Ne Win

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Ne Win
Ne Win in 1964
Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party
In office
4 July 1962 – 23 July 1988
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded bySein Lwin
4th President of Burma
In office
2 March 1974 – 9 November 1981
Preceded byWin Maung (1962)
Succeeded bySan Yu
Chairman of the Union Revolutionary Council
In office
2 March 1962 – 2 March 1974
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Prime Minister of Burma
In office
29 October 1958 – 4 April 1960
PresidentWin Maung
Preceded byU Nu
Succeeded byU Nu
In office
2 March 1962 – 2 March 1974
Preceded byU Nu
Succeeded bySein Win
Personal details
Shu Maung[3]

(1911-05-24)24 May 1911[4]
Paungdale, Pegu Province, Lower Burma, British India (present-day Myanmar)
Died5 December 2002(2002-12-05) (aged 92)[5]
Yangon, Union of Myanmar
Resting placeAshes scattered into Hlaing River
Political partyBurma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP)
Spouses5, including Yadana Nat Mei
Children6, including Sandar Win
Alma materRangoon University
  • General
  • politician
Military service
Allegiance Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Branch/service Myanmar Army
Years of service1931–1974
Rank General

Ne Win (Burmese: နေဝင်း; IPA: [nè wɪ́ɰ̃]; 24 May 1911 – 5 December 2002)[6] also known as Shu Maung (Burmese: ရှူမောင်; IPA: [/ʃù màʊ̃̀/]), was a Burmese army general, politician and military commander who served as Prime Minister of Burma from 1958 to 1960 and 1962 to 1974, and also President of Burma from 1962 to 1981.[7][8][9] Ne Win was Burma's military dictator during the Socialist Burma period of 1962 to 1988.[a]

Ne Win founded the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) and overthrew the democratic Union Parliament of U Nu in the 1962 Burmese coup d'état, establishing Burma as a one-party socialist state under the Burmese Way to Socialism ideology.[10] Ne Win was Burma's de facto leader as chairman of the BSPP, serving in various official titles as part of his military government, and was known by his supporters as U Ne Win.[b][3][11] His rule was characterized by a non-aligned foreign policy, isolationism, one-party rule, economic stagnation, and superstition.[12] Ne Win resigned in July 1988 in response to the 8888 Uprising that overthrew the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP), and was replaced by the military junta of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). He held minor influence in the 1990s but was eventually placed under house arrest, under which he died in 2002.[13]

In foreign affairs, Ne Win followed a strictly neutralist policy during the Cold War, participating in the Non-Aligned Movement and keeping his distance from both the United States and the Soviet Union.[14] On the other hand, his relations with Mao Zedong and the People's Republic of China were initially excellent, but were temporarily broken between 1967 and 1971, due to Mao's covert support for the Communist insurgency within Burma and the outbreak of anti-Chinese riots by regime supporters; however, in March 1971 relations were fully restored and Chinese economic aid continued.[15]

Date of birth

Ne Win's date of birth is a subject of debate among various sources. The English-language publication Who's Who in Burma, published in 1961 by People's Literature House, Rangoon, lists Ne Win's birthdate as 14 May 1911.[16] This date is also supported by Dr. Maung Maung in the Burmese version of his book Burma and General Ne Win, also published in English, that Ne Win was born on 14 May 1911.[17] However, in a book written in Burmese titled The Thirty Comrades, the author Kyaw Nyein gave Ne Win's date of birth as 10 July 1910.[18] While May 24, 1911, is widely cited as Ne Win's birthdate in many scholarly works and biographical references, the discrepancies among sources warrant acknowledgment. These conflicting accounts highlight the challenges in determining Ne Win's exact birthdate and may stem from differences in historical documentation or cultural interpretations. Therefore, while May 24, 1911, is commonly accepted, alternative dates cannot be disregarded entirely.[19]

David Ben-Gurion, the Prime Minister of Israel and General Ne Win as Prime Minister of Burma in 8 June 1959

Kyaw Nyein's date of 1910 can be considered as the more plausible date. First, Kyaw Nyein had access to historical records and he interviewed many surviving members of the Thirty Comrades when he wrote the book in the mid-to late 1990s.[20] (Ne Win was one of the Thirty Comrades who secretly went to undergo military training in the early 1940s for the purpose of fighting for independence from the British).[21] In his book published around 1998, Kyaw Nyein lists the names of the surviving members of the Thirty Comrades whom he had interviewed, although Ne Win was not mentioned among them.[22] Secondly, when Ne Win died on 5 December 2002, the Burmese language newspapers that were allowed to carry a paid obituary stated the age of 'U Ne Win' to be '93 years'.[23] According to Burmese custom, a person's age is their age upon their next birthday.[24] Since Ne Win turned 92 in July 2002, when he died in December 2002 he was considered to be 93 years old.[25] Most Western news agencies, based on the May 1911 birth date, reported that Ne Win was 91 years old, but the obituary put up by his family (most probably his children) stated that he was 93 years old, which most likely stems from East Asian age reckoning.[26]

Early life and struggle for independence

Ne Win, born Shu Maung (ရှုမောင်), was born into an ethnic Chinese family in a small village near Paungdale about 200 miles (320 km) north of Rangoon.[27] He spent two years at Rangoon University beginning in 1929, and took biology as his main subject with hopes of becoming a doctor. In 1931 he was expelled from the university after he failed an exam.[28] Ne Win eventually became "Thakin Shu Maung", or a member of the nationalist organisation Dobama Asiayone (We Burmans Association). Other members of the group included Aung San and U Nu.[29] In 1941 Ne Win, as a member of the Ba Sein-Tun Ok (Socialist) faction of the Dobama, was one of thirty young men chosen for military training by the Japanese operative Colonel Suzuki Keiji.[30] Their leader was Aung San and they formed the Burma Independence Army (BIA).[citation needed] During military training, Shu Maung chose a nom de guerre, Bo Ne Win (Commander Radiant Sun).[31] In early 1942 the Japanese Army and the BIA entered Burma in the wake of the retreating British forces. Ne Win's role in the campaign was to organize resistance behind the British lines.[32]

The experience of the Japanese occupation of Burma worked to alienate the nationalists as well as the population at large. Toward the end of the Second World War, on 27 March 1945 the Burma National Army (successor to the BIA) turned against the Japanese following the British re-invasion of Burma.[33] Ne Win, as one of the BNA Commanders, was quick to establish links with the British – attending the Kandy conference in Ceylon and taking charge of the anti-Communist operations in the Pyinmana area as commander of the 4th Burma Rifles after the Red Flag Communists and the Communist Party of Burma went underground to fight against the government in October 1946 and on 28 March 1948 respectively.[34] Burma obtained independence on 4 January 1948, and for the first 14 years it had a parliamentary and democratic government mainly under Prime Minister U Nu, but the country was riven with political division.[35] Even before independence, Aung San was assassinated together with six of his cabinet members on 19 July 1947; U Saw, a pre-war prime minister and political rival of Aung San, was found guilty of the crime and executed.[36] U Nu as leader of the Socialists took charge of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) formed by the Communists, Socialists and the BNA in 1945 now that Aung San was dead and the Communists expelled from the AFPFL.[37]

Post-independence civil war

Following independence there were uprisings in the army and among ethnic minority groups. In late 1948, after a confrontation between army rivals, Ne Win was appointed second in command of the army and his rival Bo Zeya, a communist commander and fellow member of the Thirty Comrades, took a portion of the army into rebellion.[38] Ne Win immediately adopted a policy of creating Socialist militia battalions called 'Sitwundan' under his personal command with the approval of U Nu.[39] On 31 January 1949, Ne Win was appointed Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) and given total control of the army, replacing General Smith Dun, an ethnic Karen. He rebuilt and restructured the armed forces along the ruling Socialist Party's political lines, but the country was still split and the government was ineffective.[40]

Interim prime minister

He was asked to serve as interim prime minister from 28 October 1958 by U Nu, when the AFPFL split into two factions and U Nu barely survived a motion of no-confidence against his government in parliament. Ne Win restored order during the period known as the "Ne Win caretaker government".[41] Elections were held in February 1960 and Ne Win handed back power to the victorious U Nu on 4 April 1960.[42]

Military coup of 1962

On 2 March 1962, Ne Win again seized power in a coup d'état. He became head of state as Chairman of the Union Revolutionary Council and also Prime Minister. The coup was characterized as "bloodless" by the world's media. Declaring that "parliamentary democracy was not suitable for Burma," the new regime suspended the constitution and dissolved the legislature.[43]

Following riots at Rangoon University in July 1962, troops were sent to restore order. They fired on protesters and destroyed the student union building.[44]

Shortly afterward, around 8 pm local time, Ne Win addressed the nation in a five-minute radio speech which concluded with the statement: "If these disturbances were made to challenge us, I have to declare that we will fight sword with sword and spear with spear".[45] On 13 July 1962, less than a week after the speech, Ne Win left for Austria, Switzerland and the United Kingdom "for a medical check up".[46] All universities were closed for more than two years until September 1964.[47]

In 1988, 26 years later, Ne Win denied involvement in the dynamiting of the Student Union building, stating that his deputy Brigadier Aung Gyi – who by that time had fallen out with Ne Win and been dismissed – had given the order and that he had to take responsibility as a "revolutionary leader" by giving the sword with sword and spear with spear speech.[48]

Burmese Way to Socialism (1962–1988)

Ne Win with Zhou Enlai and Chen Yi during their visit to Burma in 31 May 1964

Ne Win oversaw a number of reforms after taking power. The administration instituted a system including elements of nationalism, Marxism, and Buddhism,[49] though Ne Win lacked interest in either ideology or religion – terming this the Burmese Way to Socialism. He founded the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP), which in 1964 was formally declared to be the only legal party.[50]

A system of state hospitals and institutions was established in Burma; medical care was free. Private hospitals were brought under public ownership. A new system of public education was introduced. A campaign to liquidate illiteracy was carried out starting in 1965.[51] Between 1962 and 1965 important laws against landlords and usury were adopted. They aimed at protecting peasants' rights to land and property and to renting the land. These measures included the law abolishing rents on land.[52]

On 2 March 1974, he disbanded the Revolutionary Council and proclaimed the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. He was elected president of Myanmar and shortly afterward appointed Brigadier General Sein Win as Prime Minister.[53] On 9 November 1981, Ne Win resigned as president and was succeeded in that post by General San Yu. However, Ne Win remained leader of the party and thus remained the ultimate political authority in the land until his resignation in 1988.

Economic policies

Ne Win with Chinese president Liu Shaoqi in June 1966

Ne Win's government nationalized the economy and pursued a policy of autarky, which involved the economic isolation of Burma from the world. The ubiquitous black market and rampant smuggling supplied the needs of the people, while the central government slid slowly into bankruptcy.[54] Autarky also involved expelling foreigners and restricting visits by foreigners to three days, and after 1972, one week. Even foreign aid organizations were banned; the only humanitarian aid permitted was on an intergovernmental basis. Furthermore, heavy-handed political oppression caused many in the educated workforce to emigrate.[55]

Ne Win also took drastic steps regarding the currency. In 1985, he issued a decree that 25, 35, and 75 kyat notes would cease to be legal tender, alleging that they were subject to hoarding by black-marketeers and were also used to finance the various insurgencies. Though limited compensation was offered, this wiped out people's savings overnight. At least one insurgency, that of the ethnic Kayan, was triggered by this act.[56]

In 1987, reportedly on the recommendation of an astrologer that the number nine was auspicious, Ne Win ordered the withdrawal of several large-denomination kyat notes while issuing new denominations of 45 and 90 kyats. Both 45 and 90 are divisible by nine, and their numerals add up to nine. Again, millions of Burmese lost their life savings, and the demonetization also rendered about 75% of the entire kyat reserves completely useless.[57] This crippled the Burmese economy further still.[58] Ne Win was well known for his penchant for yadaya (traditional Burmese rituals performed in order to ward off misfortune).[59] When his soothsayer warned him that there might be a bloodbath, he would stand in front of a mirror and trample on meat to simulate the blood, then shoot his reflection to avert the possibility of an assassination attempt.[60]

Ne Win resigned as chairman of the ruling Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) on 23 July 1988 at the height of the uprising against his regime, and roughly one year after the United Nations declared Burma a "Least Developed Country".[61]

Student and worker riots

Sporadic protests against the government continued. Students led protests in 1965, December 1969, and December 1970.[62] These demonstrations took place mainly on campuses located in the cities of Rangoon, Mandalay and Moulmein and were often followed by the closure of universities and colleges. In June 1974, workers from more than 100 factories throughout the nation participated in a strike, to which the government reacted by shooting about 100 workers and students on 6 June 1974 at the Thamaing Textile Factory and the Sinmalaik Dock Yard in Rangoon.[63] Since Ne Win was in Australia on an official visit at the time, responsibility for these shootings is unclear. On 5 December 1974, students turned the funeral of former UN Secretary General U Thant into a demonstration, snatching the coffin on display at the Kyaikkasan Race Course and erecting a makeshift mausoleum on the grounds of the former Student Union building in protest against the government for not honouring their famous countryman with a state funeral.[64] The military stormed the campus on 11 December, killing some of the students, recovered the coffin and buried U Thant at the foot of the Shwedagon pagoda, next to the tomb of Thakin Kodaw Hmaing.[65][66]

1967 anti-Chinese riots

Gen. Ne Win, Burmese P.M. touring Nesher Cement Factory in Ramleh.

In February 1963, the Enterprise Nationalization Law was passed, effectively nationalizing all major industries and prohibiting the formation of new factories. This law adversely affected many industrialists and entrepreneurs, especially those without the full citizenship.[67] The government's economic nationalization program further prohibited foreigners, including the non-citizen Chinese, from owning land, sending remittances, getting business licenses and practicing medicine.[68] Such policies led to the beginnings of a major exodus of Burmese Chinese to other countries – some 100,000 Chinese left Burma.[69]

Since Ne Win made Burmese as the medium of instruction, many Chinese-language schools had to be closed. When the Chinese embassy in Rangoon distributed Mao's red books in Burma, many Chinese went out on the streets in support of the Cultural Revolution. They were attacked by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place in 1967.[69] Beginning in 1967 and continuing throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up, as many elements in Burma tried to spread the Cultural Revolution. Many believed they were covertly supported by the government.[70] Similarly, Chinese shops were looted and set on fire. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation, scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice. The 1982 Citizenship Law further restricted Burmese citizenship for Burmese Chinese (as it stratified citizenship into three categories: full, associate, and naturalized) and severely limited Burmese Chinese, especially those without full citizenship and those holding FRCs, from attending professional tertiary schools, including medical, engineering, agricultural and economics institutions.[71][72] During this period, the country's failing economy and widespread discrimination accelerated an emigration of Burmese Chinese out of Burma.[73]

8888 Uprising, resignation, and military coup (1975–1988)

Students from universities throughout Rangoon demonstrated again in June 1975 in commemoration of the previous year's Labour Strike. Student-led demonstrations also occurred in March 1976, September 1987, March and June 1988.[74] In August and September 1988, these demonstrations turned into a nationwide uprising against BSPP rule in what is now known as the 'Four Eights Uprising'.[75]

The 8888 uprising was started by students in Yangon (Rangoon) on 8 August 1988. Student protests spread throughout the country.[76][77] Hundreds of thousands of monks, children, university students, housewives, doctors and common people protested against the government.[78][79] The uprising ended on 18 September after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Thousands of deaths have been attributed to the military during this uprising,[76][80][81] while authorities in Myanmar put the figure at around 350 people killed.[82][83]

At the height of the Four Eights Uprising against the BSPP, Ne Win resigned as party chairman on 23 July 1988. In a truculent farewell speech to the BSPP Party Congress, he warned that if the "disturbances" continued the "army would have to be called and I would like to declare from here that if the army shoots it has no tradition of shooting into the air. It would shoot straight to hit."[84] The Tatmadaw troops shot, killed and maimed hundreds if not up to 3,000 or more demonstrators in various places throughout Burma from the period of 8 to 12 August 1988 and again on 18 September 1988, proving that Ne Win's farewell speech was not an empty threat.[85][86]

On 18 September 1988 the military led by Senior General Saw Maung dispelled any hopes for democracy by brutally crushing the uprisings. It is widely believed that Ne Win, though in apparent retirement, orchestrated the coup from behind the scenes.[87]

For about ten years, Ne Win kept a low profile but remained a shadowy figure exercising at least some influence on the military junta.[88] After 1998, Ne Win's influence on the junta began to wane.

Death and funeral

Still under house arrest, Ne Win died on 5 December 2002 at his lakeside house in Yangon.[89] The death remained unannounced by Burmese media or the junta. The only mention of Ne Win's death was a paid obituary notice that appeared in some of the government-controlled Burmese language newspapers. Ne Win was not given a state funeral, and his former contacts or junior colleagues were strongly discouraged from attending a hastily arranged funeral, so that only thirty people attended the funeral.[90][91]

Ne Win's daughter Sandar Win was temporarily released from house arrest to attend his funeral and cremation. She later dispersed her father's ashes into the Hlaing River.[92]

Ne Win's grandson Aye Ne Win and Kyaw Ne Win were released in 2013.[93]


Ne Win was married six times:[94][failed verification]

  1. He was first married to Daw Than Nyunt, who bore him a son, Kyaw Thein.
  2. He was second married to Tin Tin, who bore him two sons, Ngwe Soe and Aye Aung.
  3. He then married Khin May Than (Katie Ba Than), daughter of Professor Ba Than, the former dean of Rangoon medical school. The couple had two daughters and a son between them, Sandar Win, Kye Mon Win, and Phyo Wai Win. Khin May Than brought three daughters from her first marriage, Le Le Win and twins Thida Win and Thawdar Win, into the family. Khin May Than was Ne Win's favourite wife and her death in 1972 was a heavy blow to him.
  4. He then married Ni Ni Myint, a university teacher, whom he divorced.
  5. He then married June Rose Bellamy (Yadana Nat-mei), a great granddaughter of Crown Prince Ka Naung.
  6. He remarried his former wife Ni Ni Myint.

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Ne Win was earlier the President of Union of Burma for 12 years from 2 March 1962 to 2 March 1974 and then later the President of Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma for 7 years and 252 days from 2 March 1974 to 9 November 1981.(See list)
  2. ^ "U" is an honorific in Burmese, roughly equal to "Mr" or "Uncle".


  1. ^ Letter from Premier Zhou Enlai to His Excellency Ne Win
  2. ^ General Ne Win, the first military general who led the 1962 coup, was posthumously named Agga Maha Thray Sithu, the second-highest honor. Former military leader Than Shwe, who picked Min Aung Hlaing as his successor as commander-in-chief, was given the same title.
  3. ^ a b "U Ne Win". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Ne Win (Shu Maung), Burmese military strongman, born May 24 1911; died December 5 2002".
  5. ^ "Ne Win, Ex-Burmese Military Strongman, Dies at 81".
  6. ^ "U Ne Win (born May 24, 1911, Paungdale, Burma [Myanmar]—died December 5, 2002, Yangon, Myanmar) was a Burmese general who was the leader of Burma (now Myanmar) from 1962 to 1988". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 March 2024.
  7. ^ "U Ne Win | Myanmar general and dictator". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  8. ^ C. P. Cook (June 1970). "Burma: The Era of Ne Win". The World Today. 26 (6): 259–266. JSTOR 40394388.
  9. ^ Frank Milne (23 November 2015). "Review of General Ne Win: A Political Biography". New Mandala.
  10. ^ Lindsay Maizland (31 January 2022). "Myanmar has been ruled by a military junta for many of the years since it gained independence from British colonial rule in 1948. The Union of Burma began as a parliamentary democracy, like most of its newly independent neighbors on the Indian subcontinent. But representative democracy only lasted until 1962, when General Ne Win led a military coup and held power for the next twenty-six years". Council on Foreign Relations.
  11. ^ "U Ne Win". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  12. ^ Taylor 2015, p. 67.
  13. ^ "Ne Win: Understanding the 'old man'". Frontier Myanmar. 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  14. ^ Yawnghwe 1990, p. 45-47.
  15. ^ Ne Win Military Rule – Neutralism and Seclusion Archived 16 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Taylor 2015, pp. 7–9.
  17. ^ Ne Win was known as described as the leader of Myanmar and there are two assumptions of his birth.(Taylor 2015, pp. 3–4)
  18. ^ Mya 1992, pp. 1–2.
  19. ^ "U Ne Win (born May 24, 1911, Paungdale, Burma [Myanmar]—died December 5, 2002, Yangon, Myanmar) Burmese general who was the leader of Burma (now Myanmar) from 1962 to 1988". Britannica.
  20. ^ Taylor 2015, pp. 13–15.
  21. ^ Maung 1965, p. 9.
  22. ^ Mya 1992, pp. 4–8.
  23. ^ The age of the Myanmar's dictator may be 93 years.Taylor 2015, p. 74
  24. ^ Maung (U), Maung (1969). Burma and General Ne Win. Asia Publishing House. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-210-98196-2. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  25. ^ Butwell, Richard (1972). "Ne Win's Burma: At the End of the First Decade". Asian Survey. 12 (10): 901–912. doi:10.2307/2643067. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643067. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  26. ^ "Ne Win". Oxford Reference. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  27. ^ Smith, Martin (6 December 2002). "General Ne Win". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  28. ^ Shaw, Karl (2005) [2004]. Power Mad! [Šílenství mocných] (in Czech). Praha: Metafora. p. 44. ISBN 80-7359-002-6.
  29. ^ Maung 1965, pp. 3–4.
  30. ^ Smith, Martin (6 December 2002). "Obituary: General Ne Win". The Guardian. p. 2. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  31. ^ Taylor 2015, p. 23.
  32. ^ Maung 1965, p. 14.
  33. ^ Can-pati 1965, pp. 45–49.
  34. ^ Can-pati 1965, pp. 56–57.
  35. ^ Razvi, Mujtaba (1978). "The Problem of the Burmese Muslims". Pakistan Horizon. 31 (4): 82–93. ISSN 0030-980X. JSTOR 41394695. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  36. ^ Yawnghwe 1990, p. 130.
  37. ^ Taylor 2015, pp. 34–39.
  38. ^ Maung 1965, p. 76.
  39. ^ Mya 1992, p. 23.
  40. ^ Yawnghwe 1990, pp. 29–31.
  41. ^ Nicholas Tarling, ed. (1993). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. ISBN 0-521-35505-2.
  42. ^ "U Nu | prime minister of Myanmar". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2020. Alt URL Archived 27 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Aung-Thwin, Michael; Aung-Thwin, Maitrii (2013). A history of Myanmar since ancient times: Traditions and transformations (2nd ed.) Archived 23 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine. p. 247 London, UK: Reaktion Books. ISBN 1861899017.
  44. ^ Boudreau, Vincent (2004) Resisting Dictatorship: Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 37–39, 50–51, ISBN 0-521-83989-0
  45. ^ The Burmese phrase is "dah go dah gyin, hlan go hlan gyin". Two different English translations of the speech can be read on the front page of the Rangoon Nation and the Rangoon Guardian of 9 July 1962. Part of The Nation's headline of 9 July 1962 read 'General Ne Win States Give Us Time to Work: Obstructionists are Warned: Will Fight Sword with Sword').
  46. ^ News items of Ne Win's trip to these countries for 'medical check up' can be found in The Guardian and The Nation of 14 July 1962
  47. ^ Maung 1965, p. 59.
  48. ^ Taylor, Robert H. (2009). The state in Myanmar. Internet Archive. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-8248-3362-6.
  49. ^ Win, Chong (23 December 2018). "Brief history of Burma". News.Channel4. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  50. ^ Badgley, John H. (1 June 1938). "Burma's China Crisis: The Choices Ahead". Asian Survey. 7 (11): 753–761. doi:10.2307/2642500. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2642500. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  51. ^ Fan, Hongwei (2012). "The 1967 anti-Chinese riots in Burma and Sino–Burmese relations". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 43 (2): 234–256. doi:10.1017/S0022463412000045. ISSN 1474-0680. S2CID 159753249. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  52. ^ Houtman, Gustaaf (1999). Mental culture in Burmese crisis politics: Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. ILCAA. ISBN 978-4-87297-748-6.
  53. ^ Steinberg, David I. (1997). "Burma's way to Economics and Politics" (PDF). The Asia Foundation Working Paper Series. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
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  55. ^ "Myanmar – Since independence". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  56. ^ "Burma: Prospects for Reform of Ne Win's 'No Win' Economic Policies" [censored word(s)#93;" (PDF). CIA. 1 July 1988. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  57. ^ George Packer, "Drowning" Archived 30 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The New Yorker, 25 August 2008
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  59. ^ "Bruin Alliance of Skeptics and Secularists » How Astrology Ruined Myanmar's Economy". Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  60. ^ "Inside Burma :: :: Promoting Social Justice, Human Rights, and Peace". Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  61. ^ Smith, Martin (6 December 2002). "Obituary: General Ne Win". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  62. ^ Yawnghwe, Chao-Tzang. Burma: Depoliticization of the Political. cited in Alagappa, Muthiah. (1995). Political Legitimacy in Southeast Asia: The Quest for Moral Authority. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2560-6
  63. ^ "The Burma road to ruin". The Guardian. 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  64. ^ Fong, Jack. (2008). Revolution as Development: The Karen Self-determination Struggle Against Ethnocracy (1949–2004). Boca Raton, FL: BrownWalker Press. ISBN 978-1-59942-994-6
  65. ^ "Myanmar Data – Ne Win (Burmese: ေနဝင္‌း IPA: [nè wín]; 24 May or 14 May 1911 or 10 July 1910 – 5 December 2002; born Xiu Mao)". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
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  67. ^ Murray, Chinese Education in South-East Asia, p. 190
  68. ^ Murray, Chinese Education in South-East Asia, p. 191
  69. ^ a b Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London, New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 39, 98, 153–154, 225–226.
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General bibliography

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Burma

Succeeded by
Preceded by
Win Maung
as President of Burma
Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Burma
Succeeded by
Himself as President
Preceded by Prime Minister of Burma
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Himself as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council
President of Burma
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by
Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party
Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Chief of General Staff of the Tatmadaw
Succeeded by