Nayagram (community development block)

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Nayagram
নয়াগ্রাম
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Nayagram is located in West Bengal
Nayagram
Nayagram
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°01′55″N 87°10′41″E / 22.0319°N 87.1781°E / 22.0319; 87.1781Coordinates: 22°01′55″N 87°10′41″E / 22.0319°N 87.1781°E / 22.0319; 87.1781
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Jhargram
Government
 • Type Community development block
Area
 • Total 501.44 km2 (193.61 sq mi)
Elevation 24 m (79 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 142,199
 • Density 280/km2 (730/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 721138 (Nayagram)
721125 (Baligeria)
Area code(s) 03229
ISO 3166 code IN-WB
Vehicle registration WB-34
Literacy 63.70%
Lok Sabha constituency Jhargram
Vidhan Sabha constituency Nayagram
Website Official Website of Nayagram Dev. Block & Panchayat Samity
paschimmedinipur.gov.in

Nayagram is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Jhargram subdivision of Jhargram district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Red corridor[edit]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being a part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Pashim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there has been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[1] In the period 2009-2011 LWE violence resulted in more than 500 deaths and a similar number missing in Paschim Medinipur district.[2]

The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.[3] The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists, and others active in different political parties, were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.[3][4]

From 2009 Maoist violence had rapidly spread across eleven western CD Blocks of the district: Binpur I, Binpur II, Salboni, Grahbeta II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Nayagram.[5]

Geography[edit]

The Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks/ soil. In Nayagram CD Block 90% of the cultivated area has lateritic soil and 10% has alluvial soil. Nayagram CD Block is drought prone with a particularly severe drought situation.[6]

Nayagram is located at 22°01′55″N 87°10′41″E / 22.0319°N 87.1781°E / 22.0319; 87.1781.

Nayagram CD Block is bounded by Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Keshiari CD Blocks in the north, Dantan I CD Block and Jaleswar CD Block/tehsil in Balasore district in Odisha, in the east, Moroda and Rasabobindapur CD Blocks/tehsils, in Mayurbhanj district in Odisha, in the south and Suliapada CD Block/tehsil, in Mayurbhanj district, in the west.[7][8]

It is located 53 km from Midnapore, the district headquarters.[7]

Nayagram CD Block has an area of 501.44 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 12 gram panchayats, 104 gram sansads (village councils), 336 mouzas and 294 inhabited villages. Nayagram police station serves this block.[9] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Baligeria.[10]

Nayagram CD Block had a forest cover of 15,400 hectares, against a total geographical area of 50,560 hectares in 2005-06.[11]

Gram panchayats of Nayagram block panchayat samiti are: Arrah, Baligeria, Barakhakri, Baranigui, Berajal, Chandabila, Chandrarekha, Jamirapal, Kharikamathani, Malam, Nayagram and Patina.[12]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Nayagram CD Block had a total population of 142,199, all of which were rural. There were 71,537 (50%) males and 70,662 (50%) females. Population below 6 years was 17,598. Scheduled Castes numbered 28,899 (20.32%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 56,887 (40.01%).[13]

As per the 2001 census, Nayagram block had a total population of 123,929, out of which 62,588 were males and 61,341 were females. Nayagram block registered a population growth of 16.38 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent.[14] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.45 per cent.[15]

Villages in Nayagram CD Block included (2011 census figures in brackets): Nayagram (2,300), Patina (884), Chandabila (967), Chandrarekha (542), Arra (684), Baligeria (444), Kharika Mathani (2002), Malam (991), Jamirapat (769) and Berajal (288).[13]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Nayagram CD Block was 79,369 (63.70% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 46,340 (74.06% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 33,029 (53.25% of the female population over 6 years). The gender gap in literacy rates was 20.81%.[13]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages and religion[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[7]

There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by 55.93% of the tribal population of the district. The Bhumij, forming 11.16% of the tribal population, and the Mundas, forming 6.10% of the tribal population, speak Mundari. Other small groups include Koras and Mahalis. The Lodhas, forming 3.85% of the tribal population, the only primitive tribe in the district, speak Lodhi.[16]

Religion in Nayagram CD Block
Hindu
  
85.45%
Christian
  
1.77%
Muslim
  
1.20%
Others
  
11.58%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 121,502 and formed 85.45% of the population in Nayagram CD Block. Christians numbered 2,514 and formed 1.77% of the population. Muslims numbered 1,713 and formed 1.20% of the population. Others numbered 16,470 and formed 11.58% of the population.[17] Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[18] and other religious communities.[17]

BPL families[edit]

In Nayagram CD Block 69.26% families were living below poverty line in 2007.[19]

According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).[19]

Economy[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

280 or 83% of mouzas in Nayagram CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014.[20]

322 mouzas in Nayagram CD Block had drinking water facilities in 2013-14. There were 54 fertiliser depots, 6 seed stores and 38 fair price shops in the CD Block.[20]

Agriculture[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Nayagram CD Block

  Bargadars (2.52%)
  Patta holders (30.78%)
  Small farmers (2.73%)
  Marginal farmers (22.66%)
  Agricultural labourers (41.31%)

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[21]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Nayagram CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 2.52%, patta (document) holders 30.78%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 2.73%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 22.66% and agricultural labourers 41.31%.[20]

In 2005-06 net cropped area in Nayagram CD Block was 22,826 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 15,126 hectares.[22]

The extension of irrigation has played a role in growth of the predominantly agricultural economy.[23]In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Nayagram CD Block was 5,300 hectares, out of which 1,500 hectares were by tank water, 300 hectares by deep tubewells, 600 hectares by shallow tube wells, 500 hectares by river lift irrigation, 900 hectares by open dug wells and 1,500 hectares by other methods.[20]

In 2013-14, Nayagram CD Block produced 3,745 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 3,065 hectares, 784 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 367 hectares, 1,234 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 421 hectares and 42,599 tonnes of potatoes from 1,403 hectares. It also produced mustard.[20]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Nayagram CD Block had offices of 10 commercial banks.[20]

Transport[edit]

Nayagram CD Block has 5 ferry services and 11 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 25 km from the CD Block headquarters.[20]

State Highway 9 (West Bengal) originating from Durgapur (in Bardhaman district) terminates at Nayagram.[24]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Nayagram CD Block had 164 primary schools with 9,046 students, 24 middle schools with 1,355 students and 20 higher secondary schools with 14,309 students. Nayagram CD Block had 525 institutions for special and non-formal education with 12,180 students. [20]

The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Sankrail CD Block out of the total 151 primary schools in 2008-2009, 113 had pucca buildings, 12 partially pucca and 26 multiple type.[25]

Nayagram and Gopiballavpur I CD Blocks have been identified as educationally backward blocks and special efforts are being made through National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level and Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya hostels. These are the hostels for accommodating girl students from weaker sections of the society and all costs relating to their livelihood are borne by the government so that they are not to be deprived of availing elementary education for want of money or other social issues.[25]

Nayagram Pandit Raghunath Murmu Government College was established in 2014 at Baligeria. It is affiliated to Vidyasagar University. It offers courses in Bengali, Santali, English, Sanskrit, history, philosophy, political science and sociology. The college is named after the great scholar Pandit Raghunath Murmu (1905–1982) who developed the Ol Chiki alphabet of Santali language.[26]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Nayagram CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 3 primary health centres with total 52 beds and 7 doctors. It had 28 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 5,749 patients were treated indoor and 73,848 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Vijayita. "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Kishenji's death a serious blow to Maoist movement". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). page 4 (About Paschim Medinipur), page 26 (Predominant Soil), pages 265- 268 (Identification of Flood prone areas, Names of drought prone blocks). Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c "Nayagram Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  8. ^ "District Map Paschim Medinipur". Maps. Paschim Medinipur district administration. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  9. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 October 2016. 
  10. ^ "District Census Handbook: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Map of Paschim Medinipur with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Paschim Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, (erstwhile) Medinipur District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  15. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Page 217 Scheduled Tribe Community. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  18. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 177. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  21. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter V: Economic Livelihoods, pages 129-131. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  24. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  25. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Pages: 60-75. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  26. ^ "Nayagram PRM Government College". Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2016.