Nattokinase

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Subtilisin NAT
4dwwnattokinase.png
Crystal structure of nattokinase. PDB 4dww[1]
Identifiers
OrganismBacillus subtilis natto
SymbolaprN
UniProtP35835
Other data
EC number3.4.21.62

Nattokinase (pronounced nuh-TOH-kin-ayss) is an enzyme extracted and purified from a Japanese food called nattō. Nattō is produced by fermentation by adding the bacterium Bacillus natto, which also produces the enzyme, to boiled soybeans. While other soy foods contain enzymes, it is only the nattō preparation that contains the specific nattokinase enzyme.

In spite of its name, nattokinase is not a kinase enzyme (and should not be pronounced as such), but a serine protease of the subtilisin family (99.5% identical with aprE). Rather, it is named for the fact that it is an enzyme produced by nattōkin (納豆), the Japanese name for Bacillus subtilis var natto. When in contact with human blood or blood clots, it exhibits a strong fibrinolytic activity and works by inactivating plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1).[2][3][4][5] Although it should be expected to be digested and inactivated in the human gut like other proteins, a few researchers report that nattokinase is active when taken orally.[6]

Nattokinase is sold as a dietary supplement. It can now be produced by recombinant means[7][8] and in batch culture,[9][10] rather than relying on extraction from nattō. There are three well-known manufacturers around the world: Contek Life Science, Daiwa Pharmaceutical, and the Japanese Nattokinase Association organized by Japan Bio Science Laboratory.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Yanagisawa Y, Chatake T, Chiba-Kamoshida K, Naito S, Ohsugi T, Sumi H, et al. (December 2010). "Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto". Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. 66 (Pt 12): 1670–3. doi:10.1107/S1744309110043137. PMC 2998380. PMID 21139221.
  2. ^ Urano T, Ihara H, Umemura K, Suzuki Y, Oike M, Akita S, et al. (July 2001). "The profibrinolytic enzyme subtilisin NAT purified from Bacillus subtilis Cleaves and inactivates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (27): 24690–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M101751200. PMID 11325965.
  3. ^ Fujita M, Nomura K, Hong K, Ito Y, Asada A, Nishimuro S (December 1993). "Purification and characterization of a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese natto, a popular soybean fermented food in Japan". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 197 (3): 1340–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.2624. PMID 8280151.
  4. ^ "Can You Take Nattokinase With Coumadin (Warfarin)?". PharmacistAnswers. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  5. ^ Sumi H, Hamada H, Tsushima H, Mihara H, Muraki H (October 1987). "A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet". Experientia. 43 (10): 1110–1. doi:10.1007/bf01956052. PMID 3478223.
  6. ^ Chen H, McGowan EM, Ren N, Lal S, Nassif N, Shad-Kaneez F, et al. (2018). "Nattokinase: A Promising Alternative in Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases". Biomarker Insights. 13: 1177271918785130. doi:10.1177/1177271918785130. PMID 30013308.
  7. ^ Liang X, Jia S, Sun Y, Chen M, Chen X, Zhong J, Huan L (November 2007). "Secretory expression of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis YF38 in Escherichia coli". Molecular Biotechnology. 37 (3): 187–94. doi:10.1007/s12033-007-0060-y. PMID 17952663.
  8. ^ Li X, Wang X, Xiong S, Zhang J, Cai L, Yang Y (October 2007). "Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells". Biotechnology Letters. 29 (10): 1459–64. doi:10.1007/s10529-007-9426-2. PMID 17581705.
  9. ^ Cho YH, Song JY, Kim KM, Kim MK, Lee IY, Kim SB, et al. (September 2010). "Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis". New Biotechnology. 27 (4): 341–6. doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2010.06.003. PMID 20541632.
  10. ^ Kwon EY, Kim KM, Kim MK, Lee IY, Kim BS (September 2011). "Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis". Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 34 (7): 789–93. doi:10.1007/s00449-011-0527-x. PMID 21336955.

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