|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
Commando beret badge
Joint terminal attack controller
|Size||~ 600+ SOF Operators|
|Nickname(s)||bérets verts (green berets)|
|RADM Olivier Coupry|
|CDR. Philippe Kieffer
LCDR Victor Servent
The Commandos Marine are the special operation forces of the French Navy. They are made up of some 600 members plus support, mostly based in northwestern France (Brittany), with several bases across the country for specific training needs. The Commandos Marine are nicknamed bérets verts (Green Berets). They operate under the Naval Riflemen and Special Operations Forces Command (ALFUSCO) and form part of the French Special Operations Command.
The Commandos Marine were formed in 1942 during World War II in Great Britain modeled alongside the British Commandos (who were founded in 1940). They were formed from Free French volunteers from different services mainly from Navy Fusiliers-Marins (Naval Infantry), other Navy specialities and even from Army. They were trained at the Commando Training Centre Achnacarry, Scotland and joined the No. 10 Commando (Inter-allied) as the 1st and the 8th Troops. To commemorate this the beret of the French naval commandos is worn pulled to the right with the badge worn over the left eye or temple, the opposite of all other French military units.
The 1st BFMC (Battalion de Fusiliers Marins Commandos, Commando Naval Riflemen Battalion) took part in the Normandy Landing on D-Day under command of Lieutenant Commander Philippe Kieffer, on SWORD beach, and were for that integrated to No. 4 Commando. They further participated in the Nederland campaign, still associated with the No. 4 Commando. When the British Commando Units were disbanded at the conclusion of the WWII, the 2 French Troops (forming the 1st BFMC) were repatriated to France to relief in position the 1st RFM (1st Naval Infantry Regiment) departing for Indochina. Most of them demobilised or returned to their services (Army or other Navy specialities) but Commander Philippe Kieffer made the case to the French Ministry of the Navy that a Commando Corps was a capacity required to counter the guerrilla warfare in Indochina. The surviving members of the 1st BFMC formed the core leadership and the cadres for the Commando Training School to be created in Algeria in 1946 (Siroco Center, Matifou Cape).
Another branch comes from a Naval Reconnaissance Unit created in December 1944, Company NYO, formed from volunteers from different specialities of the Navy, mainly Naval Riflemen (Fusiliers Marins) and Naval Artillery. This unit later renamed as Company Merlet (the name of his founder and commanding officer, Lieutenant (Navy) Jean Merlet) fought in the campaign of Italy before embarking for Indochina in September 1945. It was renamed Company Jaubert then became naturally Commando Jaubert, the fist combatant and constituted Commando Unit to be, when the French Navy decided to create a Commando Corps in 1946.
Commander Pierre Ponchardier and his Special Air Service Battalion aka SAS-B (also nicknamed Tigers Commandos) created in early 1945 fought in indochina until 1946 before the battalion be disbanded. Ponchardier was a visionary of modern SOF. Although he was not subordinated to a Naval Rifleman chain of command, he ran large scale operations in conjunction and with the support of Compagnie Merlet/Jaubert and the 1st RFM were in support. His audacity, the novation of the TTPs and the course of actions he applied in guerrilla warfare and COIN, set the spirit and were disseminated to the overall Commandos Marine organisation.
By 19 May 1947 decision, Ministry of the Navy, decision was made to create 5 "Commando Marine" units, organised and designed as the former British Commandos. The French Navy transformed several Fusiliers Marins companies (Naval Riflemen) already combatting in Indochina (including Company Jaubert) or based aboard French Navy destroyers (to become Commando Trepel and Commando de Penfentenyo) and gradually renewed their personnel with commando qualified recruits after the Siroco Center (commando course) was commissioned. Commando Francois and Commando Hubert were formed from scratch. Although Commando Jaubert was already trained to parachute and airborne operations, Commando Hubert became officially the paratrooper commando unit for the French Navy. For this reason they integrated by preference and priority former Ponchardier SAS-B members, already jump qualified.
Each Commando Marine bears the name of an officer killed in action during the WWII or during the Indochina campaign:
Captain Charles Trepel was an Army officer (artillery), Free French Forces; commanding officer of the 8th Troop (French), No. 10 Commando (Interallied). MIA/KIA 28 February 1944 during a night reconnaissance raid in Wassenaar, the Netherlands.
Lieutenant Augustin Hubert was an Army officer (infantry), Free French Forces; platoon leader in the K-Gun Troop (French) operating in support of the Troop 1 and 8 (French) integrated for the D-Day to the No. 4 Commando. He was killed 6 June 1944, in the first hour of combat, when the French Troops were maneuvering to seize the Casino of Ouistreham on SWORD Beach (France, Normandy).
Commander Francois Jaubert was a Naval Rifleman officer, commanding the Riverine Flotilla in Indochina, severely wounded during a joint operation with Compagnie Merlet, Ponchardier SAS-B and the 1st RFM and his Flotilla. He died of his wounds 25 January 1946.
Lieutenant (junior grade) Alain de Penfentenyo was a Navy officer, commanding officer of a LCVP platoon, killed in action during a riverine raid on the Donai river, 14 February 1946 (Indochina).
Lieutenant (junior grade) Louis de Montfort was a Company Merlet platoon commander. After his commander was wounded and evacuated de Montfort took command and was killed leading the company in Haiphong, 26 November 1946 (Indochina).
Lieutenant Jacques Francois was a Navy officer, commanding the 1st Amphibious Flotilla North. He was killed leading his unit, 6 January 1947 on the Nam-Dinh-Giang river (Indochina)
Commando Francois suffered dramatic loss 29 May 1951 when he faced the attack of the 308th Vietminh division in Ninh-Bihn (Indochina) Only 29 survived, 5 were taken prisoners for months, 40 were killed and 9 were declared missing in action. Their sacrifice disrupted the surprise effect and unveiled General Giap's plans for the battle of Day. It gave time to French General de Lattre to organise his counterattack. This commando Unit will be further disbanded in May 1953
Commando Hubert became officially a combat swimmer unit 30 March 1953. It was a joint unit comprising Navy and Army (SDEC, secret service) combat swimmers. Thea army brach further separated to establish their base in Aspretto, Corsica (France).
Commando Kieffer was created 6 June 2008 in Ouistreham (Normandy, SWORD beach) during the D-Day commemoration ceremony.
Recruitment and training
The large body of the recruits must have completed first the Fusiliers-Marins Basic Training and served at least 9 months of service. They have to enter a special forces basic training course reputed to be one of the toughest among the NATO Special Operation Forces. The SOF basic training is called Stage Commando (commando training). The SOF Basic Training is open to sailors or enlisted form other Navy Specialities. Commando Kieffer recruits specialists and experts from other specialties in the Navy or other services. They must go through the same training pipe to get the green beret and be deployed overseas.
Commando training is the gateway to the Special Operations Forces for the Naval Riflemen. Conducted at the Fusilier Marins school at Lorient on the Atlantic coast, it provides upon successful completion entry to the commandos and the right to wear the green beret. Lasting 20 weeks, it includes one week of commando testing, six weeks of screening and preparatory training, four weeks of evaluation, the actual SOF course for seven weeks, and two weeks of parachute training. During this period, any mistake can instantly disqualify the candidate. The ultimate goal of this training is to detect individuals with the physical, intellectual and psychological potential needed to serve in the Commandos Marine. The historical roots of commando training date back to the Second World War, when Fusilier-Marins volunteers from the Free French Navy went to the Commando training center in Achnacarry, Scotland. Since then, the Commandos Marine have kept by tradition the green beret pulled right with the bronze shield badge on the left, the only such exception in the French armed forces. They have retained the principle of exceptional training without compromise, based on immersion in a highly stressful environment, close to the conditions of combat operations.
The prospective Commandos in training are constantly under stress and pressure from instructors leaving them no respite. All activities are timed and scored: marching tens of kilometers with equipment and weapon in all weathers, obstacle courses and night navigation exercises. The training is punctuated by firearms training and assault tactics, climbing and rappelling, boat handling, explosives instruction and hand-to-hand combat. The instructors are experienced operatives assigned to the Commando School who monitor and punish failure with extra-hard physical activity.
The Commandos Marine have evolved to be broadly comparable to the British Special Boat Service.
|Insignia||Team||Deployment||Number of Platoons||HQ||Notes|
|Commando Jaubert||Worldwide||5 Platoons||Lorient, France||Direct Action, Assault at sea and land, hot extraction, close quarters battle at sea and land. Equities in the Land and Maritime CT organisation.|
|Commando de Montfort||Worldwide||5 Platoons||Lorient, France||Reconnaissance, Intelligence Operations, Long Range Neutralisation (SKIT), JTACs comprises a Tier One Platoon named ESNO|
|Commando de Penfentenyo||Worldwide||5 Platoons||Lorient, France||Reconnaissance, Intelligence Operations, Long Range Neutralisation (SKIT), JTACs comprises a Tier One Platoon named ESNO|
|Commando Trepel||Worldwide||5 Platoons||Lorient, France||Direct Action, Assault at sea and land, hot extraction, close quarters battle at sea and land. Equities in the Land and Maritime CT organisation.|
|Commando Hubert||Worldwide||Classified||Toulon, France||(also named Commando d'Action Sous-Marine Hubert, CASM, "Underwater Operations Commando"): Underwater action (combat divers). Appears to be a Special Mission Unit in support of Land and Maritime Counter Terrorism|
|Commando Kieffer||Worldwide||Classified||Lorient, France||C3I, Combat dogs K9, CP CBRN, UAVs, Intel, TTPs and Procedures Development|
|1er Bataillon de Fusiliers Marins Commandos||Worldwide||Classified||Lorient, France||Land, Air and Sea mobility, Communications, Support and supply for the Commandos Marine.|
|Commando Francois||East Africa||Classified||Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Djibouti||Forward Base for Operational deployment in East Africa. Established since 1971. aka "Commando Arta".|