List of Nazi doctors
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When the Nazi government came to power it purged Germany of its 6,000 to 7,000 Jewish doctors. Reportedly more than 7% of all German physicians became members of the Nazi party during World War II, a far higher percentage than the general population. In 1942 more than 38,000 German doctors, half the total number of doctors, had joined the Nazi party. While most of these doctors were physicians, some were psychiatrists, and some held doctorates (PhD.'s) in biology, anthropology, or similarly related fields.
Psychiatrists/Doctors who were working for the state, and not for their patient, using a Mendelian type of logic chart, saw extermination of their patients as the correct solution to the problem of mental illness and the supposedly genetically defective.
"The participation in the ‘betrayal of Hippocrates’ had a broad basis within the German medical profession. Without the doctors' active help, the Holocaust could not have happened." wrote E Ernst in the International Journal of Epidemiology.
Killing and experimentation became medical procedures as they were performed by licensed doctors. A doctor was present at all the mass killings for legal reasons. The excuse that there wasn't any international law to differentiate between legal and illegal human experimentation, was used in the Doctors' trial. Due to the lack of international laws to govern doctors, the Nuremberg Code (1947) was created.
Doctors such as Werner Heyde and Robert Ley, changed their name after the war to avoid responsibility. Dr Walter Schreiber first used by the Soviets was later taken into Operation Paperclip in 1951.
Alphabetical List of the Nazi physicians.
- Dr. Kurt Albrecht (Arzt) Arzt=Doctor
- Dr. Karl Babor. German Wikipedia entry on Karl Babor (German Wikipedia), Physician.
- Dr. Ernst Baumhard (Dr. Jäger), Physician.
- Dr. Heinz Baumkötter. Tried in the Sachsenhausen trials.
- Dr. Hermann Becker-Freyseng, Physician.
- Dr. Wilhelm Beiglböck (Beiglboeck, Bleibeck), Physician. Defendant in the doctors trial.
- Dr. Friedrich Berner (Dr. Barth), Physician.
- Dr. Otto Bickenbach
- Dr. Kurt Borm, Physician. Full name Kurt Walter Werner Borm
- Dr. Kurt Blome, Physician. Defendant in the doctors trial. Dr Walter Schreiber gave evidence against Blome.
- Dr. Karl Brandt, Physician. Defendant in the doctors trial.
- Dr. Heinrich Bunke (a.k.a. Dr. Rieper, Dr. Keller), Physician.
- Dr. Carl Clauberg, Gynecologist.
- Dr. Leonardo Conti, Physician. Named as killing patients in Clemens August Graf von Galen August 3, 1941 sermon.
- Dr. Fritz Cropp, Physician.
- Dr. Irmfried Eberl (psychiatrist) (A.K.A. Dr. Schneider, Dr. Meyer)
- Dr. Hans Ehlich
- Dr. Hans Eisele, Physician.
- Dr. Klaus Endruweit, Physician.
- Dr. Friedrich Karl Entress, Friedrich Entress (German Wikipedia), Physician. Executed on the 28th May 1947 per the Dachau Trials
- Dr. Hans Eppinger, Physician.
- Dr. Karl Franz Gebhardt, Physician.
- Dr. Emil Gelny Physician.
- Dr. Karl August Genzken, Physician. Tried as a war criminal.
- Dr. Hans Bodo Gorgaß Full name Hans Bodo Gorgaß/Gorgass (A.K.A. Dr. Kramer) Physician.
- Dr. Ernst-Robert Grawitz, Physician.
- Dr. Heinrich Gross psychiatrist, physician and neurologist
- Dr. Kurt Gutzeit, Gastroenterologist
- Dr. Eugen Haagen
- Dr. Julius Hallervorden
- Dr. Siegfried Handloser
- Dr. Ernst Hefter (psychiatrist)
- Dr. Aribert (Ferdinand) Heim (Dr Death)
- Dr. Hans Heinze, Psychiatrist
- Dr. Martin Hellinger (dentist) sentenced February 3, 1947(Hamburg) to 15 years in prison.
- Dr. Günther Hennecke (Dr. Ott)
- Dr. Werner Heyde, Psychiatrist. After World War II known as Dr Fritz Sawade
- Dr. Fritz Hintermayer
- Dr. Rudolf Hippius, psychologist
- Dr. Erich Hippke
- Dr. Alfred Erich Hoche, Psychiatrist
- Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner
- Dr. Waldemar Hoven
- Dr. Emil Kaschub
- Dr. Bruno Kitt (Executed on the 8th October 1946)
- Dr. Fritz Klein
- Dr. Hans Wilhelm König
- Dr. Eduard Krebsbach
- Dr. Johann Paul Kremer
- Dr. Friedrich Mauz psychiatrist
- Dr. Josef Mengele
- Dr. Friedrich Mennecke, Physician.
- Dr. Theodor Gilbert Morell
- Dr. Joachim Mrugowsky
- Dr. Hermann Paul Nitsche (psychiatrist)
- Dr. Herta Oberheuser . Defendant in the doctors trial
- Dr. Friedrich Panse
- Dr. Hermann Pfannmüller
- Dr. Alfred Ploetz
- Dr. Adolf Pokorny
- Dr. Helmut Poppendick
- Dr. Roche
- Dr. Sigmund Rascher
- Dr. Hans Conrad Julius Reiter
- Dr. Georg Renno
- Dr. Hans Richter
- Dr. Heinrich Rindfleisch
- Dr. Robert Ritter (psychiatrist)
- Dr. Hans-Wolfgang Romberg . Defendant in the doctors trial
- Dr. Gerhard Rose AKA Gerhard August Heinrich Rose, Gerhard Rose at German Wikipedia
- Dr. Paul Rostock
- Dr. Rolf Rosenthal
- Dr. Siegfried Ruff
- Dr. Ernst Rüdin psychiatrist
- Dr. Helmut Rühl (Arzt)
- Dr. Fritz Sawade see Dr Werner Heyde, Psychiatrist
- Dr. Gerhard Schiedlausky
- Dr. Curt Schmalenbach
- Dr. Ernst Heinrich Schmidt
- Dr. Carl Schneider, Psychiatrist
- Dr. Walter Paul Emil Schreiber
- Dr. Oskar Schröder
- Dr. Horst Schumann (Dr. Keim)
- Dr. Heinrich Schütz (Arzt) Arzt=Doctor. 20 November 1975, he was sentenced to 10 years. Doctors certified him too ill, and he did not have to serve his sentence.
- Dr. Hubertus Strughold
- Dr. Heinz Thilo
- Dr. Percival Treite, Gynecologist. See Hamburg Ravensbrück trials
- Dr. Alfred Trzebinski
- Dr. Marianne Türk, pediatrician
- Dr. Carl Peter Værnet
- Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer
- Dr. Werner Villinger psychiatrist
- Dr. Helmut Vetter
- Dr. Gerhard Wagner
- Dr. Erich Wasicky
- Dr. Bruno Nikolaus Maria Weber
- Dr. Friedrich Wegener
- Dr. Georg August Weltz
- Dr. Ernst Wentzler Full name Ernst Albert Max Wentzler
- Dr. Adolf Winkelmann (Arzt) Arzt=Doctor
- Dr. Eduard Wirths
- Dr. Gerhard Wischer psychiatrist
- Dr. Wilhelm Witteler
- Dr. Waldemar Wolter
- Dr. Ewald Wortmann also known as Hannes Wortmann
- Action 14f13
- Action T4
- Viktor Brack
- Doctors' Trial
- Dr. Otto Ambros of chemistry. At the IG Farben Trial was found guilty of War crimes and crimes against humanity and lived until 1990.
- Dr. Klaus Schilling not a Nazi and worked in the Dachau concentration camp. He was executed on May 28, 1946.
- Dr. Gustav Wilhelm Schübbe
- Dr. Hermann Stieve, German physician who did not join the Nazi party. Those the Nazis imprisoned and executed became his research material.
- Dr Shirō Ishii
- Dr Otto Georg Thierack
- Dr Karl/Carl Krauch Doctor is written on his arrest photo. Dr of chemistry.
- Dr Albert Widmann Dr of chemistry. "Dr Widmann operated the gassing apparatus."
- Glossary of Nazi Germany
- Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre
- Hamburg Ravensbrück trials
- Josef Kramer not to be confused with Dr Johann Kremer
- List of Axis personnel indicted for war crimes
- List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust
- List of medical eponyms with Nazi associations
- List of Nazi concentration camps
- List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
- Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany
- Nazi human experimentation
- Nuremberg Code
- Responsibility for the Holocaust
- T4-Gutachter names of medical experts to enact the "euthanasia" program.
- Zyklon B
- Newspaper The Southeast Missourian "Germany looks for way out of war" 17 September 1938
- "A long shadow: Nazi doctors, moral vulnerability and contemporary medical culture" Published Online First 3 May 2012
- "The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code : Human Rights in Human Experimentation" Oxford University Press. May 7, 1992. Page 19
- "Exhibition Examines Scientists' Complicity In Nazi-Era Atrocities" The New York Times. Author, Warren E. Leary. November 10, 1992
- "Psychiatry during the Nazi era: ethical lessons for the modern professional" Rael D Strous. February 2007
- "Exhibit Depicts Nazi Science" authors Akua F. Abu and Zhanrui Kuang. April 15, 2011
- "...carried out only by physicians." Book "Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust" authors Sheldon Rubenfeld, Susan Benedict. Year 2014. Page 10.
- "The Third Reich—German physicians between resistance and participation" by E Ernst. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2001) Volume 30, Issue 1 Pp. 37-42. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.1.37
- "Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind." authors Joseph J, Wetzel. 2013 Spring;46(1):1-30. doi: 10.1007/s10739-012-9344-6.
- "History Vs. Apologetics: The Holocaust, the Third Reich, and the Catholic Church" Author David Cymet. Page 262. Told by Dr Hans Wilhelm Münch in 1981.
- "As Other Editors See it : The Nazi Doctors" Schenectady Gazette. November 27, 1946
- "Apologising for Nazi medicine: a constructive starting point" The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9843, (paragraph 6)Pages 722 - 723, 25 August 2012
- Nazi Euthanasia of the Mentally Ill at Hadamar: Rael D. Strous, M.D.Am J Psychiatry 2006
- "Murderous Science: Elimination by scientific selection of Jews, Gypsies and others:1933-1945" by Benno Müller-Hill, Oxford University Press, 1988
- "Psychiatry under National Socialism – Remembrance and Responsibility" by Dr Frank Schneider, Page s116. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (2011) 261 (Suppl 2):S111–S118. DOI 10.1007/s00406-011-0243-1
- "Robert Ley is in hands of yankees" Lawrence Daily Journal World. May 17, 1945
- "Silence, Scapegoats, Self-Reflection: " authors Volker Roelcke, Etienne Lepicard, Sascha Topp. Year 2015. Page 109.
- "The Murder of Unproductive Persons"
- The Dachau Trials:Mauthausen-Gusen Cases
- "Nazi War Crimes Trials:Ravensbrück Trial"
- Nazi War Crimes Trials
- p.17, "The Eternal Nazi" by Nicholas Kulish and Souad Mekhennet, 2014