Nebelivka (archaeological site)
(c. 4800 to 3000 BC)
Characteristic example of Cucuteni–Trypillia pottery
Nebelivka, or Nebelovka, located in the village of the same name in Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4000 B.C. belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was for the time huge, covering an area of 260-300 hectares and home to perhaps 15,000 - 17,000 people. The settlement within the boundary ditch includes over 1200 structures. Research from 2012 to 2014 imply "the possibility of state-level societies", contemporary with similar developments in Uruk. Mega-structures "suggest the presence of public buildings for meetings or ceremonies".
A two-storey structure 60 by 20 meters of mud and wood with a galleried courtyard has been excavated. Its structure and contents indicate it was a major temple. Artefacts include female or Venus figurines, pottery stylised faces, charred bones of animals, and small gold pieces that were perhaps hair or clothing ornaments. It has eight clay platforms, perhaps altars, and the floors and walls of all five rooms on the upper floor were "decorated by red paint, which created [a] ceremonial atmosphere."
- "The effect of climatic variability on population dynamics of the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex and the rise of the Western Tripolye giant-settlements" (PDF). Chronikajournal.com. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
- Chapman, John; Videiko, Mikhail; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Burdo, Natalia; Hale, Duncan; Villis, Richard; Swann, Natalie; Thomas, Nathan; Edwards, Patricia; Blair, Andrew; Hayes, Ashley; Nebbia, Marco; Rud, Vitalij (2014). "The planning of the earliest European proto-towns: a new geophysical plan of the Trypillia mega-site of Nebelivka, Kirovograd Domain, Ukraine". Antiquity. 88 (339).
- "THE NEW PROJECT STARTED: EARLY URBANISM IN PREHISTORIC EUROPE?". trypillia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
- In Photos: Prehistoric Temple Uncovered in Ukraine, Owen Jarus, LiveScience.com, 20 October 2014, accessed 23 October 2014
- Archaeologists find 6,000-year-old temple in Ukraine, Owen Jarus, LiveScience / Christian Science Monitor, 22 October 2014