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Coordinates: 14°40′00″N 120°56′30″E / 14.6667°N 120.9417°E / 14.6667; 120.9417
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From top, left to right: Aerial view of Navotas, Navotas Fish Port Complex, Diocesan Shrine and Parish of San Jose de Navotas, Navotas Agora Complex, Navotas City Walk
Official seal of Navotas
Commercial Fishing Hub of the Philippines
Itaas ang antas ng Buhay-Navoteño (Raise the Level of the Navoteño Life)
Anthem: Himno ng Navotas; English: Navotas Hymn
Map of Metro Manila with Navotas highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with Navotas highlighted
Navotas is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°40′00″N 120°56′30″E / 14.6667°N 120.9417°E / 14.6667; 120.9417
RegionNational Capital Region
District Lone district
FoundedFebruary 16, 1859
Annexation to MalabonOctober 12, 1903
CharteredJanuary 16, 1906
Cityhood and HUCJune 24, 2007
Barangays18 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorJohn Reynald M. Tiangco (NVTEÑO)
 • Vice MayorTito M. Sanchez (NVTEÑO)
 • RepresentativeTobias Reynald M. Tiangco (NVTEÑO)
 • Councilors
 • Electorate150,693 voters (2022)
 • Total8.94 km2 (3.45 sq mi)
 • Rank144th out of 145
19 m (62 ft)
Highest elevation
263 m (863 ft)
Lowest elevation
−3 m (−10 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total247,543
 • Density28,000/km2 (72,000/sq mi)
 • Households
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2021)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 1,482 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 4,585 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 1,394 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 1,121 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1409, 1411–1413, 1485, 1489–1490
IDD:area code+63 (0)2
Native languagesTagalog

Navotas, officially the City of Navotas (Filipino: Lungsod ng Navotas), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 247,543 people.[3]

It was formerly part of the Province of Rizal in southern Luzon. It comprises what is known as the CAMANAVA area along with the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Valenzuela.

It is known as the Commercial Fishing Hub of the Philippines, for the city has the third largest fish port in Asia and the largest in Southeast Asia. Although it was established on February 16, 1859, Navotas celebrates its foundation day every January 16, the day in 1906 when it finally separated from Malabon. Navotas became a highly urbanized city on June 24, 2007.[5]


Navotas was once part of Malabon. According to one legend, the long and narrow delta extended unbroken from north to south along the seashore. The strip of land between the former district of Tondo, Manila and this town was eaten away by the sea until an opening was made. Water began to flow through the opening. The geographical change prompted the people to refer to the place as "butas", "nayon ng butas", or "nabutas", a Tagalog word that means breached or pierced through.[6]: 99 What began as a natural channel developed into a regular waterway, now known as the Navotas River. In later years, the place came to be known as "Nabotas", then "Navotas".[7]

It was also known as Hacienda de Navotas. It was once owned by the Dominican friars until it was sold to the Pascual family during the early days of the American regime and developed into a residential estate.

San Jose de Navotas was the name given to the locality after its patron saint, Saint Joseph. On June 11, 1859, a "Superior Decreto" established a new parish and municipality under the supervision of Friar Matias Navoa. The populace was divided into two distinct groups, the naturales (locals) and the mestizos. Mariano Estrellas was the gobernadorcillo (petty governor) of the naturales and Mariano Israel, of the mestizos. Today, because records are incomplete, recognition is only given to the gobernadorcillos for the mestizos. A school in honor of San Jose was built and known as "San Jose Academy."


All that I have above related having taken place, it was decided to make peace with the nearest villages, some of whom had come to beg it from the governor, and others would not. Among those who would not come was a village called Butas, situated on an inlet on the other side of the river flowing past Manilla, and about a league and a half away. This village, uniting with the others near by, sent word that they did not wish peace or friendship with the governor; and had the boldness to come as far as the village of Alcandora [ie Lakandula], quite close to Manilla, whence they sent defiance to the governor and the captains.

—Unknown writer, Relation on Conquest of the Island of Luzon (1572)[8]

Spanish colonial era[edit]

The movement for the separation of barrios San Jose de Navotas and Bangkulasi from Tambobong (now Malabon), then a town in the province of Tondo (later Manila), began on December 20, 1827. Led by the principales of such barrios, such separation was petitioned before the Spanish colonial government when the locals experienced difficulties in doing business transactions and accessing Tambobong's poblacion across what is now the Navotas River for religious events.

On February 16, 1859, the petition was finally granted, separating both barrios from Tambobong to form a new distinct town.[6] The town initially composed of four barrios (villages): San Jose, Tangos, Bangkulasi, and Tanza. Later on June 11, the Real Audiencia enacted a Superior Decreto, which established the San Jose de Navotas Parish with a church and parochial school.

On August 6, 1898, Navotas joined the revolutionary government of General Emilio Aguinaldo.[7]

American occupation[edit]

On June 11, 1901, Navotas was eventually incorporated into the newly created province of Rizal with the enactment of Act No. 137.[9]

On October 12, 1903, the town was returned to Malabon by virtue of Act No. 942.[10] On January 16, 1906, Navotas regained its independent municipality status with the enactment of Act No. 1442 which separated it from Malabon.[11]

Philippine independence[edit]

On November 7, 1975, Navotas was transferred from the province of Rizal to the newly formed National Capital Region or Metro Manila, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824.[12]


On June 24, 2007, Navotas became a highly urbanized city by virtue of Republic Act No. 9387 dated March 10, 2007, after a plebiscite was conducted.[13]



Navotas is a coastal town in the northwest part of Metro Manila. It is a narrow strip of land with an aggregated shoreline of approximately 4.5 kilometers (2.8 mi). It is bordered on the north by Obando, Bulacan along Sukol Creek which separates it from Balt; on the south by the city of Manila; on the east by the cities of Malabon and Caloocan and bodies of water such as Binuangan River, the Daang Cawayan River, the Dampalit River, the Batasan River, the Navotas River, the Bangculasi Channel, the Malabon Channel and the Estero de Maypajo; and on the west by Manila Bay. Islands encompassed by the city include Navotas Island, where the city proper is located, and Isla Pulo.

Land reclamation, which includes the Navotas Fish Port Complex, had increased the city's land area. Projects such as the Navotas Boulevard Business Park and the Navotas Fish Port Complex expansion by the Philippine Fisheries Development Authority are expected to add up to 680 hectares (1,700 acres) to the city's land area.[14]


Climate data for Navotas
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 20
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7
Average rainy days 3.3 3.5 11.1 8.1 18.9 23.5 26.4 25.5 24.5 19.6 10.4 6.4 181.2
Source: Meteoblue[15]


Political map of Navotas

Navotas is politically subdivided into 2 districts, with 18 barangays:

Barangays of Navotas
Administration Population
Barangay[16] District Barangay Captain[17] 2020[18] 2010[19] 10 year Change Zip Code
Bagumbayan North 1st Marilou Gonzales 1,677 2,652 -36.8%
Bagumbayan South 1st Lito Sulit 4,331 4,524 -4.3%
Bangkulasi (Banculasi)[a] 1st Ronaldo Reyes 8,344 8,263 +1%
Daanghari 2nd Alvin S. Oliveros 14,348 19,179 -25.2%
Navotas East 1st Dennis Tan Juan 2,126 2,241 -5.1%
Navotas West 1st Elvira Dela Rosa 6,367 8,698 -26.8%
NBBS Dagat-dagatan (North Bay Boulevard South) 1st Domingo L. Elape 32,681 est. +6.5%
NBBS Kaunlaran (North Bay Boulevard South)[b] 1st Federico S. Natividad, Jr. 21,916 68,375 est. +6.5%
NBBS Proper (North Bay Boulevard South) 1st Elvis I. Desabille 18,217 est. +6.5%
North Bay Boulevard North 1st Melvin F. Manalo 14,743 16,201 -9%
San Jose (Poblacion) 2nd Hernan B. Perez 23,950 28,153 -14.9% 1485
San Rafael Village 1st George U. So 3,489 3,530 -1.2%
San Roque 2nd Enrico Plaza Gino-Gino 19,361 17,916 +8.1%
Sipac Almacen 1st Dorwin M. Villanueva 9,163 11,541 -20.6% 1485
Tangos North 2nd Margarita P. Limbaro 17,514 est. +8.9% 1489
Tangos South[c] (Tañgos) 2nd Wilfredo R. Mariano 18,359 32,941 est. +8.9% 1489
Tanza 1[d] 2nd Carlito . De Guzman 15,319 24,917 est. +24.2% 1490
Tanza 2 2nd Rochelle C. Vicencio 15,638 est. +24.2%

Population Changes

Some barangays in Navotas experienced dramatic population change between 2010 and 2020. This is because of an ongoing effort by the government to relocate informal settlers from hazard-prone areas to socialized housing built in Barangay Tanza 2.

Navotas East[edit]

Navotas East is bounded by Barangay Sipac-Almacen to the north, Barangay Tañong of Malabon (via Estrella Bridge over Navotas River) to the east, Barangay Navotas West to the west, and Brgy. Bagumbayan North to the south. Their patron saint is San Ildefonso.[citation needed]

San Jose[edit]

Diocesan Shrine and Parish of San Jose de Navotas

The name of Barangay San Jose was derived from the Diocesan Shrine and Parish of San Jose de Navotas, the first place of worship in the town.[citation needed]

San Roque[edit]

Barangay San Roque is bounded by Tangos South to the northwest and north, Tangos North and Tanza, Navotas (via Badeo 5) to the northeast, Brgy. Hulong Duhat, Malabon and Brgy. Flores, Malabon in Malabon to the east (via Navotas River, Badeo 4), Manila Bay to the west and Brgy. Daanghari to the south. Its name is derived from San Roque de Navotas Parish, the first place of worship in the town.[citation needed]

It is famous for its annual fiesta, every last Saturday and Sunday of the month of January. Every fiesta the whole barangay (including Brgy's Tangos North and Tangos South) is filled with stalls and stores. Also every fiesta of San Roque, A. Dela Cruz St. is full of stalls which sell kalamay, from Batangas.[citation needed]


Barangay Sipac-Almacen is famous for the location of the Navotas City Hall and some points of interest like Navotas National High School, the main high school of Navotas, Navotas Playground, Jollibee, McDonald's and others.[citation needed]

Former Barangays[edit]

Until 2018 Navotas had 14 barangays.

Northbay Boulevard South[edit]

In accordance with Republic Act No. 10933, approved by President Rodrigo Duterte on August 23, 2017, and ratified in a plebiscite on January 5, 2018, Northbay Boulevard South was divided into Barangays NBBS Kaunlaran, NBBS Dagat-dagatan, and NBBS Proper.[20][21][22]


Pursuant to Republic Act No. 10934,[23] approved by President Rodrigo Duterte on August 23, 2017, and ratified in a plebiscite on January 5, 2018, Tangos was divided into Barangays Tangos North and Tangos South.[20][21]


Barangay Tanza occupied the northernmost portion of the city, including Isla Pulo which is separated from the city proper, and was bounded by Barangay Binuangan and Salambao in Obando, Bulacan to the north, Manila Bay and Barangay San Roque to the west, Barangay Hulong Duhat and Dampalit, Malabon to the east, and Barangay Tangos to the south.

By virtue of Republic Act No. 10935,[24] approved by President Rodrigo Duterte on August 23, 2017, and ratified in a plebiscite on January 5, 2018, Tanza was divided into Barangays Tanza 1 and Tanza 2.[20][21]

Both Tanza 1 and Tanza 2 are accessible via Badeo 5 in Barangay San Roque, Navotas and the Tanza-Malabon Bridge in Barangay Hulong Duhat in Malabon.


Population census of Navotas
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 11,688—    
1918 13,454+0.94%
1939 20,861+2.11%
1948 28,889+3.68%
1960 49,262+4.55%
1970 83,245+5.38%
1975 97,098+3.14%
1980 126,146+5.37%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 187,479+4.04%
1995 229,039+3.82%
2000 230,403+0.13%
2007 245,344+0.87%
2010 249,131+0.56%
2015 249,463+0.03%
2020 247,543−0.15%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[25][26][27][28]


Poverty incidence of Navotas


Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]

Fishing and Aquaculture[edit]

Navotas Fish Port Complex

Navotas has been dubbed as the Fishing Capital of the Philippines.[37][38] The city is home to the Navotas Fish Port Complex, which is considered as the Philippines's premier fish center.[39]

Shipbuilding and repair[edit]

In the ship repair sector, the Navotas complex is expected to accommodate 96 vessels for repair.[40]


Navotas City Hall

Local government[edit]

Elected officials[edit]

Incumbent Navotas city officials
Name Party
House of Representatives
Tobias Reynald M. Tiangco Navoteño
City Mayor
John Reynald M. Tiangco Navoteño
City Vice Mayor
Tito M. Sanchez Navoteño
1st District
Edgardo D.C. Maño Navoteño
Reynaldo A. Monroy Navoteño
Alvin Jason S. Nazal Navoteño
Richard S. San Juan Navoteño
Lance Angelo E. Santiago Navoteño
Arvie John S. Vicencio Navoteño
2nd District
Neil Adrian S. Cruz Navoteño
Clint Nicolas B. Geronimo Navoteño
Emil Justin Angelo G. Gino-gino Navoteño
Analiza D.C. Lupisan Navoteño
Ron Hansel Miguel S. Naval Navoteño
Cesar Justine F. Santos Navoteño
Ex officio City Council members
ABC President Rochelle C. Vicencio
SK President Jodile Cañete

Political profile[edit]

With regards to the separation of Navotas from Malabon in 1859 and the organization thereof as a distinct municipality or "pueblo" with its own government and church, this town was headed by the gobernadorcillos who exercised executive and judicial functions. However, as this locality was composed of two groups the naturales and the mestizos, each of which had its own gobernadorcillo appointed by the governor-general who was the supreme authority in all local matters, since the inhabitants did not allow choosing their officials. This political system was somehow revoked at the end of the Spanish Regime through the Maura Law of 1883, which guided some of the selected officials to the supervision of an insular authority. During the revolutionary period (from 1898 to 1902), as the democratic system of local governance was being established via the First Philippines Republic and Malolos Constitution, people of Navotas with high character, social position and honorable conduct gathered in a meeting and elected the chief of the town, the headman of the barrio (barangay) and three officials viz., for police and internal order, justice and civil registry, and taxes and property. In this situation, these elected officials constitute an assembly wherein the chief of the town was the president, the headman, the vice-president, and the justice officer the secretary. In this period, the name of Navotas LGU and its head were changed from "pueblo to municipality" and from "President to Mayor". Philippine Commission, which exercised supervision over local government, appointed the first local official. Gradually, election of officials was allowed.

During the period of the Philippine Commonwealth (from 1935 to 1945), the 1935 constitution ushered. This provided that the President of the Philippines should exercise general supervision over all local governments. This allowed Navotas to have three leaders. This trend from 1946 to 1972 (during the second Philippine Republic) was toward decentralization. Congress passed laws giving more autonomy to Local Government Units through the grant of additional powers and lessening of national control affairs. This created four Mayors of Navotas. During the Martial Law Period, President Marcos had changed the structure and functions of LGU's, thus decentralization suffered the set back with the concentration of power on his hands. After December 31, 1975 (expiration of tenure of office of the local elective officials), the President assumed the power of appointment of the officials as authorized by the people in a referendum held on February 27, 1975. During the Marcos Regime, Navotas had two Mayors.

Navotas was proclaimed as a full-fledged city by virtue of RA 9387[41] that converted the municipality of Navotas into a highly urbanized city. A plebiscite was held on June 24, 2007, which was ratified the conversion of Navotas into a highly urbanized city.


Navotas Polytechnic College

Navotas has 15 public elementary schools and 6 public secondary schools including Navotas National High School and Kaunlaran High School.[42] The Navotas Polytechnic College located at the North Bay Boulevard South in Kaunlaran Village is owned and operated by the city.


Navotas was home to the Navotas Uni-Pak Sardines, a founding member of the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League during its inaugural season and played for three seasons until the 2019–20 season.


Navotas City Terminal

Transportation in Navotas is composed of different vehicles.

Notable personalities[edit]

Sister cities[edit]


  1. ^ The official website of the City of Navotas spells the barangay's name as "Bangkulasi" (which is also depicted in the barangay's seal that is shown by the website), while the Philippine Statistics Authority spells the name as "Bangculasi."
  2. ^ Population figures refer to the former barangay of Northbay Boulevard South, which was divided into NBBS Dagat-dagatan, NBBS Kaunlaran, and NBBS Proper in 2018.
  3. ^ Population figures refer to the former barangay of Tangos, which was divided into Tangos North and Tangos South in 2018.
  4. ^ Population figures refer to the former barangay of Tanza, which was divided into Tanza 1 and Tanza 2 in 2018.


  1. ^ City of Navotas | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  5. ^ "Navotas Becomes Metro Manila's Newest City". Inquirer.net. Archived from the original on June 28, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
  6. ^ a b Salonga, Isayas (1934). Rizal Province directory. Vol. 1. Manila: University of Michigan Digital Collections. Retrieved April 17, 2024.
  7. ^ a b "Our History". Navotas City. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  8. ^ Blair, Emma (1906). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Vol. 3. Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 135.
  9. ^ Act No. 137 (June 11, 1901), An Act Extending the Provisions of the Provincial Government Act to the Province of Rizal
  10. ^ Act No. 942 (October 12, 1903), An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen, retrieved April 24, 2022
  11. ^ Act No. 1442 (January 16, 1906), An Act Increasing the Number of Municipalities in the Province of Rizal From Sixteen, as Established by Act Numbered Nine Hundred and Forty-two, as Amended, to Seventeen, by Making Malabon and Navotas Separate Municipalities, and Transferring the Former Municipality of Baras From the Municipality of Morong to the Municipality of Tanay, retrieved April 24, 2022
  12. ^ Presidential Decree No. 824 (November 7, 1975), Presidential Decree No. 824 November 7, 1975. Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposes, The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation, Inc., archived from the original on March 12, 2016, retrieved July 10, 2020
  13. ^ Republic Act No. 9387 (March 10, 2007), An Act Converting the Municipality of Navotas into a Highly Urbanized City, to be known as the City of Navotas, retrieved April 24, 2022
  14. ^ Taguines, Andrea (February 28, 2024). "2 Manila Bay reclamation projects expected to resume soon". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  15. ^ "Navotas: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  16. ^ "Our Barangays". City of Navotas official website. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  17. ^ "Our Barangays". www.navotas.gov.ph. Retrieved September 11, 2022.
  18. ^ "Philippine Standard Geographic Code (PSGC) | Philippine Statistics Authority". www.psa.gov.ph. Retrieved September 11, 2022.
  19. ^ "2010 Census" (PDF).
  20. ^ a b c Bueza, Michael (December 28, 2017). "Barangay Plebiscites in Navotas, Occ. Mindoro Town on January 5". Rappler. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  21. ^ a b c Villamente, Jing (January 8, 2018). "Navotas Voters OK Creation of 4 Villages". The Manila Times. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  22. ^ Republic Act No. 10723 (August 23, 2017), An Act Dividing Barangay North Bay Boulevard South (NBBS) in the City of Navotas Into Three (3) Distinct and Independent Barangays to Be Known as Barangay NBBS Proper, Barangay NBBS Kaunlaran and Barangay NBBS Dagat-dagatan, retrieved May 22, 2020
  23. ^ Republic Act No. 10934 (August 23, 2017), An Act Dividing Barangay Tangos in the City of Navotas Into Two (2) Distinct and Independent Barangays to Be Known as Barangays Tangos North and Tangos South, retrieved May 22, 2020
  24. ^ Republic Act No. 10935 (August 23, 2017), An Act Dividing Barangay Tanza in the City of Navotas Into Two (2) Distinct and Independent Barangays to Be Known as Barangay Tanza 1 and Barangay Tanza 2, retrieved March 17, 2020
  25. ^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  26. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region (NCR)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  27. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ "Province of Metro Manila, 3rd (Not a Province)". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  29. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  30. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  31. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  32. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  33. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  34. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  35. ^ . Philippine Statistics Authority. June 4, 2020 https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202a.%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20%20by%20Region%2C%20Province%20and%20HUC_2018.xlsx. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  37. ^ Mongaya, Candeze (July 27, 2017). "Bulungan at the Navotas Fish Complex". Archived from the original on July 27, 2017.
  38. ^ Lumaque, Leonard Brian L.; Lopez, Ahvie A.; Comedis, Emily (2015). Navotas: Sharing their Fishing Culture (PDF). Proceedings of the DLSU Research Congress. Vol. 3.
  39. ^ "Navotas Fish Port Complex". Philippine Fisheries Development Authority. July 12, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  40. ^ De Leon, Max V. (November 22, 2012). "Filipino Firm Invests P259M for Shipyard in Navotas". Business Mirror. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  41. ^ "Republic Act No. 9387: An Act Conventing the Municipality of Navotas into a Highly Urbanized City to be Known as the City of Navotas". The Corpus Juris. March 10, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  42. ^ "Schools List" (PDF). Navotas City Website. Retrieved January 23, 2015.[permanent dead link]

External links[edit]