Naval Strike Missile
|Naval Strike Missile|
|Type||littoral/open sea anti-ship/land attack cruise missile|
|Place of origin||Norway|
|In service||Since 2012|
|Manufacturer||Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace|
|Weight||410 kg (900 lb)|
|Length||3.95 m (13.0 ft)|
|Warhead||125 kg (276 lb) HE blast-fragmentation|
|Engine||Solid fuel rocket booster, Microturbo TRI 40 turbojet|
|NSM 185 km (115 mi; 100 nmi)+
JSM 290 km (180 mi; 160 nmi)+
|Flight altitude||Sea skimming|
|Inertial, GPS, terrain-reference navigation, imaging infrared homing, target database|
|Naval ships, land-based vehicles|
The original Norwegian name was Nytt sjømålsmissil (literally New sea target missile, indicating that it is the successor of the Penguin missile); the English marketing name Naval Strike Missile was adopted later.
The Naval Strike Missile's initial serial production contract was signed in June 2007. It has been chosen by the Royal Norwegian Navy for its new Fridtjof Nansen class frigates and Skjold class patrol boats. In December 2008 the NSM was selected by the Polish Navy, which ordered total 50 land-based missiles (including 2 for testing) under deals from 2008 and 2011, with delivery planned for 2013–2016.
On Wednesday, June 5, 2013, the Royal Norwegian Navy for the first time test fired an NSM missile carrying a live warhead against a target vessel. The decommissioned Oslo class frigate HNoMS Trondheim was hit and the weapon functioned as intended.
In June 2013 Poland completed the Coastal Missile Division equipped with 12 NSM and 23 vehicles on Jelcz chassis (inc. six launchers, two TRS-15C radars, six fire control and three command vehicles). Ultimately, the Coastal Missile Division will be equipped with 12 launchers carrying four missiles each for a total of 48 missiles. In December 2014 Poland ordered a second batch of launchers and missiles to equip a Naval Strike Missile battalion.
In late July 2014, the U.S. Navy confirmed that the NSM would be tested aboard the USS Coronado (LCS-4) Littoral Combat Ship. Although there is no requirement for a missile of the type for the ship classes, the Navy sought to evaluate its capabilities to see if it can expand the LCS' anti-surface warfare role. The test occurred successfully on 24 September 2014, although that does not mean it will be integrated onto the LCS. Kongsberg and Raytheon have teamed to pitch the NSM to equip the LCS as its over-the-horizon anti-ship missile.
In the LIMA exhibition 2015, Malaysia announced that the Naval Strike Missile had won the contract to fulfil the Royal Malaysian Navy's Second Generation Patrol Vessel's anti-ship missile requirement.
Design and features
The state-of-the-art design and use of composite materials is meant to give the missile sophisticated stealth capabilities. The missile will weigh slightly more than 400 kg (880 lb) and have a range of at least 185 km (100 nm). NSM is designed for littoral waters ("brown water") as well as for open sea ("green and blue water") scenarios. The usage of a high strength titanium alloy blast/fragmentation warhead from TDW is in line with the modern lightweight design and features insensitive high-explosive II. Warhead initiation is by a void-sensing Programmable Intelligent Multi-Purpose Fuze designed to optimise effect against hard targets.
Like its Penguin predecessor, NSM is able to fly over and around landmasses, travel in sea skim mode, and then make random manoeuvres in the terminal phase, making it harder to stop by enemy countermeasures. While the Penguin is a yaw-to-turn missile, NSM is based on bank-to-turn flight (see Yaw (flight) and flight control).
The target selection technology provides NSM with a capacity for independent detection, recognition, and discrimination of targets at sea or on the coast. This is possible by the combination of an imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and an onboard target database. NSM is able to navigate by GPS, inertial and terrain reference systems.
After being launched into the air by a solid rocket booster which is jettisoned upon burning out, the missile is propelled to its target in high subsonic speed by a turbojet sustainer engine—leaving the 125 kg multi-purpose blast/fragmentation warhead to do its work, which in case of a ship target means impacting the ship at or near the water line.
- Coastal Missile Division
Joint Strike Missile
A multi-role version of the NSM is in development. This missile is called Joint Strike Missile (JSM) and will feature an option for ground strike and a two-way communications line, so that the missile can communicate with the central control room or other missiles in the air. This missile will be integrated with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II "Joint Strike Fighter". Studies have shown that the F-35 would be able to carry two of these in its internal bays, while additional missiles could be carried externally.
According to Kongsberg, this "multi-role NSM" is the only powered anti-ship missile that will fit inside the F-35's internal bays. Lockheed Martin and Kongsberg have signed a joint-marketing agreement for this air-launched version of the NSM, as well as an agreement committing both parties to integrating the JSM on the F-35 platform. The project is funded by Norway and Australia. Kongsberg signed a contract for the first phase of development of the JSM in April, 2009, which is scheduled for completion within 18 months.
Improved features for the Joint Strike Missile include:
- Shape changed to fit in F-35 internal bay
- Ability to attack sea and land based targets
- Aerial launch platform (F-35)
- Improved range over NSM to 280 km
- Long-term, production start in 2013
On 15 July 2014, Kongsberg and Raytheon announced that they had formed a teaming agreement to offer the JSM to the United States Navy for their Offensive Anti-Surface Warfare (OASuW) requirement; Raytheon would produce JSMs for the American market. The Navy plans to begin a competition for the OASuW requirement in 2017, which will likely pit the Kongsberg/Raytheon JSM against the Lockheed Martin Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM).
Kongsberg is studying methods to deploy the JSM from Norway's submarines, and found shaping the missile to fit into the F-35's confined bomb-bay also enabled it to fit in the Mark 41 Vertical Launching System. A VL-JSM could also compete with the Lockheed LRASM for the U.S. Navy's OASuW Increment 2 for a ship-launched anti-ship missile.
Australia expressed interest in buying the JSM in June 2014 to equip their F-35 fighters. The missile has also been pitched to South Korea and Japan, and Kongsberg is expected to attempt to make sales to other countries that have ordered the F-35A. The JSM is expected to become fully operational in 2025. Test flights of the JSM will begin in 2015 aboard an F-16 Falcon. Development is aimed to be completed in 2017 and achievement of initial operational capability (IOC) is expected in 2021 with the release of the F-35's Block 4 software. Fit checks have been performed on the external hardpoints of all F-35 variants, and internally on the F-35A and C-models. Countries that operate other aircraft have expressed interest in the JSM, and fit checks have also been performed on the F-15 Eagle and F/A-18 Hornet, but integration on other platforms will not be conducted without a confirmed customer.
On 15 September 2015 the Australian government signed an agreement to finance the development of a passive radio frequency seeker to complement the existing infrared target seeker.
In November 2015 an F-16 successfully completed live-fire testing of the JSM at the Utah Test and Training Range.
- NAVAL STRIKE MISSILE – Dette er Norges nye storselger – Teknisk Ukeblad, 11 June 2012
- Contract for serial production of the new Naval Strike Missile – KDA press release, 29 June 2007
- Altair.pl article, 28 December 2011 – (Polish)
- Gazeta Wyborcza article, 23 December 2008 – (Polish)
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's – IHS". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Kongsberg’s NSM Naval Strike Missile Completes Final Milestone". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Development stage two, Joint Strike Missile." Regjeringen.no, 4 December 2011. Retrieved: 3 April 2012.
- "Naval Open Source INTelligence". Naval Open Source INTelligence. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
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- Ukompletowanie NDR. altair.com.pl (Polish)
- LCS to conduct test of Norwegian missile – Militarytimes.com, 24 July 2014
- Norwegian Missile Test On Littoral Combat Ship Successful – News.USNI.org, 24 September 2014
- Raytheon and Kongsberg Team to Pitch Stealthy Norwegian Strike Missile for LCS – News.USNI.org, 9 April 2015
- "Missiles Sink Two Retired Navy Ships". Military.com. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Administrator. "Exclusive: Boustead Confirms NSM for the Future Gowind class LCS of the Royal Malaysian Navy". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Precision and lethality [ID14D2]". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Ukompletowanie NDR – Altair Agencja Lotnicza". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "LCS To Get Missiles for Next Deployment".
- "US Navy intention to install NSM on a US Navy Littoral Combat Ship for deployment". Kongsberg Gruppen. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Lager Joint Strike Missile (Norwegian) – Lars Magne Sunnanå, E24 Næringsliv, 31 January 2007
- Joint marketing agreement – KDA press release, 31 January 2007
- Cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin – KDA press release, 9 June 2009
- Norway pushes naval strike missile for JSF – Jane's Defence Weekly, 20 July 2005
- Development contract for the Joint Strike Missile – KDA press release, 27 April 2009
- "Norway pushes for further assurances over JSM integration on F-35". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Norway’s JSF Deal Bolsters JSM missile". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Kongsberg selects Integrity for missile programme
- Raytheon and Kongsberg team to provide air-launched Offensive Anti-Surface Warfare solutions – Marketwatch.com, 15 July 2014
- CHUTER, ANDREW (15 July 2014). "Raytheon To Produce US Variant of Kongsberg's JSM". www.defensenews.com (Gannett Government Media). Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Arming New Platforms Will Push Up Value Of Missiles Market – Aviationweek.com, 5 January 2015
- "Kongsberg studies JSM for submarine launch". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Naval Technology – Kongsberg VL JSM anti-ship missile". www.navyrecognition.com (Navyrecognition.com). 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Norway’s Joint Strike Missile Tempts Aussies; Raytheon Likes It Too – Breakingdefense.com, 16 July 2014
- Kongsberg plans JSM flight tests in 2015 – Flightglobal.com, 25 September 2014
- "Australia to Finance the Development of a New Seeker for Kongsberg's Joint Strike Missile". www.navyrecognition.com (Navyrecognition.com). 28 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Franz-Stefan Gady. "F-35’s Joint Strike Missile Successfully Completes Flight Test in US". The Diplomat. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Official NSM product page at KDA
- Official JSM product page at KDA
- Defpro.com:Norway conducted very successful NSM test firing (Febr 2009)
- Missile.index search – Choose Development-Country: "Norway", then click "Search", then pick "NSM" from the results list (direct linking N/A)
- Kongsberg test fires Naval Strike Missiles – Jane's Navy International, 8 August 2006
- Capital Markets Day 2007 Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace