donald L. (2012). Bureau of Indian Affairs. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-313-39179-8. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Mulroy, Kevin (2007). The Seminole freedmen a history. Norman, Okla.: Univ. of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3865-7. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Glenn, Elizabeth; Rafert, Stewart (2009). The Native Americans. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-87195-280-6. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Photos Of American Indians From White's Institute, Wabash, Indiana". Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Zagofsky, Al (November 17, 2012). "Josiah White's curious link to Jim Thorpe". Lehighton, Pennsylvania: Times News. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- King, Thomas M. (2012). History of San Jose Quakers, west coast Friends : based on Joel Bean's diaries in Iowa and California. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-105-69540-7. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Sulphur Springs, p. 397
- Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
- Child, Brenda J. (2000). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, Lincoln: U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6405-2.
- Meriam, Lewis et al., The Problem of Indian Administration, Brookings Institution, 1928 (full text online at Alaskool.org)
- Giago, Tim A. (2006). Children Left Behind: Dark Legacy of Indian Mission Boarding Schools. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light. ISBN 978-1574160864. OCLC 168659123.
- Baird, W. David; Goble, Danney (1994). The Story of Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 217. ISBN 0-8061-2650-7. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Bear, Charla, "American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many", NPR, May 12, 2008
- An Indian Boarding School Photo Gallery, University of Illinois
- Carolyn J. Marr, "Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest Essay", University of Washington Digital Collection
- Playing for the World Documentary produced by Montana PBS
- Unspoken: America's Native American Boarding Schools Documentary produced by KUED