Nawab of Awadh
Nawab of Awadh
Map of what used to be the territories of the "Nawab of Awadh", United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1903.
|Saadat Ali Khan I (first)|
|Saadat Ali Khan II (last)|
|62,072 km2 (23,966 sq mi)|
The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh // was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Nawabs of Awadh belonged to a dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur, Iran. In 1724, Nawab Sa'adat Khan established the Oudh State with their capital in Faizabad and Lucknow.
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The Nawabs of Awadh were semi-autonomous rulers within the fragmented polities of Mughal India after the death of Aurangzeb. They fought wars with the Peshwa, the Battle of Bhopal against the Maratha Confederacy which was opposed to the Mughal Empire, and the Battle of Karnal as courtiers of the "Great Moghul".
The Nawab of Awadh, along with many other Nawab were regarded as members of the nobility of the greater Mughal Empire. They joined Ahmad Shah Durrani during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the imperial throne Shah Alam II. The Nawab of Awadh also fought the Battle of Buxar in the aftermath of the Battle of Plassey, preserving the interests of the Moghul. Oudh State eventually declared itself independent from the rule of the "Great Moghul" in 1818.
List of rulers
All of these rulers used the title of Nawab from 1722 to 1856:
|Portrait||Titular Name||Personal Name||Birth||Reign||Death|
|Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan
برہان الملک سعادت خان
|Saadat Ali Khan I||1680 Nishapur, Khurasan, Safavid dynasty, Persia||1722 – 19 March 1739||1739|
|Abul-Mansur Khan Safdar Jung
ابو المنصور خان صفدرجنگ
|Muhammad Muqim||1708||1739 – 5 October 1754||1754|
|Jalal-ud-din Haider Abul-Mansur Khan||1732||1754 – 26 January 1775||1775|
|Muhammad Yahya Mirza Amani||1748||26 January 1775 – 21 September 1797||1797|
|Asif Jah Mirza||Wazir Ali Khan
وزیر علی خان
|1780||21 September 1797 – 21 January 1798||1817|
|Yamin-ud-Daula||Saadat Ali Khan II
سعادت علی خان
|1752||21 January 1798 – 11 July 1814||1814|
|Abul-Muzaffar Ghazi-ud-din Haydar Khan
غازی الدیں حیدر
|1769||11 July 1814 – 19 October 1827||1827|
|Nasir-ud-din Haidar Shah Jahan
ناصر الدیں حیدر شاہ جہاں
|Abul-Mansur Qutb-ud-din Sulaiman Jah||1827||19 October 1827 – 7 July 1837||1837|
|Abul Fateh Moin-ud-din||Muhammad Ali Shah
محمّد علی شاہ
|1777||7 July 1837 – 7 May 1842||1842|
|Najm-ud-Daula Abul-Muzaffar Musleh-ud-din||Amjad Ali Shah
امجد علی شاہ
|1801||7 May 1842 – 13 February 1847||1847|
|Abul-Mansur Mirza||Wajid Ali Shah
واجد علی شاہ
|1822||13 February 1847 – 11 February 1856||21 September 1887|
|Begum Hazrat Mahal
بیگم حضرت محل
|Muhammadi Khanum||1820||May 1856 – 1858
Wife of Wajid Ali Shah and mother of Birjis Qadra
|7 April 1879|
|14 August 1893|
Very powerful Saadat Ali Khan I, the first Nawab of Awadh, who laid the foundation of that state.
Gates of the Palace at Lucknow by W. Daniell, 1801.
Gate of the Lal-Bagh fort at Faizabad in 1801.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Awadh.|
- Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam By Juan Ricardo Cole
- Encyclopædia Iranica, , R. B. Barnett
- Art and culture: endeavours in interpretation by Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma, Mohammad Habib
- Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1899-1973): The First Two Nawabs of Awadh. A critical study based on original sources. With a foreword by Sir Jadunath Sarkar. Lucknow : The Upper India Publishing House 1933. xi, 301 S. - Originally Phil. Diss. Lucknow 1932. 2. rev. and corr. ed. Agra : Shiv Lal Agarwal 1954. - About Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan (1680-1739) and Safdar Jang (1708-1754), Nawabs of Awadh
- Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1899-1973): Shuja-ud-Daulah. Vol. I (1754-1765). Calcutta : Sarkar Midland Press 1939 - A thesis approved for the degree of doctor of letters by the Agra University in 1938. 2., rev. and corr. ed. Agra : Shiva Lal Agarwala 1961. - Vol. II (1765-1775) Lahore : Minerva 1945. 2. ed. Agra : Agarwal 1974. - About Shuja-ud-Daula (1732-1775), Nawab of Awadh
- Nawabs of Awadh
- THE COURT LIFE UNDER THE NAWABS OF AWADH (1754–1797)
- Roots of North Indian Shi‘ism in Iran and Iraq:Religion and State in Awadh, 1722–1859, by J. R. I. Cole. University of California Press, 1989.
- HISTORICAL SERIES No. LVI
- Advanced study in the history of modern India, Volume 2, by G. S. Chhabra, Lotus Press, 1 January 2005