Her Majesty's Naval Service
|Her Majesty's Naval Service|
|Country||United Kingdom[note 1]|
|Type||Naval warfare and maritime service|
|Role||Naval, expeditionary and amphibious warfare|
|Part of||British Armed Forces|
|Navy Command Headquarters||Whale Island, Portsmouth, UK|
|Branches|| Royal Navy|
∟ RN Nursing Service
∟ RN Reserve
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
Corps of Royal Marines
∟ RM Reserve
∟ RM Band Service
Naval Careers Service
|First Sea Lord||Admiral Sir Ben Key|
|Second Sea Lord||Vice Admiral Nicholas Hine|
|Fleet Commander||Vice Admiral Andrew Burns|
|White Ensign[note 2]|
of the British Armed Forces
|History and future|
Her Majesty's Naval Service is the United Kingdom's naval warfare and maritime service. It consists of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Marines Reserve and Naval Careers Service. The term Naval Service should be distinguished from the "UK Naval Services", which consist of the Naval Service and the Merchant Navy. The Naval Service as a whole falls under the command of the Navy Board, which is headed by the First Sea Lord. This position is currently held by Admiral Sir Ben Key (appointed November 2021). The Defence Council delegates administration of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence.
The Naval Service is dominated by the Royal Navy, and operates primarily from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based; Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, the last being the largest operational naval base in Western Europe. As of 2019, there were over 186 vessels in service with the various branches of the Naval Service and supporting organisations, at that time including; 77 commissioned ships of the Royal Navy, 33 landing craft of the Royal Marines, 63 auxiliary vessels of Marine Services and 11 auxiliary ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. As of March 2019, Her Majesty's Naval Service employed a total of 40,600 personnel.
In 2020, the First Sea Lord announced that the 'Naval Service' will informally be known as the 'Royal Navy'. The Royal Navy was made a colloquial name for the Naval Service as part of a transformation programme with the approval of the Navy Executive Committee to reflect the strength of the Royal Navy brand and assist with unifying the force.
- The Royal Navy (Royal Naval Reserve) - including Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service
- The Royal Marines (Royal Marines Reserve)
- Naval Careers Service
The Naval Service is also supported by Marine Services (currently provided under a private finance initiative) and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary which both operate a fleet of auxiliaries in support of the Royal Navy. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary is considered part of the Ministry of Defence civil service.
The following services were formerly also components of the Naval Service:
- The Women's Royal Naval Service (merged into the Royal Navy in 1993)
- The Royal Naval Minewatching Service (reformed into the Royal Naval Auxiliary Service in 1962 and disbanded in 1994)
- The Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service (incorporated within the Royal Navy in 2000)
Naval Reserve Forces:
- The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (merged with the Royal Naval Reserve in 1958)
- The Royal Naval Volunteer (Supplementary) Reserve
- The Royal Naval Volunteer (Wireless) Reserve
- The Royal Naval Volunteer (Postal) Reserve)
- The Royal Naval Emergency Reserve (disbanded c. 1959)
- The Royal Naval Special Reserve (disbanded c. 1960)
- The Women's Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (renamed the Women's Royal Naval Reserve in 1958, merged into the Royal Naval Reserve in 1993)
- The Women's Royal Naval Supplementary Reserve
- The Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service Reserve (incorporated within the Royal Naval Reserve in 2000)
Referred to as the "Senior Service" by virtue of it being the oldest service within the British Armed Forces, the Royal Navy is a technologically sophisticated naval force and forms the core structure of the Naval Service. Command of deployable assets is exercised by the Fleet Commander. The United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent is carried aboard the navy's Vanguard class of four nuclear ballistic-missile submarines. The surface fleet consists of destroyers, frigates, amphibious assault ships, patrol ships, mine-countermeasures, and miscellaneous vessels. The submarine service has existed within the Royal Navy for more than 100 years. The service possessed a combined fleet of diesel-electric and nuclear-powered submarines until the early 1990s. Following the Options for Change defence review, the Upholder-class diesel-electric submarines were withdrawn and the attack submarine flotilla is now exclusively nuclear-powered.
HMS Queen Elizabeth on sea trials in June 2017
The infantry component of the Naval Service is the Corps of Royal Marines. Consisting of a single manoeuvre brigade (3 Commando Brigade) and various independent units, the Royal Marines specialise in amphibious, arctic, and mountain warfare. Contained within 3 Commando Brigade are three attached army units; 1st Battalion, The Rifles, an infantry battalion based at Beachley Barracks near Chepstow (from April 2008), 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, an artillery regiment based in Plymouth, and 24 Commando Regiment Royal Engineers. The Commando Logistic Regiment consists of personnel from the Army, Royal Marines, and Royal Navy.
2000TDX Landing Craft Air Cushion
The Naval Careers Service is the recruiting arm of the Naval Service. It is manned by former Royal Navy and Royal Marine personnel who are typically based at Armed Forces Careers Offices. It is the smallest component of the Naval Service, comprising fewer than 200 personnel.
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
The Royal Fleet Auxiliary is a civilian-manned fleet owned by the British Ministry of Defence. The RFA enables ships of the Royal Navy to maintain operations around the world. Its primary role is to supply the Royal Navy with fuel, ammunition and supplies, normally by replenishment at sea (RAS). It also transports Army and Royal Marine personnel, as well as supporting training exercises. RFA personnel are members of the Ministry of Defence civil service who wear Merchant Navy rank insignia with naval uniforms and are under naval discipline when the vessel is engaged on warlike operations. RFA vessels are commanded and crewed by these civilians, augmented with regular and reserve Royal Navy personnel to perform specialised military functions such as operating and maintaining helicopters or providing hospital facilities. The RFA is funded out of the UK defence budget and the Commodore commanding the RFA is directly responsible to the Royal Navy Fleet Commander.
The Royal Fleet Auxiliary also augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship dock vessels. The service is manned by around 1,850 civilian personnel.
Marine Services enables Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary Ships, including the United Kingdom's Strategic Nuclear Deterrent, to either move in or out of port for operational deployment and training exercises around the world. The service operates a large assortment of vessels including tugs and pilot boats as well as transporting stores, liquid and munitions and providing passenger transfer services to and from ships for officers and crew. Serco Denholm took over Marine Services to the Naval Service from the now disbanded Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service in 2008. In late 2009 Serco bought out Denholm's share, with the service now being known as Serco Marine Services.
SD Northern River, a Marine Services multi-purpose ship
SD Bountiful, a Marine Services ATD 2909-class tug
Lists of vessels
See the articles below for lists of vessels operated by or in support of Her Majesty's Naval Service:
- List of active Royal Navy ships - 74 (plus two non-commissioned training vessels)
- List of active Royal Marines military watercraft - 33 (plus two patrol boats)
- List of active Royal Fleet Auxiliary ships - 12 (plus five ships under charter)
- List of ships of Serco Marine Services - 63
- List of all naval vessels current and former of the United Kingdom
- British Armed Forces
- Royal Navy
- Royal Marines
- Royal Fleet Auxiliary
- Her Majesty's Coastguard
- Border Force
- Special Boat Service (SBS)
- NAVAL PERSONNEL HIERARCHY, mod.uk. 5 October 2014.
- Her Majesty’s Naval Service Eligibility and Guidance Notes, mod.uk. 5 October 2014.
- "Queen's Regulations for the Royal Navy" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "Vice Admiral Sir Ben Key KCB CBE has been appointed to First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff". gov.uk. 15 October 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- "Adieu 'Naval Service,' Hello 'Royal Navy'" (PDF). Navy News. Ministry of Defence (791): 20. June 2020. ISSN 0028-1670. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
- First Sea Lord Admiral Tony Radakin. "The Whole Force: Naval Service to Royal Navy". Royal Navy Association. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
- BBC News (2002), UK's mountain warfare elite, news.bbc.co.uk
- The Commando Role for 1 RIFLER Archived 2009-01-14 at the Wayback Machine, army.mod.uk
- Commando Logistic Regiment Archived 2005-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, royalnavy.mod.uk
- "Queen's Regulations for the Royal Navy Chapter One" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "BR3 Volume One Naval Personnel Management Chapter Three" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. pp. 20–6. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Royal Navy and Royal Marines Monthly Personnel Situation Report" (PDF). British Government. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Bush, Steve (2014). British Warships and Auxiliaries. Maritime Books. p. 64. ISBN 1904459552.
- BR 2 - Queen's Regulations for the Royal Navy
- BR1806 - British Maritime Doctrine, Glossary
- United Kingdom Defence Statistics 2005 - glossary