Navaratnas Nauratan (Sanskrit dvigu nava-ratna- or "nine gems") was a term applied to a group of nine extraordinary people in an emperor's court in India. Some well-known groups are in the Raaj Sabha (court) of King Janaka, Emperor Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) and in Emperor Akbar's "Darbar".
In the court of Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II )
- Kalidasa, the most notable among them
- Vetala Bhatta
In the court of Akbar
The Mughal ruler Akbar, despite his illiteracy, was a great lover of the artists and intellectuals. His passion for knowledge and interest in learning from great minds attracted him to men of genius to his court, known as the nine courtiers of Emperor Akbar or Navratnas:
- Todar Mal
- Raja Man Singh
- Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
- Fakir Aziao-Din
- Mulla Do-Piyaza
- Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
Many famous emperors in India had courtiers labeled in similar ways. For example, the valuable members of the court of Krishna Deva Raya were termed Astadiggajas, the eight giants. Lakshman Sen the ruler of the Sena Empire had Pancharatnas (meaning 5 gems) in his court; one of whom is believed to be Jayadeva, the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda. Ashtapradhan was the title given to the council of Shivaji.
The part that was removed was completely irrelevant to Indian history. It just had a list of Indian businesses which has got no relevant connection to the subject matter here.
- Singh, Vipul (2006). The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination. Pearson Education India. ISBN 8131717534. p. 140.