Nattokinase

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Crystal structure of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto. PDB 4dww[1]

Nattokinase (pronounced nat-oh-KY-nase) is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.62) extracted and purified from a Japanese food called nattō. Nattō is made from fermented soybeans and has been eaten in Japan for about a thousand years. Nattō is produced by fermentation by adding the bacterium Bacillus natto to boiled soybeans. Nattokinase is produced by the bacterium acting on the soybeans. While other soy foods contain enzymes, it is only the nattō preparation that contains the specific nattokinase enzyme.

In spite of its name, nattokinase is not a kinase enzyme, but a serine protease of the subtilisin family. It exhibits a strong fibrinolytic activity.[2][3] Nattokinase can now be produced by recombinant means[4][5] and in batch culture,[6][7] rather than relying on extraction from Nattō.

There are three well-known manufacturers around the world, including Contek Life Science Co., Ltd, Daiwa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd and Japanese Nattokinase Association organized by Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Yanagisawa, Y.; Chatake, T.; Chiba-Kamoshida, K.; Naito, S.; Ohsugi, T.; Sumi, H.; Yasuda, I.; Morimoto, Y. (2010). "Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase fromBacillus subtilis natto". Acta Crystallographica Section F. 66 (12): 1670–1673. doi:10.1107/S1744309110043137. PMC 2998380Freely accessible. PMID 21139221. 
  2. ^ Fujita, M.; Nomura, K.; Hong, K.; Ito, Y.; Asada, A.; Nishimuro, S. (1993). "Purification and Characterization of a Strong Fibrinolytic Enzyme (Nattokinase) in the Vegetable Cheese Natto, a Popular Soybean Fermented Food in Japan". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 197 (3): 1340–1347. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.2624. PMID 8280151. 
  3. ^ Sumi, H.; Hamada, H.; Tsushima, H.; Mihara, H.; Muraki, H. (1987). "A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet". Experientia. 43 (10): 1110–1111. doi:10.1007/bf01956052. PMID 3478223. 
  4. ^ Liang, X.; Jia, S.; Sun, Y.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Zhong, J.; Huan, L. (2007). "Secretory Expression of Nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis YF38 in Escherichia coli". Molecular Biotechnology. 37 (3): 187–194. doi:10.1007/s12033-007-0060-y. PMID 17952663. 
  5. ^ Li, X.; Wang, X.; Xiong, S.; Zhang, J.; Cai, L.; Yang, Y. (2007). "Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells". Biotechnology Letters. 29 (10): 1459–1464. doi:10.1007/s10529-007-9426-2. PMID 17581705. 
  6. ^ Cho, Y. H.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, K. M.; Kim, M. K.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. S.; Han, N. S.; Lee, B. H.; Kim, B. S. (2010). "Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis". New Biotechnology. 27 (4): 341–346. doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2010.06.003. PMID 20541632. 
  7. ^ Kwon, E. Y.; Kim, K. M.; Kim, M. K.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, B. S. (2011). "Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis". Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 34 (7): 789–793. doi:10.1007/s00449-011-0527-x. PMID 21336955. 

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