Almost everything about Neanderthal behaviour is controversial. From their physiology, Neanderthals are presumed to have been omnivores, but animal protein formed the majority of their dietary protein, showing them to have been apex predators and not scavengers. Some studies suggest they cooked vegetables.
The quality of stone tools at archaeological sites suggests Neanderthals were good at "expert" cognition, a form of observational learning and practice acquired through apprenticeship that relies heavily on long-term procedural memory. Neanderthal toolmaking changed little over hundreds of thousands of years. The lack of innovation was said to imply they may have had a reduced capacity for thinking by analogy and less working memory. The researchers further speculated that Neanderthal behaviour would probably seem neophobic, dogmatic and xenophobic to modern humans. A 2018 open access paper discussed, in light of recent developments in the fields of paleogenetics and paleoanthropology, whether or not Neanderthals were rational. The authors' argument focuses on the genetic evidence that supports interbreeding with Homo sapiens, language acquisition (including the FOXP2 gene), archaeological signs of cultural development and potential for cumulative cultural evolution
Few Neanderthals lived past 35.
It is not known whether Neanderthals were anatomically capable of speech and whether they actually spoke. A once-widely believed theory that the Neanderthal vocal tract was different from that of living humans and so probably could not speak is now discredited. The only bone in the vocal tract is the hyoid but is so fragile that no Neanderthal hyoid was found until 1983, when excavators discovered a well-preserved one on Neanderthal Kebara 2, Israel. It was largely similar to that of living humans. Although the original excavators claimed that the similarity of this bone with that of living humans implied Neanderthals were anatomically capable of speech, it is not possible to reconstruct the vocal tract with information supplied by the hyoid. In particular, it does not allow to determine whether the larynx of its owner was in a low-lying position, a feature considered important in producing speech.
A 2013 study on the Kebara hyoid used X-ray microtomography and finite element analysis to conclude that the Neanderthal hyoid showed microscopic features more similar to a modern human's hyoid than to a chimpanzee hyoid. To the authors, that suggested the Neanderthal hyoid was used similarly to that in living humans, that is, to produce speech. Yet, because the authors did not compare the microscopic structure of the Kebara 2 hyoid with that of speech-hindered living humans, the result is not yet conclusive.
Although some researchers believe Neanderthal tool-making is too complex for them not to have had language, toolmaking experiments of Levallois technology, the most common Neanderthal toolmaking technique, have found that living humans can learn it in silence.
Neanderthals had the same DNA-coding region of the FOXP2 gene as living humans, but are different in one position of the gene's regulatory regions, and the extent of FOXP2 expression might hence have been different in Neanderthals. Although the gene appears necessary for language—living humans who don't have the normal human version of the gene have serious language difficulties—it is not necessarily sufficient. It is not known whether FOXP2 evolved for or in conjunction with language, nor whether there are other language-related genes that Neanderthals may or may not have had. Similarly, the size and functionality of the Neanderthal Broca's and Wernicke's areas, used for speech generation in modern humans, is debated.
In 1998, researchers suggested Neanderthals had a hypoglossal canal at least as large as humans, suggesting they had part of the neurological requirements for language. The canal carries the hypoglossal nerve, which controls the muscles of the tongue, necessary to produce language. However, a Berkeley research team showed no correlation between canal size and speech, as a number of extant non-human primates and fossilized australopithecines have larger hypoglossal canals.
Neanderthal and early anatomically modern human archaeological sites show a more simple toolkit than those found in Upper Paleolithic sites, produced by modern humans after about 50,000 BP. In both early anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals, there is little innovation in the toolkit.
Tools produced by Middle Palaeolithic humans in Eurasia (both Neanderthals and early modern humans) are known as Mousterian. These were often produced using soft hammer percussion, with hammers made of materials like bones, antlers, and wood, rather than hard hammer percussion, using stone hammers. A result of this is that their bone industry was relatively simple. They routinely made stone implements. Neanderthal tools consisted of stone-flakes and task-specific hand axes, many of which were sharp.
There is evidence for violence among Neanderthals. The 40,000-year-old Neanderthal skull of St. Césaire has a healed fracture in its cranial vault likely caused by something sharp, suggesting interpersonal violence. The wound healed and the Neanderthal survived.
Whether they had projectile weapons is controversial. They seem to have had wooden spears, but it is unclear whether they were used as projectiles or as thrusting spears. Wood implements rarely survive, but several 320,000-year-old wooden spears about 2-metres in length were found near Schöningen, northern Germany, and are believed to be the product of the older Homo heidelbergensis species.
Neanderthals used fire on occasion, but it is not certain whether they were able to produce it. They may have used Pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) to accelerate the combustion of wood. "With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, [it has been argued] that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand." MnO2 lowers the combustion temperature of wood from 350 degrees Celsius to 250 degrees Celsius and is common in Neanderthal archaeological sites.
Neanderthals produced birch tar through the dry distillation of birch bark.. It was long believed that birch tar made by Neanderthals required them to follow a complex recipe, and that it thus showed complex cognitive skills (to arrive at this recipe) and cultural transmission (of this recipe). A study from 2019 showed that birch tar production can instead be a very simple process - merely involving the burning of birch bark near smooth vertical surfaces in open air conditions .
Pendants and other jewelry showing traces of ochre dye and of deliberate grooving have also been found in one single stratigraphically disturbed Neanderthal archaeological layer, but whether these items were ever in the hands of Neanderthals or were mixed into their archaeological layers from overlying modern human ones is debated.
No claim of a deliberate Neanderthal burial is universally accepted. An interpretation of pre-Neanderthal Shanidar IV as having been ritually buried with flowers has been seriously questioned, and to Paul B. Pettitt, convincingly eliminated: "A recent examination of the microfauna from the strata into which the grave was cut suggests that the pollen was deposited by the burrowing rodent Meriones tersicus (Persian jird), which is common in the Shanidar microfauna and whose burrowing activity can be observed today".
Traces of fossilized plants have been extracted from Neanderthal teeth found in Belgium and Iraq suggesting they mostly consumed plants. Nonetheless, preliminary studies indicated that Neanderthals obtained protein in their diet from animal sources. Evidence based on isotope studies shows that Neanderthals ate meat.
Neanderthals hunted large animals, such as the mammoth. However, they are believed to have practiced cannibalism or ritual defleshing. This hypothesis was formulated after researchers found marks on Neanderthal bones similar to the bones of a dead deer butchered by Neanderthals.
Neanderthal bones from various sites (Combe-Grenal and Abri Moula in France, Krapina in Croatia and Grotta Guattari in Italy) have all been cited as bearing cut marks made by stone tools. However, the results of technological tests have revealed varied causes.
Re-evaluation of these marks using high-powered microscopes, comparisons to contemporary butchered animal remains, and recent ethnographic cases of excarnation mortuary practises have shown that perhaps this was a case of ritual defleshing.
- At Grotta Guattari, the apparently purposefully widened base of the skull (for access to the brain) has been shown to be caused by carnivore action, with hyena tooth marks found on the skull and mandible.
- According to some studies, fragments of bones from Krapina show marks similar to those on bones from secondary burials at a Michigan ossuary (14th century AD), and are indicative of removing the flesh of a partially decomposed body.
- According to others, the marks on the bones found at Krapina are indicative of defleshing, although whether this was for nutritional or ritual purposes cannot be determined with certainty.
Evidence of cannibalism includes:
- Analysis of bones from Abri Moula in France does seem to suggest cannibalism was practiced here. Cut-marks are concentrated in places expected in the case of butchery, instead of defleshing. Additionally the treatment of the bones was similar to that of roe deer bones, assumed to be food remains, found in the same shelter.
- At El Sidron in Northern Spain, scientists have found evidence pointing to the cannibalism of 12 individuals by what is hypothesized to have been a neighboring group of Neanderthals. According to Carles Lalueza-Fox of the Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Barcelona, the individuals (three children aged from two to nine, three teenagers, and six adults) appear to have been "killed and eaten, with their bones and skulls split open to extract the marrow, tongue and brains." Scientists believe that the lack of any evidence of a fire makes it likely that the event happened in winter, during times when food was scarce.
Claims of art and adornment
Upon Higham et al.'s (2010) publication of new radiocarbon dates shedding doubt on the association of Châtelperronian beads with Neanderthals, Paul Mellars wrote that “the single most impressive and hitherto widely cited pillar of evidence for the presence of complex ‘symbolic’ behavior among the late Neanderthal populations in Europe has now effectively collapsed”. This conclusion, however, is controversial, and others such as Jean-Jacques Hublin and colleagues have re-dated more material and used proteomic evidence to restate the challenged association with Neanderthal.
There exists a very large number of other claims of Neanderthal art, adornment, and structures. These are often taken literally by the media as showing Neanderthals were capable of symbolic thought, or "mental equals" to anatomically modern humans. As evidence of symbolism, none of them are widely accepted, although the same is true for Middle Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans. Among many others:
- As early as 64,000 years ago Iberian Neanderthals created cave paintings
- Pigmented shells from Murcia, Spain, were argued in 2009 to be Neanderthal make-up containers.
- Bird bones were argued to show evidence for feather plucking in a 2012 study examining 1,699 ancient sites across Eurasia, which the authors controversially took to mean Neanderthals wore bird feathers as personal adornments.
- Deep scratches were found in 2012 on a cave floor underlying Neanderthal layer in Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, which some have controversially interpreted as art.
- Two 176,000-year-old stalagmite ring structures, several metres wide, were reported in 2016 more than 300 metres from the entrance within Bruniquel Cave, France. The authors claim artificial lighting would have been required as this part of the cave is beyond the reach of daylight and that the structures had been made by early Neanderthals, the only humans in Europe at this time.
- Richards M.P.; Pettitt P.B.; Trinkaus E.; Smith F.H.; Paunović M.; Karavanić I. (June 2000). "Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (13): 7663–36. Bibcode:2000PNAS...97.7663R. doi:10.1073/pnas.120178997. PMC 16602. PMID 10852955.
- Ghosh, Pallab. "Neanderthals cooked and ate vegetables." BBC News. 27 December 2010.
- Henry, A.G.; Brooks, A. "S.; Piperno, D.R. (2010). "Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (2): 486–91. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108..486H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1016868108. PMC 3021051. PMID 21187393.
- Wynn T, Coolidge F (14 January 2012). "The inner Neanderthal". New Scientist. 213 (2847): 26–27. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(12)60110-9.
- Ko, Kwang Hyun (2016). "Hominin interbreeding and the evolution of human variation". Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki. 23: 17. doi:10.1186/s40709-016-0054-7. PMC 4947341. PMID 27429943.
- Whiting, Kai; Konstantakos, Leonidas; Sadler, Greg; Gill, Christopher (2018-04-21). "Were Neanderthals Rational? A Stoic Approach". Humanities. 7 (2): 39. doi:10.3390/h7020039.
- Stringer, C.; Gamble, C. (1993). In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05070-5.
- Lieberman, Philip; Edmund S. Crelin (Spring 1971). "On the Speech of Neanderthal Man". Linguistic Inquiry. 2 (2): 203–22. JSTOR 4177625.
- P. Lieberman (2007). "The evolution of human speech". Current Anthropology. 48 (1): 39–66. doi:10.1086/509092.
- Arensburg B, Tillier AM, Vandermeersch B, Duday H, Schepartz LA, Rak Y (April 1989). "A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone". Nature. 338 (6218): 758–60. Bibcode:1989Natur.338..758A. doi:10.1038/338758a0. PMID 2716823.
- J.T. Laitman; B. Johansson (1990). "The Kebara hyoid: What can it tell us about the evolution of the hominid vocal tract". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 81 (2): 254. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330810204.
- J.T. Laitman; .S. Reidenberg; D.R. Friedland; P.J. Gannon (1991). "What sayeth thou Neanderthal? A look at the evolution of their vocal tract and speech". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 34 (S12): 109. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330340505.
- W.T. Fitch (2002). "Comparative vocal production and the evolution of speech: reinterpreting the descent of the larynx". In A. Wray (ed.). The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- W.T. Fitch (2009). "Fossil cues to the evolution of speech". In R. Botha; C. Knight (eds.). The Cradle of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–134.
- Lieberman, P. (1989). "Folk physiology and talking hyoids". Nature. 342 (6249): 486. Bibcode:1989Natur.342..486M. doi:10.1038/342486b0.
- P. Lieberman (1994). "Hyoid bone position and speech: reply to Dr. Arensburg et al. (1990)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 94 (2): 275–78. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330940211.
- D’Anastasio, Ruggero; Wroe, Stephen; Tuniz, Claudio; Mancini, Lucia; Cesana, Deneb T.; Dreossi, Diego; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Attard, Marie; Parr, William C.H.; Agur, Anne; Capasso, Luigi; Frayer, David (18 December 2013). "Micro-Biomechanics of the Kebara 2 Hyoid and Its Implications for Speech in Neanderthals". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e82261. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...882261D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082261. PMC 3867335. PMID 24367509.
- Wynn & Coolidge, p. 27
- K. Ohnuma; K. Aoki; T. Akazawa (1997). "Transmission of tool-making through verbal and non-verbal communication: Preliminary experiments in Levallois flake production". Journal of Anthropological Sciences. 105 (3): 159–68. doi:10.1537/ase.105.159.
- T. Maricic; V. Günther; O. Georgiev; S. Gehre; et al. (2013). "A recent evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the human FOXP2 gene". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30 (4): 844–52. doi:10.1093/molbev/mss271.
- Pääbo, Svante (2014). "The human condition. A molecular approach". Cell. 157 (1): 216–26. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.036. PMID 24679537.
- Wade, Nicholas (19 October 2007). "Neanderthals Had Important Speech Gene, DNA Evidence Shows". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Kay RF, Cartmill M, Balow M (April 1998). "The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behaviour". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (9): 5417–19. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.5417K. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.9.5417. PMC 20276. PMID 9560291.
- DeGusta D, Gilbert WH, Turner SP (February 1999). "Hypoglossal canal size and hominid speech". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (4): 1800–04. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.1800D. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.4.1800. PMC 15600. PMID 9990105.
- Martínez I, Rosa M, Arsuaga JL, Jarabo P, Quam R, Lorenzo C, Gracia A, Carretero JM, Bermúdez de Castro JM, Carbonell E (July 2004). "Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (27): 9976–81. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.9976M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403595101. PMC 454200. PMID 15213327.
- C.P.E. Zollikofer; M.S. Ponce de León; B. Vandermeersch & F. Lévêque (2002). "Evidence for interpersonal violence in the St. Césaire Neanderthal". PNAS. 99 (9): 6444–48. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.6444Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.082111899. PMC 122968. PMID 11972028.
- Churchill, Steven E. (2002). "Of assegais and bayonets: Reconstructing prehistoric spear use". Evolutionary Anthropology. 11 (5): 185–86. doi:10.1002/evan.10027.
- Pettitt, Paul (February 2000). "Odd man out: Neanderthals and modern humans". British Archaeology. 51. ISSN 1357-4442. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Heyes, Peter J.; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; De Jong, Wiebren; Van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie (2016). "Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals". Scientific Reports. 6: 22159. Bibcode:2016NatSR...622159H. doi:10.1038/srep22159. PMC 4770591. PMID 26922901.
- Kozowyk, P.R.B.; Soressi, M.; Pomstra, D.; Langejans, G.H.J. (2017-08-31). "Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 8033. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7.8033K. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08106-7. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5579016. PMID 28860591.
- Tozzi, Carlo; Vitagliano, Silvana; Douka, Katerina; Jacobs, Zenobia; Lucejko, Jeannette J.; Pollarolo, Luca; Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Degano, Ilaria (2019-06-20). "Hafting of Middle Paleolithic tools in Latium (central Italy): New data from Fossellone and Sant'Agostino caves". PLOS ONE. 14 (6): e0213473. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213473. ISSN 1932-6203. PMID 31220106.
- Schmidt P, Blessing M, Rageot M, Iovita R, Pfleging J, Nickel KG, Righetti L, Tennie, C. "Birch tar extraction does not prove Neanderthal behavioral complexity". PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1911137116.
- Kuhn SL, Stiner MC, Reese DS, Güleç E (June 2001). "Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (13): 7641–46. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.7641K. doi:10.1073/pnas.121590798. PMC 34721. PMID 11390976.
- Gargett, R.H. (1999). "Middle Palaeolithic burial is not a dead issue: the view from Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh". Journal of Human Evolution. 37 (1): 27–90. doi:10.1006/jhev.1999.0301. PMID 10375476.
- Gargett, R.H. (1989). "Grave Shortcomings: The Evidence for Neandertal Burial". Current Anthropology. 30 (2): 157–90. doi:10.1086/203725.
- H. Dibble; V. Aldeias; P. Goldberg; D. Sandgathe; T.E. Steele (2015). "A critical look at evidence from La Chapelle-aux-Saints supporting an intentional burial". Journal of Archaeological Science. 53: 649–57. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2014.04.019.
- Solecki, Ralph S. (November 1975). "Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq". Science. 190 (4217): 880–81. Bibcode:1975Sci...190..880S. doi:10.1126/science.190.4217.880.
- Sommer, J. D. (1999). "The Shanidar IV 'Flower Burial': a Re-evaluation of Neanderthal Burial Ritual". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 9 (1): 127–29. doi:10.1017/S0959774300015249. ISSN 0959-7743.
- Pettitt, Paul (2002). "The Neanderthal dead". Before Farming. 2002 (1): 1–26. doi:10.3828/bfarm.2002.1.4.
- Harmon, Katherine (27 December 2010). "Fossilized food stuck in Neandertal teeth indicates plant-rich diet". Scientific American. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Ungar, Peter (2007). Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-19-518346-7.
- Jaouen, Klervia; et al. (19 February 2019). "Exceptionally high δ15N values in collagen single amino acids confirm Neandertals as high-trophic level carnivores". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (11): 4928–4933. doi:10.1073/pnas.1814087116. PMC 6421459. PMID 30782806.
- Yika, Bob (19 February 2019). "Isotopes found in bones suggest Neanderthals were fresh meat eaters". Phys.org. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (19 February 2019). "Neanderthals' main food source was definitely meat - Isotope analyses performed on single amino acids in Neanderthals' collagen samples shed new light on their debated diet". Science Daily. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals".
- "Researchers discover the first evidence of Neanderthal cannibalism in northern Europe".
- Andrea Thompson (4 December 2006). "Neanderthals Were Cannibals, Study Confirms". Health SciTech. LiveScience.
- Pathou-Mathis M (2000). "Neanderthal subsistence behaviours in Europe". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 10 (5): 379–95. doi:10.1002/1099-1212(200009/10)10:5<379::AID-OA558>3.0.CO;2-4.
- Defleur A, White T, Valensi P, Slimak L, Cregut-Bonnoure E (1999). "Neanderthal cannibalism at Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France". Science. 286 (5437): 128–31. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.128. PMID 10506562.
- Leake, Jonathan "We’ll have our neighbours for dinner – raw", The Sunday Times, London, 24 November 2013. Retrieved on 19 April 2015.
- Frayer, David W.; Radovčić, Jakov; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radovčić, Davorka (11 March 2015). "Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0119802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119802. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4356571.
- Higham T, Jacobi R, Julien M, David F, Basell L, Wood R, Davies W, Ramsey CB.C (2010). Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Chatelperronian. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007963107 PMID 20956292
- Mellars P. (2010). Neanderthal symbolism and ornament manufacture: The bursting of a bubble? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014588107
- "Neanderthals were not inferior to modern humans, study finds".
- Heavy Brows, High Art?: Newly Unearthed Painted Shells Show Neandertals Were Homo sapiens' Mental Equals
- I. Sample (2014). "Neanderthals were not less intelligent than modern humans, scientists find". The Guardian.
- N. Branan (2010). "Neandertal Symbolism: Evidence Suggests a Biological Basis for Symbolic Thought". Scientific American.
- "Neanderthals thought like we do". www.mpg.de. Retrieved 2019-07-05.
- "Neanderthal 'make-up' discovered". BBC News. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Did Neanderthals use feathers for fashion?". New Scientist. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Finlayson, Clive (17 September 2012). "Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids". PLOS ONE. 7 (9): e45927. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...745927F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045927. PMC 3444460. PMID 23029321.
- E. Callaway (2014). "Neanderthals made some of Europe's oldest art". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15805.
- "Neanderthal 'artwork' found in Gibraltar cave". BBC. 1 September 2014.
- Jaubert, Jacques; Verheyden, Sophie; Genty, Dominique; Soulier, Michel; Cheng, Hai; Blamart, Dominique; Burlet, Christian; Camus, Hubert; Delaby, Serge; Deldicque, Damien; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Lévêque, François; Maksud, Frédéric; Mora, Pascal; Muth, Xavier; Régnier, Édouard; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Santos, Frédéric (2 June 2016) [online 25 May 2016]. "Early Neanderthal Constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in Southwestern France". Nature. 534 (7605): 111–114. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..111J. doi:10.1038/nature18291. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 27251286.
- Boë, Louis-Jean; Jean-Louis Heim; Kiyoshi Honda; Shinji Maeda (July 2002). "The potential Neandertal vowel space was as large as that of modern humans" (PDF). Journal of Phonetics. 30 (3): 465–84. doi:10.1006/jpho.2002.0170. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2006.
- Lieberman, Philip (October 2007). "Current views on Neanderthal speech capabilities: A reply to Boe et al. (2002)". Journal of Phonetics. 35 (4): 552–63. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2005.07.002.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homo neanderthalensis.|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Introduction to Paleoanthropology|
|Wikispecies has information related to Homo neanderthalensis|