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For other meanings, see Navaratna (disambiguation).

Navaratnas Nauratan (Sanskrit dvigu nava-ratna- or "nine gems") was a term applied to a group of nine extraordinary people in an emperor's court in India. Some well-known groups are in the Raaj Sabha (court) of King Janaka, Emperor Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) and in Emperor Akbar's "Darbar".

In the court of Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II )[edit]

Nine gems during the reign of Vikramāditya (Chandragupta II) of the Gupta Empire.

Kalidasa inditing the cloud Messenger, A.D. 375

In the court of Akbar[edit]


The Mughal ruler Akbar, despite his illiteracy, was a great lover of the artists and intellectuals. His passion for knowledge and interest in learning from great minds attracted him to men of genius to his court, known as the nine courtiers of Emperor Akbar or Navratnas(Nine Jewels):[1]

Similar Groups[edit]

Many famous emperors in India had courtiers labeled in similar ways. For example, the valuable members of the court of Krishna Deva Raya were termed Astadiggajas, the eight giants. Lakshman Sen the ruler of the Sena Empire had Pancharatnas (meaning 5 gems) in his court; one of whom is believed to be Jayadeva, the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda. Ashtapradhan was the title given to the council of Shivaji.

Modern usage[edit]

Main article: Navratnas

A number of institutions in modern India are popularly named for this historic group, particularly public-sector units that perform well. As of June 25, 2007,[2] the list included the following PSUs: