Naval flight officer
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A Naval Flight Officer (NFO) is a commissioned officer in the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps who specializes in airborne weapons and sensor systems. NFOs are not pilots (naval aviators) per se, but they may perform many "co-pilot" functions, depending on the type of aircraft. Until 1966, their duties were performed by both commissioned officer and senior enlisted naval aviation observers (NAO).
In 1966, enlisted personnel were removed from naval aviation observer duties but continued to serve in enlisted aircrew roles, while NAO officers received the newly established NFO designation, and the NFO insignia was introduced. NFOs in the US Navy all begin their careers as unrestricted line officers (URL), eligible for command at sea and ashore in the various naval aviation aircraft type/model/series (T/M/S) communities and, at a senior level, in command of carrier air wings and aircraft carriers afloat and functional air wings, naval air stations and other activities ashore. They are also eligible for promotion to senior flag rank positions, including command of aircraft carrier strike groups, expeditionary strike groups, joint task forces, numbered fleets, naval component commands and unified combatant commands.
A small number of US Navy NFOs have later opted for a lateral transfer to the restricted line (RL) as aeronautical engineering duty officers (AEDO), while continuing to retain their NFO designation and active flight status. Such officers are typically graduates of the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and/or the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School with advanced academic degrees in aerospace engineering or similar disciplines. AEDO/NFOs are eligible to command test and evaluation squadrons, naval air test centers, naval air warfare centers, and hold major program management responsibilities within the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR).
Similarly, Marine Corps NFOs are also considered eligible for command at sea and ashore within Marine aviation, and are also eligible to hold senior general officer positions, such as command of Marine aircraft wings, Marine air-ground task forces (MAGTFs), joint task forces, Marine expeditionary forces, Marine Corps component commands and unified combatant commands.
The counterpart to the NFO in the United States Air Force is the combat systems officer (CSO), encompassing the previous roles of navigator, weapon systems officer and electronic warfare officer. Although NFOs in the Navy's E-2 Hawkeye aircraft perform functions similar to the USAF air battle manager in the E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft, their NFO training track is more closely aligned with that of USAF combat systems officers.
The United States Coast Guard had a short-lived NFO community in the 1980s and 1990s when it temporarily operated E-2C Hawkeye aircraft on loan from the Navy. Following a fatal mishap with one of these aircraft at the former Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, the Coast Guard returned the remaining E-2Cs to the Navy and disestablished its NFO program.
- 1 Training
- 2 Naval aviator vs naval flight officer
- 3 Notable NFOs
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Past aircraft
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
Training for Student NFOs (SNFOs) starts out the same as for Student Naval Aviators (SNAs), with the same academic requirements and nearly identical physical requirements. The only real distinction is in physical requirements, where SNFOs may have less than 20/20 uncorrected distant vision. In fact, it is this 20/20 uncorrected distant visual acuity requirement for Student Naval Aviators that typically routes prospective Naval Aviators into the Naval Flight Officer training track. Both SNAs and SNFOs go through the same introductory flight screening and aviation preflight indoctrination together before splitting off into their respective primary training squadrons.
The SNFO program has continued to evolve since the 1960s. Today, SNFOs train under the Undergraduate Military Flight Officer (UMFO) program at Training Air Wing 6 (TRAWING SIX) at NAS Pensacola, alongside foreign students from various NATO, Allied and Coalition navies and air forces. All Student NFOs begin primary training at Training Squadron TEN (VT-10), flying the T-6A Texan II trainer, eventually moving on to advanced training at Training Squadron FOUR (VT-4) or Training Squadron EIGHTY-SIX (VT-86). Upon graduation from their respective advanced squadron, students receive their "wings of gold" and are aeronautically designated as Naval Flight Officers. After winging, students conduct follow-on training at their respective fleet replacement squadron (FRS).
NFO training squadrons
Introductory flight screening
All SNFOs and SNAs start their aviation training with introductory flight screening (IFS). IFS consists of 2 phases: ground school and flight training. The ground school portion lasts about two weeks and culminates with the student completing the FAA private pilot exam. Afterwards, every student enrolls in one of several civilian flight schools located near NAS Pensacola. Students complete approximately 14 hours of flight training in a single engine aircraft, including a solo flight. IFS is normally waived for students entering training with a private pilot license.
Aviation preflight indoctrination
SNFOs will train with Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard SNAs along with NATO and allied students in the SNA and SNFO tracks, and, periodically, with student naval flight surgeons. Aviation preflight indoctrination (API) consists of academic instruction, hands-on interaction and aviation physiology, water survival, and land survival skills.
The academic topics taught in API are of the following:
- Aircraft engines and systems
- Air navigation
- Flight rules and regulations
After the academic phase, students will complete:
- Aerospace physiology
- Egress training
- Water survival training
- Land survival training
After completing API, all SNFOs report to VT-10 under Training Air Wing 6 to begin primary 1 training. All training in VT-10 is done in the Beechcraft T-6A Texan II and consists of 3 phases (all phases consist of ground school, simulator events, and flight events):
- Contact phase (aircraft systems, emergency procedures, basic communication, take-off/landing, ELPs, spins, precision aerobatics, course rules)
- Instrument phase (instrument flight procedures, flight planning, voice communication)
- Visual navigation phase (visual flight procedures, tactical route construction, precision aerobatics)
After graduating from Primary 1, SNFOs will select between maritime land-based aviation or tailhook carrier aviation.[Note 1] Students selected for land-based platforms (e.g., P-3 Orion, P-8 Poseidon, EP-3 Aries II, E-6 Mercury) will continue on to the advanced maritime command and control curriculum at VT-4. Those that select carrier aviation will continue to Primary 2 training and remain at VT-10.
Primary 2 training is also done through VT-10. It is a much shorter syllabus and consists of two phases:
- Instrument phase (simulators and flights flown at a faster airspeed and used to bolster instrument procedures)
- Formation phase (ground school and flights used to introduce formation flying, tactical maneuvers, parade sequence, etc.)
After graduating from primary 2, SNFOs will select:
- E-2C/D Hawkeye
- Strike jet aircraft[Note 2]
E-2C/D Hawkeye selectees will continue on to the advanced maritime command and control curriculum at VT-4, while jet selectees will continue to intermediate training and remain at VT-10.
SNFOs destined for carrier-based strike fighter and electronic attack aircraft remain in VT-10 and continue to fly in the T-6A Texan II. Training consists of four phases:
- Single ship instrument phase (building upon instrument procedures in primary 1 and 2, VFR pattern, GPS navigation)
- Section instrument phase (instrument flying in formation)
- Tactical formation phase (rendezvous, tactical formation, tail-chase)
- Section visual navigation phase (visual navigation flying in formation)
Advanced maritime command and control
After primary, students who have selected E-2s or land-based maritime aviation (P-3, P-8, EP-3, E-6) check into VT-4 for advanced maritime command and control (MC2) training. The MC2 program was developed to allow SNFOs to receive advanced platform-specific training while still at NAS Pensacola, and to receive their wings before progressing to their respective fleet replacement squadron (FRS) for training in their ultimate operational combat aircraft. All MC2 training is conducted in the Multi-Crew Simulator (MCS), a new simulator system that allows students to train independently, as a single-ship crew, or as a multi-ship mission. MC2 training has two phases: Core and strand.
SNFOs begin MC2 training in the "core" syllabus. These classes include a combination of SNFOs who are E-2C/D selectees and land-based maritime selectees. Training in this phase builds upon the instrument training from Primary and includes:
- Operational flight planning, instruments, and navigation (international flight rules and TACAN navigation)
- Communications and navigation systems (comm systems and INS, GPS, and RADAR theory and navigation)
- Sensor and link operations (RADAR, IFF, and IR theory and data link employment)
- Fleet operations
Upon completion of core training, SNFOs who progressed to MC2 training from Primary 1 (land-based maritime selectees) will select their fleet platform. Their choices are: E-6B Mercury, P-3C Orion, EP-3E Aries II, and P-8A Poseidon. When platform selection is complete, all SNFOs remain at VT-4 for "strand" training.
Strand training is platform-specific training via the MCS, allowing SNFOs to begin learning their responsibilities on their fleet aircraft. The development of this program relieves the FRSs from teaching SNFOs the basics of naval aviation and to focus more on advanced fleet tactics, thus providing the fleet with mission-capable NFOs. Upon completion of strand training, students receive their "wings of gold" and are aeronautically designated as naval flight officers.
SNFOs progress through one or two of 4 strands, depending on what platform they select:
- E-2C, E-2D
- Maritime patrol and reconnaissance (MPR): P-3C, EP-3E, and P-8A selectees
- Common navigation: a prerequisite strand for MPR and E-6 strands.
The E-2 strand consists of:
- Airborne early warning (E-2 capabilities and mission overview)
- Air intercept control (airborne battlefield command and control, tactics, and strike techniques)
The common navigation strand consists of:
- Publications and charts
- Overwater navigation and communication procedures
- Navigation logs
The MPR strand consists of:
- Surface search and littoral surveillance (community overview, target identification, sensor employment)
- Electronic warfare and acoustic operations (EW introduction, sonar theory)
- Maritime patrol and reconnaissance (coordinated operations)
The E-6 strand consists of:
- Communications and operations (community overview, operations, strategic command structure)
SNFOs report to VT-86 and fly the T-45C Goshawk. Training consists of five phases:
- Contact phase (T-45 systems, emergency procedures, carrier operations, night operations, communications)
- Strike phase (air-to-ground radar, low level flying, mission planning, fuel awareness)
- Close air support phase (CAS procedures and communications)
- Basic fighter maneuver phase (BFM practice)
- All weather intercepts phase (air-to-air radar, air intercepts, GPS)
After graduating from advanced strike training, Navy SNFOs will select:
- EA-18G Growler
- F/A-18F Super Hornet
Marine SNFOs will select:
- F/A-18D Hornet
- EA-6B Prowler (phaseout currently scheduled for FY20 based on FY15 budgetary planning and may be extended
Naval flight officers operate some of the advanced systems on board most multi-crew naval aircraft, and some may also act as the overall tactical mission commanders of single or multiple aircraft assets during a given mission. NFOs are not formally trained to pilot the aircraft, although they do train in some dual-control aircraft and are given the opportunity to practice "hands on controls" basic airmanship techniques. Some current and recently retired naval aircraft with side-by-side seating are also authorized to operate under dual-piloted weather minimums with one pilot and one NFO. However, in the unlikely event that the pilot of a single piloted naval aircraft becomes incapacitated, the crew would likely eject or bail out, if possible, as NFOs are not normally qualified to land the aircraft, especially in the carrier-based shipboard environment.
NFOs serve as weapon systems officers (WSOs), electronic warfare officers (EWO), electronic countermeasures officers (ECMO), tactical coordinators (TACCO), bombardiers, and navigators. They can serve as aircraft mission commanders, although in accordance with the OPNAVINST 3710 series of instructions, the pilot in command, regardless of rank, is always responsible for the safe piloting of the aircraft. Many NFOs achieve flight/section lead, division lead, package lead, mission lead and mission commander qualification, even when the pilot of the aircraft does not have that designation. Often, a senior NFO is paired with a junior pilot (and vice versa). NFO astronauts have also flown aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station as mission specialists and wear NFO-astronaut wings.
Like their naval aviator counterparts, NFOs in both the Navy and Marine Corps have commanded aviation squadrons, carrier air wings, shore-based functional air wings and air groups, marine aircraft groups, air facilities, air stations, aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships, carrier strike groups, expeditionary strike groups, Marine aircraft wings, Marine expeditionary forces, numbered fleets, and component commands of unified combatant commands. Three NFOs have reached four star rank, one as a Marine Corps general having served as the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the other two as Navy admirals, one having served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations before commanding U.S. Fleet Forces Command & U.S. Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) and U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM), and the other having commanded U.S. Pacific Command, having previously commanded U.S. Pacific Fleet. Another former NFO who retrained and qualified as a Naval Aviator also achieved four star rank as a Marine Corps general, commanded U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and later served as Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS).
Vice Admiral Walter E. “Ted” Carter Jr. became the 62nd superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy on July 23, 2014. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1981, was designated a Naval Flight Officer in 1982, and graduated from the U.S. Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) in 1985. Carter’s career as an aviator includes extensive time at sea, deploying around the globe in the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat. He has landed on 19 different aircraft carriers, to include all 10 of the Nimitz class carriers. Carter flew 125 combat missions in support of joint operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Kuwait, Iraq and Afghanistan. He accumulated 6,150 flight hours in F-4, F-14, and F/A-18 aircraft during his career and safely completed 2,016 carrier-arrested landings, the record among all active and retired U.S. Naval Aviation designators.
As a captain, Vice Admiral Richard Dunleavy was the first NFO to command an aircraft carrier, the USS Coral Sea (CV 43). He previously flew the A-3 Skywarrior, A-5 Vigilante, RA-5C Vigilante and A-6 Intruder. Later in his career, he was promoted to rear admiral and vice admiral, and was the first NFO to hold the since disestablished position of Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air Warfare (OP-05). He retired in 1993.
Commander William P. Driscoll was the first NFO to become a flying ace, having achieved five aerial kills of VPAF fighter aircraft during the Vietnam War. Driscoll received the service's second-highest decoration, the Navy Cross, for his role in a 1972 dogfight with North Vietnamese MiGs. Driscoll separated from active duty in 1982, but remained in the United States Naval Reserve, flying the F-4 Phantom II and later the F-14 Tomcat in a Naval Air Reserve fighter squadron at NAS Miramar, eventually retiring in 2003 with the rank of Commander (O-5).
Admiral William Fallon, an NFO who flew in the RA-5C Vigilante and the A-6 Intruder, was the first NFO to achieve 4-star rank. As a 3-star vice admiral, he was the first NFO to command a numbered fleet, the U.S. 2nd Fleet. He later served in four separate 4-star assignments, to include command of two unified combatant commands. This included service as the 31st Vice Chief of Naval Operations from October 2000 to August 2003; the Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command and U.S. Atlantic Fleet from October 2003 to February 2005; Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) from February 2005 until March 2007; and Commander, U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) from March 2007 until his retirement in March 2008.
Captain Dale Gardner was the first NFO to qualify and fly as a NASA Mission Specialist Astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8. He previously flew the F-14 Tomcat. He retired in 1990.
Admiral Harry B. Harris, Jr., was the Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) until his retirement in May 2018. He was the first NFO from the land-based maritime patrol aviation community to command a numbered fleet, the U.S. 6th Fleet, and later the U.S. Pacific Fleet. He is also the first member of the Navy's land-based maritime patrol aviation community, pilot or NFO, to promote to 4-star rank. He previously flew the P-3C Orion. He retired in 2018.
Vice Admiral David C. Nichols was the deputy coalition air forces component commander (deputy CFACC) during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. He was the first NFO to command the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center, the second NFO to command a numbered fleet, the U.S. 5th Fleet, and was later deputy commander of U.S. Central Command. He previously flew the A-6 Intruder. He retired in 2007.
General William L. Nyland, USMC was the first Marine Corps NFO to achieve 4-star rank as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. As a lieutenant general, he was also the first NFO to serve as deputy commandant for aviation. He previously flew the F-4 Phantom II and the F/A-18 Hornet. He retired in 2005.
Lieutenant General Terry G. Robling, USMC was the first Marine Corps NFO to command United States Marine Corps Forces, Pacific following an assignment as the deputy commandant for aviation. He previously flew the F-4 Phantom II and the F/A-18 Hornet. He retired in 2014.
Vice Admiral Nora W. Tyson was the Commander, United States Third Fleet from 2015 to 2017, and previously Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command. She was the first female NFO to command a warship, the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan (LHD 5), and the first female naval officer to command an aircraft carrier strike group, Carrier Strike Group Two, aboard the USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77). She previously flew the land-based EC-130Q Hercules and the E-6 Mercury TACAMO aircraft. She was the first woman to command a U.S. Navy fleet, the U.S. 3rd Fleet. She retired in 2017.
General James E. Cartwright, USMC was initially qualified as a Marine Corps NFO in the F-4 Phantom II before attending pilot training as a captain and being re-designated as a naval aviator, subsequently flying as a pilot in the F-4, the OA-4 Skyhawk and the F/A-18 Hornet. He was the eighth Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He previously served as the commander, U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), from September 1, 2004 to August 10, 2007, and as acting commander, U.S. Strategic Command from July 9, 2004 to September 1, 2004. He assumed the vice chairmanship on August 31, 2007 and retired in September 2011.
Vice Admiral David J. Venlet commanded the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) and was later the program executive officer (PEO) for the F-35 Lightning II joint strike fighter program. He began his operational career as an F-14 Tomcat radar intercept officer in VF-41 embarked aboard USS Nimitz (CVN 68) and earned the Distinguished Flying Cross for action during the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981, achieving an aerial kill against a hostile Libyan Air Force Su-22 Fitter. He later attended pilot training and became a Naval Aviator flying the F-14. Following completion of U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, he transferred to the Restricted Line as an Aeronautical Engineering Duty Officer (AEDO). He retired in 2013.
Eligible fleet platforms for NFOs are as of December 2017 are as follows:
- E-2C/D Hawkeye
- F/A-18F Super Hornet
- F/A-18D Hornet (USMC only)
- EA-6B Prowler (USMC only)
- EA-18G Growler
- EP-3E Aries II
- P-3C Orion
- P-8A Poseidon
- E-6B Mercury
In the EA-6B Prowler, NFOs are designated as electronic countermeasures officers (ECMOs) and may also be mission commanders. In the EA-18G Growler, NFOs are designated as electronic warfare officers (EWOs) and may also be mission commanders.
In the E-2C Hawkeye and E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, NFOs are initially as designated radar officers (RO), then upgrade to air control officers (ACO) and finally to combat information center officers (CICO) and CICO/mission commanders (CICO/MC).
In the E-6B Mercury, NFOs are initially designated as airborne communications officers (ACOs), then upgrade to combat systems officers (CSOs), and finally to mission commanders (CSO/MC).
In the EP-3E Aries, NFOs are initially designated as navigators (NAV) and eventually upgrade to electronic warfare officer/signals evaluator (EWO SEVAL) and EWO/SEVAL/mission commander (SEVAL/MC).
In the F/A-18F Super Hornet and F/A-18D Hornet, the NFO position is known as the weapon systems officer (WSO) and may also be mission commander qualified.
In the P-3C Orion and P-8A Poseidon, the NFO is initially designated as a navigator/communicator (NAV/COM) and eventually upgrades to tactical coordinator TACCO and then TACCO/mission commander (TACCO/MC). NFOs also serve as instructors/mission commanders in current versions of the T-39 Sabreliner and USAF T-1A Jayhawk.
A single USN or USMC NFO is assigned to the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, as "Blue Angel #8", the Events Coordinator. This is an operational flying billet for this officer and he or she flies the twin-seat F/A-18D "Blue Angel 7" aircraft with the team's advance pilot/narrator. They function as the advance liaison (ADVON) at all air show sites and the events coordinator provides backup support to the narrator during all aerial demonstrations.
In all, the specific roles filled by an NFO can vary greatly depending on the type of aircraft to which an NFO is assigned.
NFOs also flew in these retired aircraft, including as mission commander:
- EA-1F (formerly AD-5Q) Skyraider serving as electronic warfare officer/electronic countermeasures operator.
- A-3 (formerly A3D) Skywarrior (including EA-3, ERA-3, EKA-3, EA-3, TA-3 and VA-3) serving as bombardier/navigator, electronic countermeasures officer, navigator, electronic warfare officers, and EWO signals evaluator.
- A-4 Skyhawk as students in the TA-4J, as TOPGUN adversary instructors in the TA-4F and TA-4J, as forward air controllers in the OA-4M, and as electronic warfare officers in the EA-4F.
- A-5A (formerly A3J-1) and RA-5C Vigilante serving as bombardier/navigator in the A-5A and reconnaissance/attack navigator in the RA-5C.
- A-6 Intruder (A-6A, A-6B, A-6C, KA-6D, A-6E) serving as bombardier/navigator.
- EA-6A Prowler serving as electronic countermeasures officer.
- EA-7L Corsair II as electronic countermeasures officer.
- C-130F Hercules serving as navigator.
- EC-130Q Hercules "TACAMO" aircraft serving as navigator and airborne communications officer.
- LC-130 Hercules serving as navigator.
- E-1B (formerly WF-2) Tracer serving as radar intercept controllers.
- EC-121 (formerly WV-2 and WV-3) Warning Star as navigator and electronic warfare officer.
- EF-10 (formerly F3D) Skynight as electronic warfare officer.
- F-4 Phantom II (F-4B, F-4J, F-4N, F-4S, EF-4B, EF-4J) serving as radar intercept officer.
- RF-4B Phantom II serving as reconnaissance systems officer.
- F-14 Tomcat (F-14A, F-14B, F-14D) serving as radar intercept officer.
- OV-10 Bronco (OV-10A and OV-10D) serving as aerial observer and forward air controller.
- SP-2E/H (formerly P2V-5 and P2V-7) Neptune (SP-2E, SP-2H, EP-2E, OP-2E, AP-2H, LP-2H) serving as tactical coordinator and navigator.
- SP-5B (formerly P5M) Marlin serving as tactical coordinator and navigator.
- RP-3A and RP-3D Orion serving as ocean project coordinator and navigator.
- S-3 Viking (S-3A and S-3B) serving as tactical coordinator (TACCO) and co-pilot/tactical coordinator (COTAC).
- ES-3A Shadow serving as electronic warfare officer and co-pilot/electronic warfare officer.
- WP-3A Orion serving as navigator.
- RP-3A and RP-3D Orion serving as navigator and ocean projects coordinator.
- P-3A, P-3B and P-3B TACNAVMOD Orion serving as tactical coordinator and navigator.
NFOs have also served as instructors/mission commanders in since retired training aircraft such as the UC-45 Expeditor, T-29 Flying Classroom, several variants of the T-39 Sabreliner, the TC-4C Academe, T-47A Citation II and the USAF T-43A Bobcat.
- One of key characters in the popular film Top Gun was LTJG Nick "Goose" Bradshaw, played by Anthony Edwards, an F-14 radar intercept officer teamed with his pilot, LT Pete "Maverick" Mitchell, played by Tom Cruise. Several others were LTJG Ron "Slider" Kerner, RIO to LT Tom "Iceman" Kazansky; LT Sam "Merlin" Neills, LT Bill "Cougar" Cortell's RIO; and LTJG Leonard "Wolfman" Wolfe, LT Rick "Hollywood" Neven's RIO. LTJG Marcus "Sundown" Williams (played by Clarence Gilyard Jr.) is the RIO of LTJG Charles "Chipper" Piper (played by Adrian Pasdar) and served as Maverick's RIO right after the latter went back to operational flight status following the accident that led to Goose's demise.
- In the film Flight of the Intruder, Willem Dafoe played LCDR Virgil "Tiger" Cole, who served as an A-6 B/N (bombardier/navigator) with his pilot, LT Jake "Cool Hand" Grafton, played by Brad Johnson.
- In the film Behind Enemy Lines, Owen Wilson played LT Chris Burnett, a weapon systems officer in an F/A-18F Super Hornet.
- Naval aviator insignia
- United States Marine Corps aviation
- List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons
- List of United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons
- Marine SNFOs can only select carrier aviation.
- Marine SNFOs can only select jets.
- The Naval Aviation Guide, 4th Edition, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-409-8
- Navy.mil Leadership Biographies. United States Navy http://www.navy.mil/navydata/bios/navybio.asp?bioID=535. Retrieved 9 April 2016. Missing or empty
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