Near-open central vowel

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Near-open central unrounded vowel
ɐ
æ̈
ɜ̞
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
Sound

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ɐ〉, a rotated lowercase letter a.

While the IPA does not specify the rounding of [ɐ],[1] the rounded variant of it is extremely rare - it has been reported to occur as a phoneme only in the Sabiny language, which contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[2][3]

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Near-open central unrounded vowel[edit]

The near-open central unrounded vowel is the most common type of the near-open central vowel, and is thus typically transcribed simply as 〈ɐ〉, which is the convention used in this article. If its unroundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the less rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: 〈ɐ̜〉, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central unrounded vowel symbol: 〈ɜ̞〉, by combining the centralized diacritic with the near-open front unrounded vowel symbol: 〈æ̈〉, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front unrounded vowel symbol: 〈〉, or with the open back unrounded vowel: 〈ɑ̽〉. The last two symbols are equivalent to the more complex symbols 〈ä̝〉 and 〈ɑ̝̈〉, respectively.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[4][5] dak [dɐk] 'roof' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic[6] قطة [qɐtˤ.tˤɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ for Persian Gulf speakers. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian[7] пара [pɐˈra] 'coin' Unstressed allophone of /ɤ/ and /a/.[7] See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
[8][9]
fada [ˈfɐ̞ð̞ɐ] 'fairy' Main realization of /a/. In Barcelonan unstressed /ɛ/ and /e/ can be reduced to [ɐ]. See Catalan phonology
Valencian Main realization of /a/. It can be slightly lowered in stressed position or in contact with liquids
Chinese Cantonese / sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Czech Bohemian[10] prach [prɐx] 'dust' Possible realization of /a/.[10] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[11] fatter [ˈfæd̥ɐ] 'understands' May be realized as [ɒ̜̽] or [ə̠] instead.[11] See Danish phonology
Dawsahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[12] hart [ɦɐrt] 'hart' Allophone of /ɑ/ before /r/; usually realized as a diphthong [ɐə̯] instead.[12] See Dutch phonology
Randstad[12]
Some accents letter [ˈlɛtɐ] 'letter' Corresponds to /ər/ in standard Dutch.
English California[13] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ〉 may be used to transcribe this vowel. For most Australians it is fully open [ä], the same is true for some South Africans. In New Zealand it may be fronted [ɐ̟] or somewhat lower [ä].[14] See English phonology
Cultivated Australian
New Zealand[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[16]
South African
Scottish[17] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted; corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[18][19] stuck 'stuck' Fronted; may be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[20] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Standard[21] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek[22] ακακία/akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Most often transcribed in IPA with 〈a〉. See Modern Greek phonology
Hindustani[23] दस/دَس [ˈd̪ɐs] 'ten' Common realization of /ə/.[23] See Hindustani phonology
Ibibio[24] [dɐ́] 'stand' Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈a〉.[24]
Kaingang[25] [ˈᵑɡɐ] 'terra' Varies between central [ɐ] and back [ɑ].[26]
Korean[27] /bal [pɐl] 'foot' Somewhat lowered. Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈a〉. See Korean phonology
Lombard Sant [ˈsɐnt] 'saint'
Luxembourgish[28][29] Mauer [ˈmɑ̝ʊ̯ɐ] 'wall' Allophone of unstressed word-final /eʀ/ and non-prevocalic coda /ʀ/. In the latter case, it may be realized as mid [ə] instead.[29] See Luxembourgish phonology
Mapudungun[30] ka [ˈkɐ̝ʐɘ̝] 'green' Somewhat raised.[30]
Norwegian Bergensk kor [kʰɔɐ̯] 'where' Stigmatized realization of coda /r/. See Norwegian phonology
Sandnes-mål[31] baden [ˈbɐːdən] 'child'
Portuguese Fluminense açúcar [ɐˈsukɐχ] 'sugar' In complementary distribution with [a].[32] Raised to [ɜ ~ ɜ̝] in other variants, and in many contexts (particularly if nasalized). See Portuguese phonology
General Brazilian[32] aranha-marrom [aˈɾɜ̃j̃ɐ maˈχõ̞ː] 'recluse spider'
European[33] pão [pɐ̃w̃] 'bread' Stressed vowel, mostly as a phonemic nasal vowel (when not followed by a nasal stop). Raised otherwise.
Romanian Moldavian dialects[34] bărbat [bɐrˈbat] 'man' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Standard Moscow[35] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈvä]  'head' Corresponds to [ʌ] in standard Saint Petersburg pronunciation;[35] occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Sabiny[2] [example needed] Contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[3]
Sema[36] ala [ɐ̀lɐ̀] 'path' Also described as open [ä].[37]
Shipibo[38]  ? [ˈkɐni̞] 'went' Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈a〉.
Slovak[39] a [ɐ] 'and' Possible realization of /a/; most commonly realized as open [ä] instead.[40] See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard[41][42] brat [bɾɐ́t̪] 'brother' Corresponds to short /a/ in traditional pronunciation.[42] See Slovene phonology
Sorbian Upper[43] pja [ˈpʲɐst͡ʃ] 'fist' Allophone of /a/ after soft consonants.[43] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Ukrainian дитина [d̪ɪˈt̪ɪnɐ] 'child' Unstressed allophone of /ɑ/. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[44] chếch [cɐ̆jk̚] 'askance' Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈ə̆〉. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[45] [Htsʰɐ] 'salt'
Upper[46] [Htsɐ] 'sinew'

Near-open central rounded vowel[edit]

Near-open central rounded vowel
ɐ̹
ɞ̞
ɔ̞̈

The near-open central rounded vowel is an extremely rare sound, reported to occur as a phoneme only in the Sabiny language.[2]

If its roundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the more rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: 〈ɐ̹〉, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central rounded vowel symbol: 〈ɞ̞〉, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front rounded vowel symbol: 〈ɶ̽〉, or with the open back rounded vowel: 〈ɒ̽〉. The last two symbols are equivalent to the more complex symbols 〈ɶ̝̈〉 and 〈ɒ̝̈〉, respectively.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Sabiny[2] [example needed] Contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999:166)
  2. ^ a b c d "UPSID 4)S". Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "UPSID SEBEI". Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Lass (1984), pp. 76, 93–94 and 105.
  5. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 18.
  6. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 39.
  7. ^ a b Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  8. ^ Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  9. ^ Harrison (1997), pp. 2.
  10. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  11. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:58)
  12. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 130.
  13. ^ Ladefoged (1999), p. 42.
  14. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  15. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  16. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 186.
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  18. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  19. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  20. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013 
  21. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  22. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 25.
  23. ^ a b Ohala (1999), p. 102.
  24. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  25. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677 and 682.
  26. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676 and 682.
  27. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  28. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  29. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 68, 70.
  30. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  31. ^ Ims (2010), p. 14.
  32. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  33. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), pp. 91–92.
  34. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  35. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 225.
  36. ^ Teo (2012:368)
  37. ^ Teo (2014:28)
  38. ^ Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001:282)
  39. ^ Pavlík (2004:95)
  40. ^ Pavlík (2004:94–95)
  41. ^ Jurgec (2007), p. 2.
  42. ^ a b Jurgec (2005), pp. 9 and 12.
  43. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 31.
  44. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  45. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013:369–370)
  46. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:388)

Bibliography[edit]