Naval weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy

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The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the naval branch of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAN force consists of approximately 250,000 men and over a hundred major combat vessels, organized into 3 fleets: the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet, and the South Sea Fleet.

Most of the naval weapon systems used by the PLAN were developed prior to 1990. The naval weaponry of the PLAN is based on three tiers: artillery, torpedoes, and missiles, each geared to a specific threat range and type.

History[edit]

Throughout its early history from 1949 to the early 1980s, the PLAN had principally relied upon artillery and torpedoes as its main weapons. This resulted in the development of many types and calibers of anti-aircraft and anti-ship guns. Torpedoes were secondary weapons, playing an important role in PLAN's coastal defense doctrines. Many destroyers, frigates and torpedo craft all carry an array of anti-ship torpedoes to this day.

The adoption of the missile, like in most navies, has completely revolutionized Chinese naval capabilities and tactics. Also, there has been growing attention given to ASW, electronic, and airborne weaponry.

The Cultural Revolution was a major disruption to many weapons development programs of the PLAN. Advanced weaponry concepts were always in the minds of PLAN thinkers since the 1950s, even if they were unable to be implemented at the time. Therefore, a lot of modern weapon systems such as SAMs, modernized torpedoes and missile/sensor systems were not introduced into service until the early 1980s. Furthermore, economic and technical sophistication to produce the fire control, targeting systems, and tracking capabilities were not in place until the mid-1980s.

Artillery systems[edit]

In the PLAN, artillery takes the form of anti-ship guns and anti-aircraft guns. Anti-ship guns are typically found on destroyers and cruisers, with smaller versions on frigates. Smaller ships utilize torpedoes for anti-ship weaponry. The increasing use of missiles means less attention is paid to pure anti-ship weapons. The PLAN never possessed battleships or battlecruisers, and the use of a ship's main guns is mostly in standoff capacity, as they have never engaged in close-shore support from cruisers or destroyers.

Anti-aircraft guns vary in size and power from swivel-mount 25 mm machine guns to advanced Close-In Weapon Systems (CIWS) and radar-assisted 57 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft weapons. Almost all classes of PLAN vessels maintain at least some anti-aircraft capability. Most destroyers and cruisers augment this with surface-to-air missiles.

Older and legacy artillery systems currently in use[edit]

  • Soviet ZIF-32 twin 57 mm open gun mount (Type 66)
  • Type 76 automatic twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Soviet Bu-11 (Type 63) manual twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 twin 25 mm open gun mount
  • Soviet 2M-8 (Type 61) manual twin 25 mm open gun mount
  • Type 69 single or twin 14.5 mm heavy machine gun (open mount)
  • Single or twin 12.7 mm heavy machine gun (open mount)

The most commonly carried artillery system in most indigenous ships is the 37 mm anti-aircraft artillery (Type-61/76).[1] This is a manually operated gun, with a gun crew on an open mount. The Type 61 is carried by most Chinese surface combatants, ranging from the small Shanghai and Hainan coastal combat vessels to the largest combatants of the Luda and Jianghu class. These guns are highly limited—they can be operated only in clear weather conditions and are effective only in daylight conditions since they lack radar coordination or any form of automatic or autonomous targeting. They are, however, economical and highly reliable. Their firepower has been effectively utilized not only against aircraft but also against surface and land targets.

The old manually operated Type-61 37 mm weapon is gradually being phased out in favor of automatic weaponry, but it nonetheless remains on board many littoral and major combatant vessels. In addition to the manual 37 mm, there is the Type-66 57 mm (120 rounds per minute at 12,000 meters) and Type-61 25 mm cannon systems (800 rounds per minute at 2,500 meters). These are also manually mounted. The 57 mm is prominent on board the Hainan class and several LSTs. This system like the 37 mm is almost totally ineffective [2] against modern jet aircraft and incoming missiles. However it has been combat proven to be effective against enemy shipping, particularly in the Sino-Vietnamese naval battle near the Spratley Islands on several occasions.

The 25 mm is a one-man operated weapon that complements the larger caliber artillery systems. It remains as a popular gun mount on smaller vessels, particularly landing ships and mine warfare designs. Machine guns such as the 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm are also classified as automatic weapons; being widely operated as short-range self-defense weapons on most amphibious craft. It is interesting to note that the majority of Chinese naval auxiliary ships possess manually operated anti-aircraft artillery, in contrast to the majority of Western navies, which have few or no armaments on board their auxiliaries.

Current ship artillery systems[edit]

Anti-aircraft[edit]

  • Type 65 semi-automatic water-cooled twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 63 automatic twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 semi-automatic air-cooled twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 automatic twin 25 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 76 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [3]
  • Type 66 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [3]
  • Type 59 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [3]
  • AK-230 (Type 69)

Anti-aircraft artillery remains important to PLAN combatants, but its concept has been radically changed recently. All new combatants and those that have been upgraded now possess a fully automatic variant of the 37 mm cannon. This system is known as the Type 76A dual anti-aircraft artillery system (180 rounds per minute engaging at 4,500 meters).[4] The Type 76A is a direct descendant of the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun, which in turn, is the successor of Type 61 manual twin 37 mm gun. Although the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun is fully automatic, it has an open turret and thus is subject to harsh environment, which causes reliability problems. Another shortcoming of the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun is that like its manually operated predecessor, it lacks fire control systems.

Type 76A twin 37 mm gun was thus developed to solve these problems by introducing an enclosed turret and fire control systems. A fire control radar guides these weapons, and can engage targets in most conditions. There is also an optronic device that enables manual and optical aiming. The Type 76F is a Type 76A system with simplified fire control system, which has the electrooptic system but not the radar. Also, there is a console for one human operator inside the gun mount for local manual control, though the gun can be fully automated. Unlike the old manual mounts that require a full crew of men to steer, aim, load, and fire the weapon, the Type 76F requires only one operator to aim the system. In addition to the 37 mm guns, a number of Russian AK-230 were also purchased and reverse engineered (as Type 69) for small boats.

Anti-ship[edit]

Most PLAN surface combatants in the class of destroyer and frigate operate a main gun (mostly a forward turret, and many ships have an aft turret as well). Anti-surface artillery has been primarily based on Soviet designs of 76 mm to 130 mm designs. The Type-76 130 mm twin mount is the main artillery mount on the Luda class destroyers. A more indigenized ship artillery gun system was the Type 79 dual 100 mm gun (as well as single versions). The gun can be operated with one operator or completely automatically guided by radar or optronic aiming. These guns can achieve accurate fire at roughly 25 rounds a minute. A new indigenous 100 mm mount is available on the latest combatants; this is a single rapid fire weapon similar to the French Creusot-Loire weapon. Newer indigenous 130 mm gun systems are also under development.

Close-in weapons systems[edit]

  • New CIWS

Many navies in the world operate a variety of Close In Weapons Systems (CIWS). These systems are designed to engage high speed, low altitude targets at close range. One particular target for the CIWS is incoming anti-ship missiles. A CIWS with its rapid fire and radar control could hopefully defeat incoming missiles. China until very recently has mostly lacked a CIWS system. The Russian built Sovremenny class destroyers that were purchased in a 1996 deal gave China its first CIWS capability. These used a CIWS called the AK630, with mounts that [5] were exclusive to the Russian ships. China, however, has more recently been either able to reverse engineer the AK630 or buy the cannon turrets. These have been fitted on board the Type 054 Ma'anshan class frigates and the new Type 220X missile attack craft.[6]

A Chinese system, the Type 730, is China's first entirely indigenous CIWS. Though externally similar to the Dutch Goalkeeper, it is thought to operate indigenous radar and optical systems. It has seven barrels, and fires 30 mm caliber shells in rapid succession (4,500-5,800 rounds per minute).[6] This system has been fitted on board the 052B, 052C and 051C destroyers so far, and is expected to replace some Type 76 mounts on older combatants, as well as being standard for all new surface combatants. The purchase of two additional Sovremenny class destroyers will give PLAN the Kashtan CIWS system (gun and SAM combination).

Torpedoes, mines and ASW weaponry[edit]

The torpedo is no longer an important anti-ship weapon in the PLAN. However it was very dominant among the coastal attack craft. With the success of torpedo boats in World War I and World War II, the PLAN sought the use of torpedoes in its defense as well. The agility of small coastal craft coupled with fast torpedoes was a grave threat for larger combat vessels. The 1950s, 1960s and 1970s saw a large number of torpedo craft built (as many as 200 operated at one stage). In later years, however, with the increasing inability to even detect Russian or American submarines, the PLAN shifted emphasis from torpedoes to ASW applications and submarines. While most surface combat vessels have some torpedo capability, it is secondary and some ships do not feature torpedo tubes at all.

History and older torpedoes in use[edit]

The torpedo programs of the People's Republic of China was set up under the guidance of former-Soviet Union in the 1950s. In the 1950s, China built two torpedo factories under Soviet direction, and begun its license assembly of unguided straight-running torpedoes. On April, 1958, Naval Arms Ministry of PLAN established torpedo research institute indigenously. Four months later, the deputy chief-of-staff of PLA Zhang Aiping and the deputy commander-in-chief of PLAN Luo Shunchu (罗舜初) led a military delegation to visit former-Soviet Union signed a deal with Soviets to produce three types of Soviet torpedoes in China. In comparison with other military programs, each with dozens or even hundreds of Soviet advisors, however, former-Soviet Union did not put that much emphasis on the torpedo capability: the total number of Soviet advisors initially sent to China for its all of its torpedo programs was only five.

Soviet Union quickly delivered the samples and technical information of the three types of torpedoes to China with the five advisors to China as promised. Two Soviet advisors were assigned to assist China to produce the RAT-52 rocket-powered torpedo, while others were assigned to teach China about compressed oxygen and SAET-60 passive homing acoustic homing torpedoes. In July 1960, the first two samples of Chinese-built rocket propelled torpedoes were completed. The propulsion system and electronics of the electrically powered passive acoustic homing torpedo had also been completed, while the basic technologies of compressed oxygen torpedoes was also mastered by China. Everything appeared to be great but the subsequent Sino-Soviet split ended the promising future: from July 28 – September 1, 1960, former-Soviet Union had quickly withdrew all of its advisors from China.

To compound the problem, other domestic political turmoils such as Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution had further seriously hindered the indigenous Chinese torpedo developments. As a result, the most numerous torpedoes in Chinese inventory were unguided straight-running torpedoes. In 1978 the PLAN gained significant torpedo capability when a single US Mk 46 Mod.1 block 2 torpedo, thought to be recovered by fishermen, was reverse engineered and became the Yu-7 ASW torpedo. It is thought that during the 1980s, the Yu-7 design also benefited from subsequent batches of Mk 46 Mod. 2 torpedoes purchased for PLAN from USA for a total US$ 8 million in 1985. The Yu-7 has become the cornerstone of PLAN anti-submarine warfare. Yu-7 is mostly seen carried by the Z-9C and Z-8 helicopters, and shipboard variants can be launched from destroyers and frigates.

From October to November 1983, Chinese Northwestern Polytechnical University completed upgrade of the acoustic test facilities under the direction of California Institute of Technology, and this facility played an important role in Chinese torpedo development ever since. In 1993, China ordered three types of Soviet torpedoes along with its purchase of Kilo class submarines: TEST-71, which was replaced by its successor TEST-96 in the 2nd order, and Type 53-65. It is also reported that China had ordered the latest Russian APR-3E light ASW torpedo for its Ka-28 and Be-200 ASW aircraft.

Current torpedoes[edit]

Chinese submarines have operated a variety of indigenously designed torpedoes. These range from the basic unguided Yu-1 to the much more long-ranged and highly advanced Yu-6. Little has been documented on PLAN torpedo designs. It was thought that PLAN torpedoes were old and lacked the advanced capabilities to home in against agile or quiet targets.

However, with the delivery of Russian Kilos, China also obtained some highly advanced Russian torpedo designs. One such weapon is the Wake homing torpedo, which homes on a surface ship's wake rather than just sonar readings. It is believed such technology has been applied to new Chinese torpedoes such as the Yu-5. In addition, Jane's Information Group reported, in the late 1990s, that China had already purchased numerous 200-knot Russian Shkval torpedoes from Kazakhstan and was negotiating in purchasing the Soviet torpedo factory there.

Anti-submarine warfare[edit]

ASW warfare apart from torpedoes remains a limited area in the PLAN. PLAN vessels have traditionally utilized depth charges and A/S Mortars. PLAN ships also are commonly armed with multi-barreled ASW rocket launchers. These are based on Russian designs, and are capable of firing rocket bombs at short ranges. It is believed[9] to be effective against shallow targets as well as a possible shield of stopping incoming torpedoes. Most PLAN combatants have traditionally two to four multi-barreled launchers in front of the main gun.

There has been evidence that PLAN had embarked on developing a modern ASW rocket system similar to the ASROC. This was a medium-ranged rocket that carried a torpedo as its warhead. The system is known to be CY-1[10] (and perhaps a new model the CY-3). CY-1 never entered production however, and its status as an active project is in doubt. PLAN forces have had their ASW capabilities somewhat improved with the introduction of Variable Depth Sonar (VDS), which is mounted on some frigates and destroyers. In addition, PLAN helicopters operate dipping sonar and sonobuoys to enhance their detection capabilities. When targets are found, they can drop depth charges, depth bombs or torpedoes.

Mine warfare[edit]

Mine warfare has also been another traditional component of PLAN weaponry. Mines remain to be seen as a very useful power amplifying tool by the PLAN. Strategic minefields could be laid around the Taiwan Strait to deny access or delay deployment of US Navy forces, particularly aircraft carrier battle groups and submarines. Chinese mines have continually been addressed by many analysts and scholars as a very dangerous weapon that could be employed against the US Navy.

Most PLAN destroyers, frigates, littoral craft and submarines can lay mines. Chinese mines vary in type, from basic contact/magnetic mines to more modern and complex systems.[9] China first decided to establish dedicated factories for naval mines in 1954, and in 1958, several programs of naval mines were launched simultaneously by Fengxi Machinery Factory. The first of these, Moored-1 (Mao-1), a large sized moored mine entered mass production in 1962 after being tested multiple times and evaluated by the navy. Most early Chinese mines are either Soviet origin, or direct copies of Soviet mines, with the exception of remotely controlled mine.

The first three types of naval mines entered the Chinese service are all moored mines equipped with contact fuses, and all of them are developed by the Fengxi Machinery Factory. Moored-1 is a large sized mine and Moored-2 (Mao-2) is a medium-sized mine, a copy of Soviet KSM mine, and both types require target to strike the mine for detonation. Moored-3 (Mao-3) is a mine with contact wires so that targets would not have to strike the mine itself for detonation, and the mine can be detonated some distance away, still causing enough damage if the target is within range and comes in contact with the contact wire. Moored-1 and Moored-2 entered mass production in 1964 and 1965 respectively.

In the 1970s, China had successfully developed non-contact fuses such as the acoustic fuse, and earlier contact fuse equipped mines were upgraded with non-contact fuses. Also in 1970, Fengxi Machinery Factory and Engineering Technology Equipment Research Institute begun to jointly develop a riverine moored mine that can be remotely controlled fuse. The project was completed in 1974, and the ultrasonic remote control can be either used to arm or disarm the mines, or alternatively, directly detonate the mine.

Since the 1990s, all of mines in the Chinese inventory are upgraded with computerized controls and a new series of Chinese mines were actively marketed for the export, including derivatives from existing mines as well as a brand-new design such as the one similar to American CAPTOR mine.

Chinese naval mines with known designations:

Missiles[edit]

The PLAN has three main categories of missiles: anti-ship, anti-air and land-attack.

History and use[edit]

HY-1 Missile

Imported missiles[edit]

The missile had been an ever evolving component of PLAN weaponry since the late 1960s. The Soviet Union's assistance to Chinese military developments included the SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missile technology. Since the 1960s, China has manufactured its own models of anti-ship missile based on the SS-N-2 Styx, in the form of HY-1, SY-1, SY-2, and other airborne and ground-launched systems. The oldest designs have since been phased out, but late variants remain in service. The fundamental shortcoming of missiles based on the SS-N-2 Styx are being short-ranged (only 40–100 km), slow, in agile and rather large and easily detectable targets for modern SAM and CIWS. Later Chinese variants have vastly superior electronics, radar guidance and performance to the older Soviet models.[9] As China has normalized its relationship with the former Soviet Union and then Russia, the importation of Russian missiles resumed, and a new generation of Russian anti-ship missiles have been imported, including the supersonic SS-N-22 and Kh-31, Klub-S, (the Russian equivalent of the anti-shipping version of American BGM-109 Tomahawk), and AS-20 Uran (the Russian equivalent of the air-launched American AGM-84 anti-shipping Harpoon missile).

Indigenous missiles[edit]

China's first completely indigenous anti-ship missile program was the YJ8 series. This missile externally appears similar to the French Exocet and American Harpoon, but is essentially a Chinese designed weapon system. The basic YJ8 appeared in the early 1980s, with a short range of 22 miles (40 or so kilometers). It was successful in its test launches however, hitting and sinking targets of up to 10,000 tons with a high hit probability. Unlike older designs, the YJ8 could attack targets at low altitudes to reduce its vulnerability to CIWS, and has greater Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) to prevent enemy jamming. The YJ8 entered widespread service, becoming the standard anti-ship missile on most second and third generation Chinese built warships, ranging from destroyers and frigates, to missile craft and submarines. The missile can also be launched from shore platforms and aircraft.[11]

Several models of the YJ8 have since emerged. The YJ82 was significantly a better missile with a greatly improved range of 120 km and far more advanced ECM. The latest variant is the YJ-83, with a range exceeding 250 km, and capable of making its final approach at Mach 1.5 to penetrate ship defenses. In addition, a variant revealed at 2006 Zhuhai Airshow designated as C-802KD/YJ-82KD has ground attack capabilities similar to the AGM-84 SLAM. All YJ8 models can be launched from a common boxed launcher. Most littoral combatants carry four to six missiles, while larger surface ships can carry eight. PLAN destroyers have mounted sixteen missiles. Though the YJ8 series does not have the advance 'pop up' approach or checkpoint flight characteristics of the Harpoon, it is respected as one of the most potent anti-ship missiles ever developed. The YJ83's performance in some areas is superior to even the latest variants of Harpoon and Exocet, though its ECM and agility is thought to be slightly inferior.

Current missiles[edit]

The PLAN inventory includeds a mixture of foreign and domestic missiles, and Russia was the largest foreign provider.

Anti-ship missiles[edit]

Supersonic anti-ship missiles have been a key development in China. The Russian ramjet SS-N-22 Sunburn is operated by China on board its Sovremenny class destroyers. These missiles are highly potent as they are capable of penetrating ship defenses (even in AEGIS simulations). Its high velocity hypersonic approach and its large warhead make the SS-N-22 a valuable weapon for the PLAN. China has long sought to produce its own supersonic and eventually hypersonic anti-ship system since the 1980s. High speed missiles are seen as the most effective means of attacking modern warships. Only Russia, China, and India (Brahmos, which was co-developed with Russia) have so far successfully developed and deployed such weapons.

Earlier Chinese missiles of such capability from before the 1990s include the C-301 (also known as HY-3). With its four ramjet engines, it has a range of 130 km and a speed greater than Mach 2.5. Though a success, the missile is far from being as potent as the SS-N-22, mainly because it can fly only at a higher cruise altitude of 50 m, rather than cruising at wave tops (such as the 20 m cruise altitude of SS-N-22), so it is easier to intercept in comparison to SS-N-22. the PLAN's air force has also purchased both the KH31 ramjet supersonic missile and the AS-20 turbojet subsonic anti-ship missile from Russia to arm its fighters.

Apart from ramjet technology, China has successfully developed some supersonic anti-ship missiles that can fly above Mach 1.0 (as most anti-ship missiles currently fly at Mach 0.9). The C-101, also known as FL-2 features a smaller and thinner body of the original SS-N-2 Styx, but it can fly at speeds around Mach 1.7. It can attack targets at 40 km. However, like the much larger C-301, its cruise altitude is also at 50 meters and thus prone to interception in comparison to faster SS-N-22 with lower cruise altitude. As a result, both C-101 and C-301 saw very little service. The YJ83 also possesses some supersonic attack capabilities.

More modern missiles today are the YJ-12 and YJ-91 (KH-31), the most advanced supersonic missiles China has in service. They entered service around 1999 and have a range of 400 km at a speed of Mach 2.5 and can be launched from both ship and air. They can even attack land.

Anti-air missiles[edit]

China's navy had long lacked an air defense missile system, hence why it has been a major area of weakness. China's SAM development had been seriously jeopardized by the Cultural Revolution, and the break away from the Soviet Union meant that no Soviet assistance in air defense missiles was given. The first naval SAM system was not developed until the late 1960s. This was in the form of the HQ-61 SAM, originally a short-range land based system. The first PLAN ship to be armed with SAM was the Type 053K frigate Jiangdong, launched in 1970. However it took many years for the design to mature and the obsolete system was never ideal for naval operations. The Jiangdong had two twin launchers of the HQ61 SAM. The missile was capable of engaging enemy air targets out to 10 km. The HQ-61 was applied to only a limited degree. The Jiangwei I class of four units, were armed with a sextuple launcher. The weakness, however, was lack of automatic reload systems, so the crew had to manually reload.

When China opened up in the late 1970s, it had greater access to Westernized technologies. One vital asset imported was the French Crotale short-ranged SAM. Two systems were initially imported and mounted aboard two Luda class destroyers. The design was subsequently indigenized into the HQ-7. The improved-Luda, Luhu, Luhai, Jiangwei II, and 054 class warships. The launcher is an eight-celled system, with a reload hatch, which has additional missiles below deck. Its engagement range is 10–12 km and is claimed to be capable of engaging low-flying missiles and aircraft.

Although the HQ-7 was a significant step towards PLAN air defense capabilities, the PLAN still fell short of possessing a medium- to long-range missile system that could provide true fleet defense coverage. The purchase of Russian Sovremenny class destroyers meant China obtained the medium-range SA-N-7 SAM and its subsequent improved models. This missile was far more advanced than any Chinese indigenous design. The missile was soon adapted for service on board the PLAN's 052B class destroyer. China sought to import the Russian SA-N-6 long-range SAM system. This was based on the land based S-300 missile, which China had already been operating.

The SA-N-6 is a vertical launched system (VLS) with a range of 100 km and performance similar to the US Patriot. Two such systems were negotiated for and not ready for installation until late 2005 (on board the new 051C destroyers). Meanwhile China had developed the HQ-9 system, believed to have partially borrowed some of the features on both Russian S-300 and US Patriot technology (fire control). This was China's first indigenous long-range high-performance air defense missile. This was installed on the 052C class warships.

With VLS missiles finally in service with the PLAN, there has been high optimism to see a short-range VLS weapon that could replace the HQ-7. Contenders for the future short-range SAM of the PLAN include a vertical launched variant of the HQ-7, Russian TOR-M1, Russian SA-N-12, VLS variant of the Chinese LY60N or HQ-61, or a completely new design.[9]

Submarine-launched ballistic missiles and land attack rockets[edit]

JL-1 and JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missiles. The JL-1 was first test fired in 1982 and first successfully launched from the Xia class SSBN in 1987. The JL-1 is currently carried on board China's sole SSBN, the Xia 092. It has 12 launch tubes. Each JL-1 has a range 2,150 km and a single 250-500 kt nuclear warhead. An improved model is in service with a 2,800 km range and possibly higher accuracy. The JL-2 will be the next generation of Chinese SLBM, similar to early variants of the Trident. With a range of 8000 km and multiple warheads (MIRV), this missile is essentially based on the land based DF-31 ICBM design. This means that the future 094 class SSBN can patrol near Chinese waters and launch missiles that could hit the American mainland.

The JL-2 project remains under secret and the status of the 094 is largely unknown. One vessel was reported launched very recently, while the JL-2 missile's development is believed to be in its mature stages.[14]

A single Jianghu I (hull 516) was modified very recently. It has its anti-ship missiles replaced with several multiple-rocket launchers. The rockets are of 122 mm caliber, and are based on the Type 89 system, which is itself quite similar to the Soviet BM-21 rocket system. The 122 mm rockets are launched from a stabilized launcher, meaning that even if the ship is affected by wave motion, the launcher itself will be stabilized. The rockets have a range of up to 40 km, and can achieve reasonable accuracy in fire. This installation may be seen as an experiment by the PLAN to make use of older warship designs, by turning them into shore bombardment platforms. Though only one ship is being tested for now, this is a very possible concept for future PLAN conversions of their large number of old Luda's and Jianghu's. Fire support from ships is seen as very important by the PLAN when conducting amphibious operations.

Cruise missiles[edit]

The YJ-62 naval cruise missile made its first public appearance during the military parade on the 60th Anniversary of the People's Republic of China; the YJ-62 represents the next generation in naval weapons technology in the PLA.

Combat data systems[edit]

A combat data system is considered by the Chinese military as a force multiplier and another revolution of military affairs, but until the 1980s, Chinese naval vessels has yet to be equipped with such systems. The first combat data system for Chinese navy was indigenous, and subsequent systems trace their origin from Italian and French systems purchased. Three western combat data systems were known to be purchased by China, including British Racal Marine Radar CTC-1629, Italian Alenia SADOC 2, and French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC. Based on these sample, the following indigenous domestic Chinese combat systems were subsequently developed:

ZKJ-1
ZKJ-1 combat data system was the first generation combat data system developed by China, and it was a complete indigenous system which took more than 13 years to develop. Developed by a joint team of 724th Research Institute (later reorganized as Nanjing Marine Radar Research Institute 南京船舶雷达研究所) as the primary contractor, and 709th Research Institute as the secondary contractor, the system took more than a decade to complete, because there was absolutely not any outside information that can be referenced. The general designer was Mr. Qin Xuechang (秦学昌, born in 1940 in Chongming County), the future head of 724th Institute. Tests for subsystems of ZKJ-1 combat data system were completed in 1978, system test was completed the following year. Land tests against aerial targets begun in November 1979 and completed four months later, and finally in July 1980, the system was installed on board ships and completed its final tests.
The combat information center (CIC) centered around ZKJ-1 was Type 672-II, with three electronics cabinets and six display consoles, and it is also known as Poseidon-1. However, due to the technological backwardness of Chinese microelectronics industry at the time, the computational power of ZKJ-1 was not strong enough, and the speed of information processing was not fast enough for emerging threats in the 1980's. As a result, ZKJ-1 was only installed on board one of the Type 051Z ships, No. 110, subsequent ships were equipped with combat data system of foreign origin. ZKJ-1 combat data system was upgraded by adopting new electronics, including Type 911 computer developed by 709th Research Institute, and multiple distributed and ruggeddized Type 991 microprocessors, also developed by the same institute.
ZKJ-2
ZKJ-2 combat direction system, which is a very simple combat data system of British origin. This combat data system is frequently but erroneously referred by many as ZKJ-3, but in reality, it ZKJ-2 instead, because ZKJ-3 is actually the Chinese version of Italian IPN-10 combat data system first delivered to China in 1985. ZKJ-2 is based on Racal Marine Radar CTC-1629 (CTC: Command Tactical Console) combat direction system, which can simultaneously track 20 targets. However, UK had its own electrical/electronics standard, and ZKJ-2 is basically the same CTC-1629 converted to internationally accepted IEEE/ITU standard. The general designer of ZKJ-2 is Mr. Yan Junxing (严俊星), and the CIC associated with ZKJ-2 is Poseidon-3, developed by 724th Research Institute.
The other improvement of ZKJ-2 over the original Racal CTC-1629 is the it is linked to domestic Chinese fire control system (FCS), and one of the most important of these is SIASWFCS, which is the abbreviation of Shipborne Integrated Anti-Submarine (Warfare) Fire Control System (Chinese: 舰载综合反潜火控系统 Jian-zai Zong-he Fan-qian Huo-kong Xi-tong), the first kind in Chinese service. SIASWFCS links up onboard sensors and ASW weaponry, and once top priority targets are identified, SIASWFCS would be able to simultaneously engage two targets by automatically providing fire solutions from any of the following ASW weaponry: torpedo tubes, ASW rocket launcher, ASW mortar, mine laying rails, and later, ASW missiles as well. Up to two types of ASW weapons can be simultaneously used, either against the same target, or two targets independently. SIASWFCS would become a standard equipment on all Chinese warships and later models would expand capability by increasing targets can be attacked simultaneously and types of weaponry used. All future Chinese combat data systems have incorporated SIASWFCS (and its upgraded models).
ZKJ-3
ZKJ-3 combat data system is the Chinese equivalent of Alenia IPN-10 used by Italian Navy, and it is a Chinese development of SADOC 2, the export version of IPN-10 (SADOC = systema dirizione della operazioni di combattimento), developed by the same manufacturer, this export version of IPN-10 combat data system lacks the data link. SADOC 2 is capable of simultaneously tracking 200 targets, but such capability cannot be fully utilized in SADOC 2 due to lack of data link, because the maximum number of 200 can seldom be reached either because there are not enough targets within the vicinity, or the on-board sensors are not capable of tracking that many targets. Data link is critical in that it allows target information from other platforms to be transmitted and integrated to the combat data system, fully utilizing its potential. Furthermore, being able to receive additional information on targets detected by other platforms and integrated to one's own combat data system would result in extending the defense perimeter beyond the range of onboard sensors, thus greatly improving situation awareness. Such advantages did not exist for SADOC 2 combat data system due to lack of data link, and China had to come up with its own data link for SADOC 2 system. The resulting domestic Chinese system is ZKJ-3, which is essentially a SADOC 2 with indigenous domestic Chinese data link added, along with some other improvements, thus bring ZKJ-3 to the Chinese equivalent of the original IPN-10 combat data system, fully utilize its potential. Designed by the 724th Research Institute, ZKJ-3 entered service in 1988, and experience gained had helped the development of ZKJ-4 series combat data system, the Chinese version of French TAVITAC combat data system.
A derivative of ZKJ-3 designated as CCS-3 is installed on Royal Thai navy F25T class frigates. CCS-3 differs from ZKJ-3 mainly in data links: Thai ships were equipped with a data link back to shore headquarters, and after delivery, a US inter-ship data link is also incorporated. The general designer of CCS-3 is Mr. Chen Yongqing (陈永清). The CIC associated with ZKJ-3 was ECIC-1, rumored to be electrical combat information center, and its derivatives were used on later Chinese combat data systems.
ZKJ-4
ZKJ-4 combat data system is the Chinese version of French TAVITAC (Traitement Automatique et VIsualisation TACtique) combat data system. China signed a deal with Thomson-CSF in 1986 to purchase two sets of TAVITAC, and both were delivered in the following year. Reverse engineering efforts resulted in ZKJ-4 series combat data system, and at least three versions have been identified: ZKJ-4, ZKJ-4A, and ZKJ-4B. The follow-on upgrade of the original system is rumored to have domestic Chinese minicomputers replaced the original ones. As with its origin, TAVITAC, ZKJ-4 can also simultaneously tracing 800 targets. The subsequent development of ZKJ-4A/4B is reportedly adopting domestic Chinese computers and increasing the number of targets the system can simultaneously tracks. However, there are sources claim that the Chinese version of TAVITAC is ZKJ-5 while ZKJ-4 is the Chinese equivalent of Alenia IPN-20.
ZKJ-5
ZKJ-5 combat data system is the Chinese equivalent of Alenia IPN-20 used by Italian navy. The most significant improvement of IPN-20 over the original IPN-10 is that IPN-20 can be integrated into NATO Air Defense Ground Environment (NADGE). Similarly, ZKJ-5 can be integrated into Chinese land-based air defense networks so it can command/control land-based aircraft, a necessity of joint-service operations. This improvement of ZKJ-5 over earlier versions has since become a standard feature for later Chinese combat data systems. According to Chinese, ZKJ-5 is completely indigenous. There are sources claiming that the Chinese equivalent of IPN-20 is ZKJ-4 instead, and the Chinese version of TAVITAC is ZKJ-5 instead. Such claims have yet to be verified by official Chinese governmental sources.
ZKJ-6
The ZKJ-6 combat data system is the Chinese equivalent of French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC 2000, a combat data system that is also installed on Taiwanese Kang Ding class frigate. In addition to publicized Far Eastern customers such as Taiwan and Singapore, three TAVITAC 2000 were also sold to an unnamed Far Eastern customer, and it is widely rumored that this unnamed Far Eastern customer was China, but neither France nor China provides any confirmation of denial. However, such claims are doubted by skeptics,[who?] who claim that it is very difficult if not impossible to export such system from the West to China after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, despite the fact that when TAVITAC 2000 first made its public debut in 1988, China was one of the first customers showing strong interest. The primary improvement of TAVITAC 2000 over its predecessor TAVITAC is that the former utilizes LAN, with intelligent workstations replacing the dumb terminal in the latter, and hardened civilian computers replaced the specially built military computers in the latter, reducing the total cost by nearly a half.
According to the Chinese, ZKJ-6 was completely indigenous, because a foreign (unnamed, but presumably France) supplier had refused to sell similar system to China after China attempt to negotiate the purchase. The general designer of ZKJ-5 was Zhang Zihe (张子鹤), head of the 709th Research Institute of the 7th Academy of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, which was the primary contractor of ZKJ-5. Other important figures in ZKJ-5 program included program engineers Li Shuyun (李淑云) and Hu Bin (胡彬).[citation needed] Zhang Zihe pioneered the design of incorporating microcomputer/PC to the system, which was almost rejected when first proposed because it was the first attempt in China, but eventually the idea was accepted and proved successful. PCs/microcomputers incorporated in ZKJ-5 combat data system are the intelligence workstations to replace the dumb terminals, exactly how similar subsystems work in TAVITAC 2000.
ZKJ-7
ZKJ-7 combat data system is the Chinese equivalent of Thales TACTICO combat data system, a distributed system first revealed in 1994. ZKJ-7 was first revealed in 2001 during the public debut of a newly designed JRSCCS CIC, and is claimed by Chinese to be completely indigenous, with a mean time between failure of over 1800 hours, and a mean time to repair less than 30 minutes. ZKJ-7 is in the same category of Thales TACTICO in that both have eliminated the separate processor cabinets because all processing is done locally on operator consoles, and reportedly, both utilizes the same SPARC processor.
ZBJ-1
H/ZBJ-1 combat data system is the newest Chinese combat data system, reportedly on board Type 052C destroyer. Very little information is publicized about this combat data system, and much of its performance parameter remain unknown. The contractor of ZBJ-1 is reportedly to be the 704th Research Institute. It is reported that ZBJ-1 is also used on Type 052D destroyer.

Radars[edit]

For radars deployed by PLAN, please refer to Chinese naval radars.

Sonars[edit]

Chinese sonar systems were initially based on Soviet supplied system, and during the 1980s, some western sonars were also imported, including Italian DE-1160, French DUBV23/43, SS-12, HS-312 etc. Domestic Chinese sonars includes:

SJD-1
H/SJD-1 sonar is an indigenously developed bow mounted sonar, first of its kind in China. Initial proposal of adopting Soviet Tamir-11(MG-11, NATO reporting name Stag Hoof) search light sonar was rejected, because it was not considered adequate enough due to its single beam search capability, which means the low speed of search cycle would easily lose targets. A more capable indigenous Chinese sonar was ordered to be developed, with Mr. Huo Guozheng (霍国正) named as the general designer. The resulting indigenous Chinese domestic sonar was SJD-1 low frequency (LF), high power, large aperture sonar with a cylindrical array (designated as Type 601 sonar array), which was accepted into service after eleven major trials at the sea. Type 601 sonar array of SJD-1 sonar has a diameter of 2 meters, height of 1 meter and weight of 4 tons, and the range is in excess of 6 nautical miles (nm), more than twice the range of Soviet Tamir/MG-11 search light sonar originally proposed. SJD-1 sonar was jointly developed by 706th Research Institute, 726th & 461th Factories, and it is the first bow mounted sonar adopted by Chinese navy. SJD-1 is frequently confused with its successor SJD-2, more commonly referred as SJD-II, whose design started in the 1970s, but was not completed until the 1980s due to major redesign. SJD-1 sonar was installed on Luda class destroyers and subsequently upgraded to SJD-2 in the 1980s.
SJD-N
It was discovered that SJD-1 sonar cannot provide accurate locations of targets, and the error was too great to be adequate enough to provide fire solutions to onboard ASW weapons. Therefore, the design of Type 051D incorporated an additional high frequency (HF) active attack sonar designated as SJD-N (with Type 675 sonar transducer array) to provide fire solutions, and this attack sonar was subsequently fitted on all Luda class ships. SJD-N was subsequently upgraded to SJD-4 standards.
SJD-2
H/SJD-2 sonar, more commonly known as SJD-II, whose design started in the 1970s, but was not completed until the 1980s due to major redesign, is frequently confused with its successor SJD-1. SJD-2 is part of the effort (the other part being SJD-4) to improve the ASW capability of steam powered Chinese warships by incorporating Italian DE-1164 sonar technology. DE-1164 consists of 2 subsystems using the same electrical cabinet, DE-1160 hull mounted sonar (HMS, with a maximum range around 20 km) and DE-1163 variable depth sonar (VDS, with a maximum range in excess of 50 km). DE-1164 is the first sonar in Chinese service to have integrated the HMS & VDS. ED-1164 was installed on Type 051 destroyer for evaluation.
Trials revealed that the performance of DE-1164 sonar was disappointing, with a huge gap between the actual performance and what was specified in documents. However, this was not due to sonar, but the ship itself. Due to the inherent flaws of an old design, the ship is not an ideal ASW platform for advanced ASW system. The steam propulsion system proved to be the major hindrance preventing DE-1164 reaching its full potential. The noise and vibration generated by the steam boilers simply created too much interference with the sensitive sonar that it could only reach its full potential at very low speed. However, at such low speed, target would easily evade and escape Luda's attempt to attack. Test result led to two attempts to address the issue going in parallel: one of them was to upgrade SJD-1 with foreign technologies, and an addition of an attack sonar SJD-4. SJD-2 is thus an upgrade package for older steam-powered warships.
SJD-3
H/SJD-3 sonar is the Chinese development of Soviet Tamir-11(MG-11) search light sonar. SJD-3 hull mounted sonar differs from Soviet MG-11 in that instead of being fixed to the hull like the original MG-11, SJD-3 has a telescoping arm, so when not in use, the sonar is stored in the hull, and when deployed, the sonar is lowered into water several meter below the hull, thus increased detection range by avoiding baffles generated by the hull.
SJD-4
H/SJD-4 sonar resulted in the same experience of evaluation Italian DE-1164 sonar, which led to the development of SJD-2, the improvement of SJD-1. SJD-4, in turn, is the corresponding upgrade of SJD-N, utilizing the technologies of DE-1164.
SJD-5
H/SJD-5 is the Chinese development of Soviet Tamir/MG-11, with transistors replacing vacuum tubes in the original Soviet MG-11, thus reduced size and weight and increase reliability. SJD-5 sonar has several derivatives, including EH-5, with integrated circuits replacing transistors, which further developed into Echo Type 5, adopting LSIC technology. The latest member is SJD-5A, with VLSIC technology.
SJD-7
H/SJD-7 is the Chinese development of Italian DE-1164 sonar, with additional noise cancellation and vibration reduction measures so that it can be used on older steam powered warship, whose steam propulsion system generates much greater noise and vibration than diesel and gas turbine propulsion system.
SJD-9
H/SJD-9 is the Chinese development of French DUBV23/43 hull mounted/VDS sonar system, incorporating same additional noise cancellation and vibration reduction measures for installation on steam powered warships.
ESS-1/2
ESS-1 sonar and ESS-2 sonar are Chinese VDS and hull mounted sonars (HMS) developed from similar western counterparts. The origin of ESS-1 VDS and ESS-2 hull mounted sonar are subject to debate due to lack of official information, with some sources claim that ESS-2/1 are the Chinese version of DE-1160/1162 HMS/VDS, while others claim that it is the Chinese version of DUBV-23/43 HMS/VDS. Since the Italian and French sonars have similar performance (20 km for HMS, and 50 km for VDS), it is difficult to determine which is which, since official Chinese governmental sources only confirms the 20/50 km ranges for HMS/VDS. ESS-2 sonar has bearing accuracy of 1 degree and like its predecessors SJD-1/2, it has a cylindrical transducer.
SO-7H
SO-7H sonar is the Chinese version of French DUBA 25 sonar. As with SJD-7/9, SO-7H also incorporats additional vibration and noise reduction measures for upgrading older steam powered warships in Chinese navy.
SJG-206
H/SJG-206 is low frequency towed array sonar, the first towed sonar in China. Developed by China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, it won 2nd place in National Science & Technology Advancement Award in 2003, and it equips many Chinese primary surface combatants.
TLAS-1
TLAS-1 sonar is the first Chinese towed array with a range of up to 45 km. This passive low frequency sonar is able to simultaneously tracking 5 targets, with a bearing accuracy of 4 degrees, and it shares the same operator console as ESS-2 HMS. This is a light towed system designed for smaller surface combatants.
SJG-208
H/SJG-208 is a towed sonar used by Chinese hydrographic and oceanographic survey ships, entered service in 1997, and its general designer is Mr. Li Qihu (李启虎), who is also the general designer of H/SQG-4 and H/SJG-206 sonars, and deputy general designer of H/SQG-207 sonar.
SQG-4
H/SQG-4 passive ranging sonar is also known as Type 204 sonar, it can be either used as part of H/SQZ-262 integrated sonar system, or as an independent system. Started in 1987, SQG-4 incorporated western technologies, namely French Thomson-CSF DUUX-5, and it deploys three arrays on each side of the submarine.
SQZ-262
H/SQZ-262 sonar is a fully digitized, integrated submarine sonar designed by Acoustic Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three versions of H/SQZ-262 was developed, with SQZ-262A replacing Type 105 sonar on Type 033 class submarine, SQZ-262B replacing Type 603 & 604 sonars on Han class and Xia class nuclear submarine, and SQZ-262C installed on Type 035G Ming class submarine.
SQG-207
H/SQG-207 flank array is a flank sonar newly developed by 715th Research Institute, first equipped Chinese nuclear submarine, and then conventional submarines during refits, it is the first flank sonar in China.
Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS)
Chinese synthetic aperture sonar (CSAS) is a SAS developed by a team lead by Acoustic Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, partnered with the 715th Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation. The program first begun in Jul 1997 one of the 863 Programs, and the general designer of CSAS was Chinese academician of sciences Mr. Li Qihu (李启虎), also the general designer of H/SQZ-262 sonar. In comparison to imported SHADOWS SAS[15] developed by French firm IXBLUE, CSAS has higher resolutions: the model of CSAS that utilizes both the medium and low frequencies has a resolution of 0.1 meter,[16][17] as opposed to 0.15 meter of SHADOWS SAS.[18] The model of CSAS that utilizes high frequency has a highest resolution to 5 cm x 3.75 cm.[19]
SAS for AUV
China has also developed a miniature SAS for autonomous underwater vehicles(AUVs).[20] Developed by the Information and Communication Engineering Research Institute of Zhejiang University as part of one of the Project 985 programs,[21] the general designer of Chinese SAS for AUV is Professor Mr. Xu Wen (徐文) of Zhejiang University.[22]
XT02WR01
XT02WR01 sonar is a diver detection sonar (DDS) developed by (Beijng) New Source Yongtai Electro-optics Science and Technologies Development Co. Ltd. (北京新源永泰光电科技发展有限责任公司) in Beijing. The system can cover up to 150 hectares of area, with an effective range against a diver at 400 to 700 meters (w/ errors of 0.5 meter in distance, 15 meter in bearing). The size of the system (wet end) is very compact, weight less than 50 kg, with a diameter of 0.5 meter and a height of 0.65 meter. The wet end only need 200W of power, same as an ordinary household television, with 220V power source. The wet end of XT02WR01 sonar can be deployed in a depth up to 40 meter deep and can operate in sea state 4 continuously for 3 years, and the entire system can be fully autonomous, operating without any human intervention. The dry end of XT02WR01 sonar system has numerous options based on customer demands, linked to the wet end via waterproof fiber-optics cables.
Tronka
Tronka sonar is a DDS jointly developed by Ukraine and China.[23][24] The systems weigh 415 kg (115 kg for wet end, 300 for dry end), and can be deployed in a depth up to 20 meter. The effective range is 0.5 km, with an accuracy of 1.5% in range, 2 degrees in azimuth. The height of the wet end is 1.5 meter, and the service life of the system is 10 years.[25]
Underwater Security System[26]
Underwater Security System (USS) is an indigenous Chinese nonlethal diver repellant system developed domestically by a joint team of Institute of Acoustics (中科院声学所) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai Ship & Shipping Research Institute (上海船舶运输科学研究所) of China Shipping Group, and Xi’an (Research) Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (西安光学精密机械研究所) of CAS. The general designer of USS is Mr.Xu Feng (许枫, Jun 1969 -). The detection subsystem of USS consists of both the stationary and mobile sonars. USS has been first deployed in 2008 Olympic games in Chinese port cities hosting water sports, and has since been adopted subsequently by Chinese law enforcement, para-military and military establishments.
Harbor Underwater Frogmen Detection System[27]
Harbor Underwater Frogmen Detection System (HUFDS) is a DDS system actively marketed in China by its developer, Beijing Time Frequency Technology Co., Ltd (北京泰富坤科技有限公司) in Beijing.
SGP
SGP side scan sonar (SSS) is a family of SSS developed by South China University of Technology led by the general designer Mr. Lin Zhenbiao (林振镳), and a total of 3 generations of SGP SSS has been developed since program first begun in 1971, including SGP-I/II/III (SGP-1/2/3), with SGP-3 being successfully used in mine detection.[28] The predecessor of SGP-3, the SGP-1 SSS works at two frequencies, 160-190 kHz and 25-30 kHz.[29]
CS-1
CS-1 is a side scan sonar developed by Institute of Acoustics (中科院声学所) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). CS-1 system consists of computer-based sonar processor, the sonar receiver board, data acquisition board, extended I/O interface board, thermal line scan recorder, tow-fish, tow cable and winch etc. CS-1 is deployed for survey missions.[30]
Portable SSS
Portable side scan sonar is developed by Institute of Acoustics (中科院声学所) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), based on experience gained from CS-1 SSS developed by the same team. Portable SSS is primarily designed as a rapid deployment system that can be readily installed on surface platform, so that it would complement larger systems such as CS-1 which required more dedicated platform. The maximum range is 200 meter, and maximum working depth is 100 meter, highest resolution is 0.5 degree, diameter is 0.1 meter, working frequency is 200 kHz and the total system weight is less than 30 kg.[31]
HRBSSS
HRBSSS stands for High Resolution Bathymetric Side Scan Sonar, and it is jointly developed by Institute of Acoustics (中科院声学所) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Teledyne RD Instruments (RDI) @ Shanghai. The resolution is 5 cm, working frequency is 150 kHz, and range is 2 x 400 meters, maximum working depth is up to 6000 meters, and HRBSSS can track multiple targets simultaneously.[32]
SQX-1
H/SQX-1 sonar is a communication sonar for underwater communications, with the transducer reportedly designed as Type 063.
SQC-1
H/SQC-1 sonar (with transducer designated as Type 604) is a passive sonar installed on first generation Chinese nuclear submarines when they were first launched, and it is no longer in service, replaced by H/SQZ-262B.
SQZ-3
H/SQZ-3 sonar (with transducer designated as Type 603) is an active sonar installed on first generation Chinese nuclear submarines when they were first launched, and it is no longer in service, replaced by H/SQZ-262B.
SQZ-D
H/SQZ-D sonar (with transducer designated as Type 105) is a sonar for older generations of diesel submarines and it is no longer in service, being repalaced by H/SQZ-262A. The performance of SQZ is almost identical to the original Soviet sonar it was developed from, except the sector of scan, which is increased by 15 degrees. The volume and weight is also decreased considerably when the original vacuum tubes of the original Soviet sonar (Tamir 5L, NATO reporting name: Perch Gill) was replaced by transistors and integrated circuits.
SQC-1
H/SQC-1 reconnaissance sonar is no longer in service when its functions can be performed as part of that of H/SQZ-262 sonar.
Type 801
Type 801 sonar is a Chinese development of Soviet MARS-24 sonar for diesel submarines. Type 801 provide azimuth of targets and it is a passive system. The only difference between Type 801 sonar and its predecessor MARS-24 sonar is that there are 24 transducer elements for Type 801 as opposed to 12 in the original MARS 24, so the Chinese sonar had better accuracy.
SQG-2
H/SQG-2 sonar is the first domestically developed indigenous Chinese passive ranging sonar, developed to complement Type 801 passive sonar, which could only provide azimuth, but not ranging. SQG-2 is a ranging only sonar that is no longer in service, being replaced by more advanced development.
SQZ-1
H/SQZ-1 sonar is an integrated sonar system that integrates Type 801, SQC-1, SQG-2 and SQZ-D sonars so the overall combat effectiveness is improved, in comparison to the old practice of each sonar working separately and info obtained from each individual system must be manually interpreted to form an overall picture. SQZ-1 is no longer in service and has been replaced by SQZ-262 sonar.

Diver propulsion vehicles[edit]

All confirmed DPVs in Chinese service are developed by the Kunming Wuwei Science & Technology Trade Co., Ltd[33] at Kunming, a solely owned subsidiary of Kunming 705th (Research) Institute Science & Technology Development Co. (昆明七零五所科技发展总公司)][34] at Kunming, which in turn, is a company wholly owned by the 705th Research Institute (headquartered in Xi'an) of the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation. All DPV/SDVs (swimmer transportation devices) fielded by this contractor are developed by the design team with the following members: Liu Ning (刘宁), You Yun (犹云), Jin Zhongxian (金仲贤), Chen Haizhen (陈海珍), and Zhang Chun (张春). A total of 4 DPVs have been identified in Chinese naval service:

QY18 DPV[35]
One man DPV/SDV weighing < 20 kg. Length: 0.8 m, diameter: 0.385 m, speed: 2 kn, endurance: > 1 hr, depth: 40 m.
QY40 DPV[36]
One man DPV/SDV weighing < 40 kg. Length: 1.2 m, diameter: 0.32 m, speed: 2 kn, endurance: > 1.5 hr, depth: 40 m.
QX50 DPV[37]
One man DPV/SDV weighing < 50 kg. Length: 1.6 m, diameter: 0.23 m, speed: 2 kn, endurance: > 2 hr, depth: 40 m.
QJY-001 DPV[38]
Two man DPV weighing < 90 kg. Length: < 2.3 m, diameter: < 0.53 m, max speed: 4 m/s, cruise speed: 2.7 kn for 1 person, 2 kn for 2 people, endurance: > 9 km @ 2 kn, depth: 30 m, sea state: 3.

In addition to the DPVs currently in the Chinese naval inventory, Glory International Group Ltd[39] in Beijing is also marketing two of its DPVs, (GL602[40] and GL603[41]), to the Chinese military.

Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs)[edit]

The following unmanned underwater vehicle(UUV)s have been confirmed in Chinese service:

Future weapons systems[edit]

The current quality and capability of PLAN weaponry has improved significantly, closing the gaps between PLAN obsolescence and Western standards. Future PLAN weapon systems could include land attack cruise missiles, stealthy hypersonic missiles, armed ship-launched UAVs, anti radiation missiles, and land based anti-ship ballistic missiles, EMP bombs, long-range artillery systems, super-speed torpedoes and improved mines.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 61 Dual-37mm Shipboard Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  2. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 69 Dual-30mm Automatic Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  3. ^ a b c http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNRussian_57mm-81_zif-71.htm
  4. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 76A Dual-37mm Shipboard Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  5. ^ Chinese Defence Today - AK-630 Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)
  6. ^ a b Chinese Defence Today - Type 730 Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)
  7. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=l-DzknmTgDUC&pg=PA670&lpg=PA670&dq=c43+torpedo&source=bl&ots=2rgMAVrbLh&sig=JGabNTKJE9-F2agYQvQ7Dr6hu_w&hl=en&ei=xxlIS6qXBI_mswOLltHOAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=c43%20torpedo&f=false
  8. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=O99t5l91_fEC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=c43+torpedo&source=bl&ots=fgnajDlrNn&sig=lDd4rAdoq9CzYw1jd8mYpnmaAtw&hl=en&ei=xxlIS6qXBI_mswOLltHOAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=c43%20torpedo&f=false
  9. ^ a b c d China's Navy Today
  10. ^ Chinese Defence Today - CY-1 Anti-Submarine Rocket
  11. ^ YJ-8 (C-801) Anti-Ship Missile - SinoDefence.com
  12. ^ a b http://project2049.net/documents/assassin_under_radar_china_cruise_missile.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.global-military.com/sword-20-cruise-missiles-loaded-on-to-h-6m-bombers.html
  14. ^ JL-1 (CSS-N-3) Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile | Strategic | SinoDefence.com
  15. ^ SHADOWS SAS
  16. ^ CSAS frequency
  17. ^ CSAS accuracy
  18. ^ SHADOWS Sonar
  19. ^ CSAS HF
  20. ^ AUV SAS
  21. ^ SAS for AUV
  22. ^ CSAS for AUV
  23. ^ TRONKA DDS
  24. ^ TRONKA sonar
  25. ^ TRONKA
  26. ^ Underwate Security system
  27. ^ Harbor Underwater Frogmen Detection System
  28. ^ SGP-3 side scan sonar
  29. ^ SGP-1 side scan sonar
  30. ^ CS-1 side scan sonar
  31. ^ Portable side scan sonar
  32. ^ HRBSSS
  33. ^ Kunming Wuwei Science & Technology Trade Co., Ltd (昆明五威科工贸有限公司) http://www.km705ww.com/ accessed 18 June 2013
  34. ^ Kunming 705th (Research) Institute Science & Technology Development Co. (昆明七零五所科技发展总公司) http://kunming06165.11467.com/about.asp accessed 18 June 2013
  35. ^ QY18 DPV http://www.km705ww.com/Products.aspx?childId=6&id=19 accessed 18 June 2013
  36. ^ QY40 DPV http://www.km705ww.com/Products.aspx?childId=6&id=21 accessed 18 June 2013
  37. ^ QX50 DPV http://www.km705ww.com/Products.aspx?childId=6&id=4 accessed 18 June 2013
  38. ^ QJY-001 DPV http://www.km705ww.com/Products.aspx?childId=6&id=5 accessed 18 June 2013
  39. ^ http://www.gllory.com/index.php Glory International Group Ltd (格莱瑞国际集团有限公司)
  40. ^ GL602 http://www.gllory.com/productxiangxi.php?id=27 accessed 18 June 2013
  41. ^ GL603 http://www.gllory.com/productxiangxi.php?id=26 accessed 18 June 2013