Navi Mumbai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"New Bombay" redirects here. For other uses, see Bombay (disambiguation).
Navi Mumbai (New Bombay)
नवी मुंबई
Planned Business Township of Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai Skyline
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai (New Bombay)
Location of Navi Mumbai in [Mumbai], India
Coordinates: 19°01′N 73°01′E / 19.02°N 73.02°E / 19.02; 73.02Coordinates: 19°01′N 73°01′E / 19.02°N 73.02°E / 19.02; 73.02
Country  India
State Maharashtra
Districts Mumbai, Raigad
Official Language Marathi
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body NMMC
 • Mayor Sudhakar Sonawane (NCP)
 • Commissioner D. T. Waghmare, IAS
Population 1,119,477
Nearest city Mumbai
Lok Sabha constituencies Mumbai

Navi Mumbai (IPA:Navī Mumba'ī) is a planned township of Mumbai on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was mooted in 1971 to be a new urban township of Mumbai by the Government Of Maharashtra. For this purpose a new public sector undertaking was established that is CIDCO.[1] Navi Mumbai has a population of 1,119,477[2] as per the 2011 provisional census. Navi Mumbai is situated across two districts namely Thane and Raigad. The nodes of the city in the Thane district are developed and are hence administered by the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) which was established in 1992. The remaining newly developed and developing nodes in the Raigad district are administered by CIDCO. The city has a robust infrastructure, is well connected to other parts of the state and country and is relatively less polluted compared to Mumbai. Navi Mumbai has a good public transportation system with NMMT, the transport wing of NMMC, serving the bus commuters, the Mumbai suburban railway serving the train commuters and a large fleet of auto rickshaws for intra-nodal commute. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway starts at Kalamboli in Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai would have its own international airport by 2019. It is being developed primarily to ease the burden off Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai and to put Navi Mumbai on global map as a standalone city. The city is home to various educational institutions offering courses in several streams including engineering, medical sciences, interior designing, hotel management, etc. Various MNCs like Siemens, McDonald's, Bureau Veritas, Bizerba, Larsen & Toubro, etc. have their offices/branches across the city making it an active business hub.[3] Navi Mumbai also has various recreational facilities such as the golf course, central park and Pandavkada water falls in Kharghar, Parsik Hill near Mahape, Wonders park in Nerul, mini seashore or Sagar Vihar in Vashi etc. and several other public places like gardens and jogging tracks. Navi Mumbai also has many quality restaurants and luxury hotels for accommodation. There are many shopping malls such as Little World mall in Kharghar, Centre One, Inorbit and Raghuleela malls in Vashi, etc. Navi Mumbai is considered as an entry point of Mumbai city. Its location and infrastructure coupled up with affordable housing and low pollution makes Navi Mumbai the most preferred choice for new immigrants coming from in and out of Maharashtra seeking good living conditions outside Mumbai, despite facing daily hardship in these living conditions.[4]

History[edit]

Navi Mumbai, located in the eastern trans harbour of Mumbai, Maharashtra, is one of the world's largest planned townships.[5] Since independence, the decision to build a new city on the mainland across the harbour was for a specific purpose: to decongest Mumbai, an island city whose physical expansion had a limit. It was also earmarked as an alternate haven for the multitudes that thronged to Mumbai from all over India. This decision required the state government to exercise the matching, politically speaking, hard option to relocate its seat of governance along with all its important offices to this new city, and completely stop the backbay reclamation project in the island city. It did nothing of the sort. It continued with the reclamation and put brakes on the efforts of CIDCO (such as the shifting of wholesale markets). Recently in August 2015, Navi Mumbai has been ranked third among 476 cities surveyed for cleanliness levels as part of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Union urban development ministry ranked 476 Class-I cities on sanitation practices followed including solid waste management and preventing open defecation in this process.

Planned City, Slums and Haphazard Growth[edit]

The planning of Navi Mumbai could begin, in the right earnest, only by 1971, and involved leading architects and urban planner like, Charles Correa (Chief Architect), Shirish Patel, Pravina Mehta[6] and R. K. Jha (Chief Planner),[7] South Navi Mumbai is being developed rapidly with its class infrastructure and modern nodes of Kharghar, Kamothe, Panvel and Kalamboli. A fifth[8][9] to a third[5] of the population lives in its slums [10] and gaothans (urban villages)[11] with thousands of buildings built violating planning norms.[12]

Implementation and Development[edit]

Utsav Chowk at Kharghar
Shivaji Chowk

The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was formed on 17 March 1971, under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The area covered 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the total 720 kilometres (450 mi) of the Konkan coast. Privately owned land conisisting of 86 villages covering 15,954 hectares (39,420 acres) within the present limits of Navi Mumbai and further villages measuring an additional 2,870 hectares (7,100 acres) were acquired by the government of Maharashtra.[11] The major part of Navi Mumbai covers the southern part of Thane Taluka (from Thane District) and part of Panvel and Uran taluka (from Raigad District).

CIDCO carved out 14 small townships with a view towards facilitating comprehensive development. These nodes are named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Dronagiri, Taloja, Karanjade.

CIDCO planned and constructed all the railway stations in Navi Mumbai and developed nearby areas commercially.

Vashi Bridge across the creek.

In 1973, the Vashi bridge was opened to the public for residents of Vashi, CBD Belapur and Nerul. The Sion-Panvel Expressway was built to reduce the time taken to travel from Sion to Panvel. Initially there was not much response to the new city. Major changes took place only after 1990, with the commissioning of a wholesale agricultural produce market at Vashi and the construction of a commuter railway line from Mankhurd to Vashi in May 1992. These developments caused a sudden growth in economic activities and population in Navi Mumbai.

Recent Developments[edit]

By the end of the 1990s, the planning authority of Navi Mumbai initiated private participation in the developmental activity of Navi Mumbai.

A new railway link between Nerul and Uran is under construction and the portion of this line from Seawood to Ulwe is at an advanced stage of construction.[13] Kharghar and Panvel are experiencing major infrastructural developments due to their proximity to the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport. Also a latest development known as 'One Time Planning' with an estimated budget of ₹12,821 crores is underway to transform Navi Mumbai on the lines of the Mega Cities of the world.

Administration[edit]

CIDCO[edit]

When Navi Mumbai was created in the 1970s, CIDCO was the only authority that looked after the development and maintenance of the city. CIDCO prepared a developmental plan for Navi Mumbai covering 95 villages

Konkan Bhavan

For the first Ten years of the project CIDCO acted as the planning and administrative body, and as the developer and builder for the project. Taxes on property, land, commercial and water were payable to CIDCO. The 14 nodes which CIDCO created were named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Pushpak and Dronagiri. Each of the nodes is divided into smaller groups called sectors.

Initially only Vashi, Nerul and CBD Belapur were developed by CIDCO with housing, schools and community centre roads. But after the arrival of the harbour railway line extension in the 1990s, there was an increase in population. CIDCO shifted its development plan to nodes like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, and Kopar Khairane. In its new development plan, CIDCO land was allocated to builders for housing. CIDCO only provided basic infrastructure like roads, water and electricity, these nodes were developed mostly by private builders according to the CIDCO plan.

The newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai on the south side like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel and Kalamboli are still maintained by CIDCO. These nodes, which are all beyond CBD Belapur, come under the Raigad district.

NMMC[edit]

Navi Mumbai Map

On 17 December 1991, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) was constituted by the state government for maintaining some of the developed nodes of Navi Mumbai.

Local self-government started on 1 January 1992. NMMC was handed nine of the 14 nodes of the Navi Mumbai project area for its jurisdiction. However, CIDCO, as a planning authority, has rights on the open plots in these five nodes.

The nine nodes maintained by NMMC are CBD Belapur, Nerul, Vashi, Turbhe, Kopar khairane, Ghansoli, Airoli, Digha, and Sanpada as of 1 January 1998, with the physical and social infrastructure already in place.

With annual budget exceeding Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, it is rated amongst the richest corporations in Maharashtra.

The municipal corporation is headed by a municipal commissioner and an elected mayor. Currently, the Mayor of Navi Mumbai is Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) member Mr. Sudhakar Sambhaji Sonvane. There are 111 electoral wards in Navi Mumbai.[14] A corporator is elected in each of the wards.

PMC[edit]

Recently a resolution has been passed by the general body of the Panvel Municipal Council (PMC), which currently administers the city of Old Panvel spread across an area of 12.11 sq. km. with a population of 1.8 lakh (0.18 mn), to upgrade the Municipal Council to a Municipal Corporation.[15][16] But the minimum requirement for the formation of a Municipal Corporation is having a population of at least 3 lakh (0.3 mn) which the Council falls short of. Hence, a decision has been made by the PMC to incorporate the adjacent nodes of Navi Mumbai under CIDCO's jurisdiction and surrounding villages in the proposed Panvel Municipal Corporation. This would add another 5.93 lakh (0.6 mn) people under its administration[17] thereby clearing the first hurdle.

The decision propounds that instead of merging the administration of newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai including New Panvel, Kamothe, Kalamboli, Kharghar, parts of Uran and developing nodes of Ulwe and Dronagiri, which are currently overseen by CIDCO, with NMMC, they should be incorporated under the proposed Panvel Municipal Corporation. This opinion is the result of a political agenda. The fact is, of the total 16 nodes of Navi Mumbai 10 are under NMMC and the rest are under CIDCO. NMMC's jurisdiction is limited within the boundaries of the Thane district, which is a foothold of the Nationalist Congress Party, while the remaining nodes are in the Raigad district, where parties like Bharatiya Janata Party, Shiv Sena and Peasants and Workers Party of India are most active. Hence, the local politicians, especially Panvel MLA Prashant Thakur, oppose the merger of all the nodes under one Municipal Corporation citing political conspiracy.[18][19]

The proposal is to be tabled before the Maharashtra State government which has appointed an expert committee to study the feasibility of the demand to upgrade the Panvel Municipal Council to a Municipal Corporation.[15]

But there is some discontent among the residents of the Kharghar node. The residents and some NGOs from Kharghar have voiced their demand for Kharghar to be inducted under NMMC as it would provide them with better civic amenities and would make Kharghar eligible to be a part of the proposed plan of making Navi Mumbai a Smart City which includes only the area under NMMC's jurisdiction.[20] However, CIDCO has its own plan of developing the area under its jurisdiction (informally called as Navi Mumbai South) as a smart city. But its implementation is not guaranteed because CIDCO will be financing the entire project by itself as it wouldn't be getting funds from the Centre and State governments like NMMC.[21][22] Residents of Kharghar have even kicked off a "sign the petition" campaign for the local public and housing societies to sign and which would be presented to the Chief Minister of Maharashtra Devendra Fadnavis to request for inclusion of Kharghar under NMMC.[23] So far no such opposition from residents of other nodes has been reported.

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Navi Mumbai in 2011 is 1,119,477; of which male and female are 611,501 and 507,976 respectively. Although Navi Mumbai city has population of 1,119,477; its urban / metropolitan population is 18,414,288 of which 9,894,088 are males and 8,520,200 are females.

In education section, total literates in Navi Mumbai city are 911,542 of which 519,257 are males while 392,285 are females. Average literacy rate of Navi Mumbai city is 91.57 percent of which male and female literacy was 95.05 and 87.33 percent. The sex ratio of Navi Mumbai city is 831 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 901 per 1000 boys.

Transport[edit]

Panvel Suburban Railway Station
Kharghar Railway Station
NMMT AC VOLVO
Trivandrum Rajdhani Express at Platform No. 7 of Panvel Rly Stn
Nerul Rly Stn West

The Mumbai suburban railway network covers most of the populated region of the city. The most important suburban stations are Vashi, Nerul, Belapur & Panvel. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Panvel is the only mainline station and also the busiest railway station of Navi Mumbai. All outstation trains halt here for time periods varying from 5 to 20 minutes. It is an important junction, railway lines come and meet here and it is connected to almost all parts of India. A new broad gauge line is functional between Karjat & Panvel and currently plies three express trains.

Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) & Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) buses travel all over Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan-Dombivli-Badlapur, Panvel-Khopoli, Uran, Bhayandar, etc. NMMT AC Volvo and BEST AC Kinglong buses are available from Mumbai to Navi Mumbai and vice versa. The 10 km long Palm Beach Road of six lane connects Vashi to CBD Belapur running parallel to the creek. It is a twin of the Marine Drive.[citation needed]

Within each node, auto rickshaws ply. Taxis operating from designated taxi stands provide the means to travel further to destinations. Taxis charge a fixed rate approved by the R.T.O. details of which can be found on popular local transit apps of the city.[24]

Navi Mumbai boasts the largest container port in India, Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva near Uran.[25] It is well connected with road, and handles approximately 65% of India's container traffic. The Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, 30 km away, is the nearest airport.

International Airport[edit]

The Navi Mumbai International Airport will be constructed in southern Panvel area near Ulwe. It will be built through Public Private Partnership (PPP), with private sector partners having 74% equity and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Government of Maharashtra (through CIDCO) each holding 13%.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has already given techno-feasibility clearance to the airport. The central government provided cabinet approval for the construction on 31 May 2007. Specialised consultants were appointed and the global tendering process is underway. CIDCO has claimed to have all the clearances and permissions in place. And the ground leveling work like cutting of Ulwe hill and reclamation of marshy land will commence soon.

Metro Rail[edit]

Main article: Navi Mumbai Metro

The Navi Mumbai Metro is an under construction rapid transit system in Navi Mumbai. A network of as many as six lines have been planned of which four lines will be constructed by CIDCO in the Navi Mumbai south region, the second and third line of the metro system will be constructed by NMMC and MMRDA respectively. The first line of the metro system is being constructed by CIDCO. This line includes three phases. In the first phase, the line will join the CBD Belapur station on the Mumbai suburban railway and Pendhar village. In the second phase, the line will join Taloja MIDC and Khandeshwar node (which will be extended to the Navi Mumbai International Airport. And in the third phase, the line will link the Pendhar and Taloja MIDC metro stations. The first phase of the line 1 is slated to become operational by 2017 and CIDCO has claimed to make the network of its four lines fully operational by 2019-2020 along with operationalisation of the city's International Airport.

Infrastructure[edit]

Basic infrastructure worth 40 billion (US$590 million) is already in place.[26] The city boasts a reliable supply of electricity from various sources, and excellent motoring conditions, with numerous flyovers, broad roads, and parking lots. The main problem which the residents face is poor connectivity with Mumbai, with only two road links between the two cities and a single rail line. A hovercraft service from Vashi to Colaba and the CBD to Colaba did not succeed due to the high cost of tickets and maintenance. Cidco is planning to relaunch its hovercraft service from Vashi, Belapur, Nerul, and Airoli to Gateway of India.

Services[edit]

There are adequate utility services, banks, restaurants, malls, multiplexes and other shops in Navi Mumbai. Vashi boasts several shopping malls such as Center One, Palm Beach Galleria, Citi Center, Raghuleela Mall and Inorbit Mall. Palm Beach Road, Nerul, and Kharghar are also witnessing the construction of malls like little world and glomax and multiplexes. Throughout Navi Mumbai supermarkets and malls like Apna Bazaar, More, Spencer's, Reliance Fresh, Spinach, Daily bazar and Fairprice cater to the shopping needs of the residents. DMart has launched five hypermalls in Navi Mumbai.

Leading banks such as the South Indian Bank State Bank of India, Union Bank, Saraswat Bank, Bank of Baroda, Bank of Maharashtra, Bank of Hyderabad, Citibank India, ICICI Bank, and HDFC Bank have their branches and ATMs around Navi Mumbai. The Reserve Bank of India has served the people of Navi Mumbai since 2001.

Navi Mumbai has some three- and five-star hotels.

Commerce[edit]

Vashi station complex
Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in India.
Belapur Railway Station

The Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located in the nodes of Dronagiri and Kalamboli are planned to provide commercial growth and employment to the city. Positioned en route the proposed Navi Mumbai Airport, this megaproject has attracted investments of close to 40,000 crores.[citation needed] Navi Mumbai is a new hub for newly incorporated companies & start ups to establish their base in Mumbai.[27] As per the list of newly incorporated companies in Navi Mumbai around 500 new & startups companies were registered in and around the region every month

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the prevalent sport in the city. Navi Mumbai has its own International Cricket Ground in Nerul called the DY Patil Stadium which hosts IPL T-20 matches. It is also the home ground for the Indian Super League football team Mumbai City FC. Fr. Agnel Stadium in Vashi is the training ground of the team.

Navi Mumbai has an Olympic-size swimming pool at Nerul. CIDCO has proposed two 18-hole golf course academies at Nerul and Kharghar. There are plans to have sports facilities in the proposed 80 hectare central park being developed in Kharghar. The CIDCO has also constructed an 11-hole golf course at Kharghar.

Education[edit]

Some of the schools in Navi Mumbai are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Introduction". CIDCO. 
  2. ^ "Cidco:Population". 
  3. ^ "Multinational Companies in Navi Mumbai". Retrieved 29 Dec 2015. 
  4. ^ "Navi Mumbai A Cruel Joke". Mumbai Mirror. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Vijapurkar, Mahesh (18 June 2015). "Navi Mumbai was Charles Correa's dream: Here's how it turned into a nightmare". Firstpost. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Master class with Charles Correa". Mumbai Mirror. Jun 9, 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Mehta, H.: Man who built Navi Mumbai is in Gujarat The Times of India 21 February 2010. Accessed 27 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Slum population-- 2001 Census" (PDF). Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  9. ^ Srivastav, Amit (15 December 2012). "Slum-hub". Afternoon Despatch & Courier, Mumbai. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  10. ^ "Slum and Non-Slum Population, Sex ratio and Literacy rate by City/ Towns, in Maharashtra State. 2001". ENVIS Centre on Population and Environment (Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India). Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  11. ^ a b Chatterjee, Piu (7 July 2014). "Urban Villages in Globalized India: Degenerative Growth Processes in Navi Mumbai". Inclusive (Journal of the Kolkata Centre for Contemporary Studies). ISSN 2278-9758. 
  12. ^ Bhosale, Arpika (12 Apr 2013). "23,000 illegal two-storey buildings in Navi Mumbai". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  13. ^ The Economic Times (November 20, 2012). "Ulwe in Mumbai emerges as top destination for realty investment" (News). Indiatimes.com. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  14. ^ Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation > Corporation > Elected Members Accessed 14 January 2014.
  15. ^ a b U K Nambiar (12 Dec 2015), Talks begin to give corporation status to PMC, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  16. ^ Bhavika Jain (9 Dec 2015), 2 new civic bodies on cards, Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  17. ^ Umesh K Parida (20 Dec 2015), PMC’s civic body plan includes 3 more villages, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  18. ^ George Mendonca (28 Nov 2013), Panvel MLA opposes merger of developed nodes with Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  19. ^ Rahul M Tawade (29 Nov 2013), Upgrade Panvel council to corporation level rather merging it with civic body, says Prashant Thakur, Panvel: DNA, DNA, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  20. ^ Sunnidh Poojary (19 Aug 2015), Include Kharghar in NMMC jurisdiction, Kharghar: DNA, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  21. ^ CIDCO announces Rs 34,000-crore smart city project, Mumbai: The Hindu, 3 Dec 2015, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  22. ^ BS Reporter (5 Dec 2015), Cidco launches Navi Mumbai smart city project, Mumbai: Business Standard, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  23. ^ B B Nayak (22 Aug 2015), Kharghar residents on a campaign trail, again, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 Dec 2015 
  24. ^ Kamal, Hassan. "Good news for the daily commuter". www.mid-day.com. Mid-Day. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  25. ^ "India’s major ports see 6.7 percent growth in container volumes". JOC.com. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  26. ^ Maharashtra IT parks The Recommended New Address For 21st Century Corporate India
  27. ^ [1]

External links[edit]