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Nautilus is the fictional submarine captained by Nemo featured in Jules Verne's novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). Verne named the Nautilus after Robert Fulton's real-life submarine Nautilus (1800). For the design of the Nautilus Verne was inspired by the French Navy submarine Plongeur, a model of which he had seen at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, three years before writing his novel.
Nautilus is described by Verne as "a masterpiece containing masterpieces". It is designed and commanded by Captain Nemo. Electricity provided by sodium/mercury batteries (with the sodium provided by extraction from seawater) is the craft's primary power source for propulsion and other services.
Nautilus is double-hulled, and is further separated into water-tight compartments. Its top speed is 93 km/h (50 knots). Its displacement is 1,500.2 tonnes (1,476.5 long tons) submerged. In Captain Nemo's own words:
|“||Here, M. Aronnax, are the several dimensions of the boat you are in. It is an elongated cylinder with conical ends. It is very like a cigar in shape, a shape already adopted in London in several constructions of the same sort. The length of this cylinder, from stem to stern, is exactly 70 m, and its maximum breadth is eight metres. It is not built on a ratio of ten to one like your long-voyage steamers, but its lines are sufficiently long, and its curves prolonged enough, to allow the water to slide off easily, and oppose no obstacle to its passage. These two dimensions enable you to obtain by a simple calculation the surface and cubic contents of the Nautilus. Its area measures 1011.45 square metres; and its contents 1,500.2 cubic metres; that is to say, when completely immersed it displaces 1500.2 cubic metres of water, or 1500.2 metric tons.||”|
Nautilus uses floodable tanks in order to adjust buoyancy and so control its depth. The pumps that evacuate these tanks of water are so powerful that they produce large jets of water when the vessel emerges rapidly from the surface of the water. This leads many early observers of Nautilus to believe that the vessel is some species of whale, or perhaps a sea monster not yet known to science. To submerge deeply in a short time, Nautilus uses a technique called "hydroplaning", in which the vessel dives down at a steep angle.
Nautilus supports a crew that gathers and farms food from the sea. Nautilus includes a galley for preparing these foods, which includes a machine that makes drinking water from seawater through distillation. Nautilus is not able to refresh its air supply, so Captain Nemo designed it to do this by surfacing and exchanging stale air for fresh, much like a whale. Nautilus is capable of extended voyages without refuelling or otherwise restocking supplies. Its maximum dive time is around five days.
Much of the ship is decorated to standards of luxury that are unequalled in a seagoing vessel of the time. These include a library with boxed collections of valuable oceanic specimens that are unknown to science at the time, expensive paintings, and several collections of jewels. Nautilus also features a lavish dining room and even an organ that Captain Nemo uses to entertain himself in the evening. By comparison, Nemo's personal quarters are very sparsely furnished, but do feature duplicates of the bridge instruments, so that the captain can keep track of the vessel without being present on the bridge. These amenities however, are only available to Nemo, Professor Aronnax, and his companions.
From her attacks on ships, using a ramming prow to puncture target vessels below the waterline, the world thinks it a sea monster, but later identifies it as an underwater vessel capable of great destructive power, after Abraham Lincoln is attacked and Ned Land strikes the metallic surface of Nautilus with his harpoon.
Its parts are built to order in France, the United Kingdom, Krupp of Prussia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere. Then they are assembled by Nemo's men on a desert island. Nautilus most likely returned to this island and later helped castaways in the novel The Mysterious Island. After Nemo dies on board, the volcanic island erupts, entombing the Captain and Nautilus for eternity.
- In the 1954 film and The Return of Captain Nemo, it is suggested that Nautilus is powered by nuclear energy (discovered by Nemo himself), and that Nemo uses the same energy to destroy Vulcania, Nautilus's base island. This version also appears in the video game Epic Mickey, under the name of Notilus.
- The comic book The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen and its film adaptation feature a much larger version of Nautilus; The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: The Black Dossier states that it is a second, larger submarine built after the destruction of the first one from Verne's novels. This version features a design evoking a squid attacking a whale; the squid section, which has functional tentacles, can be detached as shown in the cross-section from The Black Dossier. The version in the film adaptation has a more straightforward appearance of a long, thin silver submarine, albeit of massive proportions, equipped with a sharpened front end and missile launchers, narrow enough to comfortably travel through the canals of Venice.
- Nautilus can also be seen at Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneysea, the one in Paris being a walk-through, while the Disneysea version is a static prop in a lagoon that can't be accessed by the public.
- In Kevin J. Anderson's Captain Nemo: The Fantastic History of a Dark Genius, Nautilus appears as a real submarine, apparently cigar-shaped like the one from the novel, built by Nemo for the Ottoman Empire.
- In Warren Ellis's Planetary series, Elijah Snow hides himself aboard the Nautilus, which has been captured by villains The Four.
- In the book Here, There Be Dragons (2006) by James A. Owen. Nemo and Nautilus, which is also called the Yellow Dragon, both appear.
- In the MMORPG MapleStory, Nautilus is a submarine that looks like a whale with a skull attached to the front. In other words, it is also the town of pirates.
- In Valhalla Rising, by Clive Cussler, Nemo and Nautilus are discovered by a researcher and stored in a hidden cave as his private research lab. Its propulsion in the novel is described as a Magneto-hydrodynamic drive.
- In Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water, a steampunk-themed anime set in 1889, Nautilus is an ancient Atlantean war machine. It is approximately 150 metres in length and filled with scientific marvels, such as electricity, indoor plumbing and a "particle annihilation engine" as its power source.
- In the Japanese anime feature film Kaitei Daisensō: Ai no 20,000 Miles (Japanese: 海底大戦争 愛の20000マイル, "The Great Navy Battle: 20,000 Miles of Love" (1981)) Captain Nemo plans to use the Nautilus to confront humanoid aliens who have invaded Earth.
- In Journey 2: The Mysterious Island 2012, the main characters locate Nautilus and use it to escape the sinking island, kick-starting its dead batteries with power from a massive electric eel.
- In the 1969 film Captain Nemo and the Underwater City, Nautilus and its sister ship Nautilus II are depicted as industrialised stingray-like vessels, flattened with pronounced tumblehomes supporting rounded deckhouses. Each has a heavy girderwork tail, at the tip of which twin rudders and diving planes are mounted.
- The Nautilus and Nemo also make an appearance in Once Upon A Time, Season 6, with the ship retaining its design from the 1954 film.
Other Verne submarines
Submarines feature in some other of Verne's works. In the 1896 novel Facing the Flag, the pirate Ker Karraje uses an unnamed submarine that acts both as a tug to his schooner Ebba and for ramming and destroying ships which are the targets of his piracy. The same book also features HMS Sword, a small Royal Navy experimental submarine which is sunk after a valiant but unequal struggle with the pirate submarine. In the book The Master of the World, Robur's secondary vehicle, Terror, is a strange flying machine with submarine, automobile and speedboat capabilities. It briefly eludes naval forces on the Great Lakes by diving.
Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax discussing the plans of Nautilus.
Captain Nemo's room aboard Nautilus.
- Skrabec, Quentin R. (2005). The Metallurgic Age: The Victorian Flowering of Invention and Industrial Science (revised ed.). Jefferson NC: McFarland. p. 44. ISBN 9781476611136. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Notice at the Musée de la Marine, Rochefort
Jules Verne's text in 20,000 Leagues under the Sea provides a great deal of information about Nautilus as discussed on this page: Jules Verne's Nautilus. Many artists and ordinary folk have envisioned over the decades their own interpretations of Nautilus: A Catalog of Nautilus Designs