Near passerine

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Near passerines and higher land-bird assemblage are terms of traditional, pre-cladistic taxonomy that have often been given to tree-dwelling birds or those most often believed to be related to the true passerines (order Passeriformes) owing to morphological and ecological similarities; the group corresponds to some extent with the Anomalogonatae of Alfred Henry Garrod.[1]


All near passerines are land birds. However, molecular data does not support the traditional arrangement; it is now clear that "near passerines" and "higher landbirds" are not synonymous.

Per Ericson and colleagues, analyzing genomic DNA revealed a lineage comprising Passeriformes, Psittaciformes and Falconiformes.[2]


Pterocliformes (sandgrouse), Columbiformes (pigeons), Cuculiformes (cuckoos), Caprimulgiformes (nightjars), and Apodiformes (swifts, hummingbirds) are no longer recognized as near passerines.[3] The true near-passerine families are the Psittaciformes (parrots), the Falconiformes (falcons), and the Cariamiformes (seriemas).[4] These three orders, together with the Passeriformes make up the Australaves. Sister to the Australaves are the Afroaves (see Telluraves).

The phylogenetic relationships between the orders are:[5][6]


Cariamiformes – seriemas

Falconiformes – falcons

Psittaciformes – parrots

Passeriformes – passerines

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ridgway, Robert; Friedmann, Herbert (1911-01-01). The Birds of North and Middle America: A Descriptive Catalog of the Higher Groups, Genera, Species, and Subspecies of Birds Known to Occur in North America, from the Arctic Lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and Other Islands of the Caribbean Sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 297. ISBN 9780598370709.
  2. ^ Ericson, P. G. P.; Anderson, C. L.; Britton, T.; Elzanowski, A.; Johansson, U. S.; Källersjö, M.; Ohlson, J. I.; Parsons, T. J.; Zuccon, D.; Mayr, G. (2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003. PMID 17148284.
  3. ^ Boyd, John H. "TiF Checklist: COLUMBEA: Mirandornithes, Columbimorphae". Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  4. ^ Boyd, John H. "TiF Checklist: BASAL AUSTRALAVES: Cariamiformes, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes". Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  5. ^ Hackett, S.J.; Kimball, R.T.; Reddy, S.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Braun, E.L.; Braun, M.J.; Chojnowski, J.L.; Cox, W.A.; Han, K-L.; Harshman, J.; Huddleston, C.J.; Marks, B.D.; Miglia, K.J.; Moore, W.S.; Sheldon, F.H.; Steadman, D.W.; Witt, C.C.; Yuri, T. (2008). "A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history". Science. 320 (5884): 1763–1767. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1763H. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609. S2CID 6472805.
  6. ^ Kuhl, H.; Frankl-Vilches, C.; Bakker, A.; Mayr, G.; Nikolaus, G.; Boerno, S.T.; Klages, S.; Timmermann, B.; Gahr, M. (2020). "An unbiased molecular approach using 3′-UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 38 (msaa191): 108–127. doi:10.1093/molbev/msaa191. PMC 7783168. PMID 32781465.

Further reading[edit]