Nazlet Khater

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Nazlet Khater[1] is an archeological site located in Upper Egypt that has yielded evidence of early human culture and anatomically modern specimens dating to approximately thirty to fifty thousand years ago.

Excavations at the Nazlet Khater 2 site (Boulder Hill) yielded the remains of two human skeletons in 1980.[2] One of the skulls was that of a male subadult. The cranium was generally modern in form, but with very wide face, and it evinced some archaic traits in the temple and mandible areas. Below the skull, the skeleton was robust, but otherwise, anatomically modern. Morphological analysis of the Nazlet Khater mandible indicates that the specimen was distinct from the examined Late Pleistocene and Holocene North African specimens.[3]

The Nazlet Khater 2 skeleton possesses two plesiomorphic features in its mandible, which are not found among coeval, anatomically modern, humans. This suggests that the ancestors of the specimen may have interbred with neighboring late archaic humans.[4] At Nazlet Khater 4 to the southeast, Upper Paleolithic axes, blades, burins, end scrapers, and denticulates were also excavated. The site has been radiocarbon dated to between 30,360-35,100 years ago.[3] The similarities between NK2 and Upper Paleolithic European samples may indicate a close relationship between this Nile Valley specimen and European Upper Paleolithic modern humans.


  1. ^ Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon (31 March 2012). Modern Origins: A North African Perspective - Google Books. ISBN 9789400729285.
  2. ^ "Dental Anthropology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b Willoughby, Pamela R. (2007). The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: A Comprehensive Guide. Rowman Altamira. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0759101197. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  4. ^ Trinkaus, Erik (May 1, 2007). "European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals". PNAS. 104 (18): 7367–7372. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.7367T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702214104. PMC 1863481. PMID 17452632.

External links[edit]

  • Leplongeon, Alice; Pleurdeau, David (2011). "The Upper Palaeolithic Lithic Industry of Nazlet Khater 4 (Egypt): Implications for the Stone Age/Palaeolithic of Northeastern Africa". African Archaeological Review. 28 (3): 213–36. doi:10.1007/s10437-011-9100-x. S2CID 128628843.
  • Pinhasi, Ron; Semal, Patrick (2000). "The position of the Nazlet Khater specimen among prehistoric and modern African and Levantine populations". Journal of Human Evolution. 39 (3): 269–88. doi:10.1006/jhev.2000.0421. PMID 10964529.
  • Vermeersch, P.M.; Gijselings, G.; Paulissen, E. (1984). "Discovery of the Nazlet Khater man, Upper Egypt". Journal of Human Evolution. 13 (3): 281–6. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(84)80013-5.
  • Bouchneb, L.; Crevecoeur, I. (2009). "The inner ear of Nazlet Khater 2 (Upper Paleolithic, Egypt)". Journal of Human Evolution. 56 (3): 257–62. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.12.003. PMID 19144388.