Nebula Award for Best Novel

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Nebula Award for Best Novel
Nebula Award
The Nebula Award trophy
Awarded forThe best science fiction or fantasy story of 40,000 words or more published in the prior calendar year
Presented byScience Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America
First awarded1966
Currently held byN.K. Jemisin (The Stone Sky)
Websitenebulas.sfwa.org/

The Nebula Award for Best Novel is given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) for science fiction or fantasy novels. A work of fiction is defined by the organization as a novel if it is 40,000 words or longer; awards are also given out for pieces of shorter lengths in the categories of short story, novelette, and novella. To be eligible for Nebula Award consideration a novel must be published in English in the United States. Works published in English elsewhere in the world are also eligible provided they are released on either a website or in an electronic edition.[1] The Nebula Award for Best Novel has been awarded annually since 1966. Novels which were expanded forms of previously published short stories are eligible, as are novellas published by themselves if the author requests them to be considered as a novel.[1] The award has been described as one of "the most important of the American science fiction awards" and "the science-fiction and fantasy equivalent" of the Emmy Awards.[2][3]

Nebula Award nominees and winners are chosen by members of the SFWA, though the authors of the nominees do not need to be members. Works are nominated each year between November 15 and February 15 by published authors who are members of the organization, and the six works that receive the most nominations then form the final ballot, with additional nominees possible in the case of ties. Members may then vote on the ballot throughout March, and the final results are presented at the Nebula Awards ceremony in May. Authors are not permitted to nominate their own works, and ties in the final vote are broken, if possible, by the number of nominations the works received.[1] Beginning with the 2009 awards, the rules were changed to the current format. Prior to then, the eligibility period for nominations was defined as one year after the publication date of the work, which allowed the possibility for works to be nominated in the calendar year after their publication and then be awarded in the calendar year after that. Works were added to a preliminary list for the year if they had ten or more nominations, which were then voted on to create a final ballot, to which the SFWA organizing panel was also allowed to add an additional work.[4]

During the 53 nomination years, 183 authors have had works nominated; 40 of these have won, including co-authors and ties. Ursula K. Le Guin has received the most Nebula Awards for Best Novel with four wins out of six nominations. Joe Haldeman has received three awards out of four nominations, while nine other authors have won twice. Jack McDevitt has the most nominations at twelve, with one win, while Poul Anderson and Philip K. Dick have the most nominations without winning an award at five.

Winners and nominees[edit]

In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the novel was first published. Each year links to the corresponding "year in literature". Entries with a blue background and an asterisk (*) next to the writer's name have won the award; those with a white background are the other nominees on the shortlist.

  *   Winners and joint winners

Year Author Novel Publisher or publication Ref.
1966 Frank Herbert* Dune Chilton Company [5]
Clifford D. Simak All Flesh is Grass Doubleday [5]
Theodore L. Thomas The Clone Berkley Books [5]
Kate Wilhelm
Philip K. Dick Dr. Bloodmoney, or How We Got Along After the Bomb Ace Books [5]
James White The Escape Orbit Ace Books [5]
Thomas M. Disch The Genocides Berkley Books [5]
William S. Burroughs Nova Express Grove Press [5]
Keith Laumer A Plague of Demons Berkley Books [5]
Avram Davidson Rogue Dragon Ace Books [5]
G. C. Edmondson The Ship That Sailed the Time Stream Ace Books [5]
Poul Anderson The Star Fox Doubleday [5]
Philip K. Dick The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch Doubleday [5]
1967 Samuel R. Delany* Babel-17 Ace Books [6]
Daniel Keyes* Flowers for Algernon Harcourt [6]
Robert A. Heinlein The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress Putnam Publishing Group [6]
1968 Samuel R. Delany* The Einstein Intersection Ace Books [7]
Piers Anthony Chthon Ballantine Books [7]
Hayden Howard The Eskimo Invasion Ballantine Books [7]
Roger Zelazny Lord of Light Doubleday [7]
Robert Silverberg Thorns Ballantine Books [7]
1969 Alexei Panshin* Rite of Passage Ace Books [8]
James Blish Black Easter Doubleday [8]
Philip K. Dick Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Doubleday [8]
Robert Silverberg The Masks of Time Ballantine Books [8]
R. A. Lafferty Past Master Ace Books [8]
Joanna Russ Picnic on Paradise Ace Books [8]
John Brunner Stand on Zanzibar Doubleday [8]
1970 Ursula K. Le Guin* The Left Hand of Darkness Ace Books [9]
Norman Spinrad Bug Jack Barron Avon [9]
Roger Zelazny Isle of the Dead Ace Books [9]
John Brunner The Jagged Orbit Ace Books [9]
Kurt Vonnegut Slaughterhouse-Five Delacorte Press [9]
Robert Silverberg Up the Line Ballantine Books [9]
1971 Larry Niven* Ringworld Ballantine Books [10]
Joanna Russ And Chaos Died Ace Books [10]
R. A. Lafferty Fourth Mansions Ace Books [10]
David G. Compton The Steel Crocodile Ace Books [10]
Robert Silverberg Tower of Glass Charles Scribner's Sons [10]
Wilson Tucker The Year of the Quiet Sun Ace Books [10]
1972 Robert Silverberg* A Time of Changes Galaxy Science Fiction [11]
Poul Anderson The Byworlder Fantastic [11]
R. A. Lafferty The Devil is Dead Avon Publications [11]
T. J. Bass Half Past Human Ballantine Books [11]
Ursula K. Le Guin The Lathe of Heaven Amazing Stories [11]
Kate Wilhelm Margaret and I Little, Brown and Company [11]
1973 Isaac Asimov* The Gods Themselves Galaxy Science Fiction [12]
Robert Silverberg The Book of Skulls Charles Scribner's Sons [12]
Robert Silverberg Dying Inside Galaxy Science Fiction [12]
Norman Spinrad The Iron Dream Avon [12]
John Brunner The Sheep Look Up Harper & Row [12]
George Alec Effinger What Entropy Means to Me Doubleday [12]
David Gerrold When HARLIE Was One Ballantine Books [12]
1974 Arthur C. Clarke* Rendezvous with Rama Galaxy Science Fiction [13]
Thomas Pynchon Gravity's Rainbow Viking Press [13]
David Gerrold The Man Who Folded Himself Random House [13]
Poul Anderson The People of the Wind Analog Science Fact & Fiction [13]
Robert A. Heinlein Time Enough for Love Putnam Publishing Group [13]
1975 Ursula K. Le Guin* The Dispossessed Harper & Row [14]
Thomas M. Disch 334 Avon [14]
Philip K. Dick Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said Doubleday [14]
T. J. Bass The Godwhale Ballantine Books [14]
1976 Joe Haldeman* The Forever War St. Martin's Press [15]
Arthur Byron Cover Autumn Angels Pyramid Books [15]
Tanith Lee The Birthgrave DAW Books [15]
Alfred Bester The Computer Connection Analog Science Fact & Fiction [15]
Samuel R. Delany Dhalgren Bantam Books [15]
Roger Zelazny Doorways in the Sand Analog Science Fact & Fiction [15]
Ian Watson The Embedding Charles Scribner's Sons [15]
Vonda N. McIntyre The Exile Waiting Nelson Doubleday [15]
Joanna Russ The Female Man Bantam Books [15]
Michael Bishop A Funeral for the Eyes of Fire Ballantine Books [15]
Barry N. Malzberg Guernica Night Bobbs-Merrill Company [15]
Marion Zimmer Bradley The Heritage of Hastur DAW Books [15]
Italo Calvino Invisible Cities Harcourt Brace Jovanovich [15]
Poul Anderson A Midsummer Tempest Doubleday [15]
Katherine MacLean The Missing Man Berkley Books [15]
Larry Niven The Mote in God's Eye Simon & Schuster [15]
Jerry Pournelle
E. L. Doctorow Ragtime Random House [15]
Robert Silverberg The Stochastic Man The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction [15]
1977 Frederik Pohl* Man Plus The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction [16]
Larry Niven Inferno Pocket Books [16]
Jerry Pournelle
Marta Randall Islands Pyramid Books [16]
Robert Silverberg Shadrach in the Furnace Bobbs-Merrill Company [16]
Samuel R. Delany Triton Bantam Books [16]
Kate Wilhelm Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang Harper & Row [16]
1978 Frederik Pohl* Gateway Galaxy Science Fiction [17]
Terry Carr Cirque Bobbs-Merrill Company [17]
Gregory Benford In the Ocean of Night Dial Press [17]
David Gerrold Moonstar Odyssey New American Library [17]
Richard A. Lupoff Sword of Demon Harper & Row [17]
1979 Vonda N. McIntyre* Dreamsnake Houghton Mifflin [18]
Tom Reamy Blind Voices Berkley Books [18]
C. J. Cherryh The Faded Sun: Kesrith Galaxy Science Fiction [18]
Gore Vidal Kalki Random House [18]
Gardner Dozois Strangers Berkley Books [18]
1980 Arthur C. Clarke* The Fountains of Paradise Harcourt Brace Jovanovich [19]
Frederik Pohl Jem St. Martin's Press [19]
Kate Wilhelm Juniper Time Harper & Row [19]
Thomas M. Disch On Wings of Song The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction [19]
Richard Cowper The Road to Corlay Pocket Books [19]
John Varley Titan Berkley Books [19]
1981 Gregory Benford* Timescape Simon & Schuster [20]
Frederik Pohl Beyond the Blue Event Horizon Del Rey Books [20]
Walter Tevis Mockingbird Doubleday [20]
Robert Stallman The Orphan Pocket Books [20]
Gene Wolfe The Shadow of the Torturer Simon & Schuster [20]
Joan D. Vinge The Snow Queen Dial Press [20]
1982 Gene Wolfe* The Claw of the Conciliator Timescape Books [21]
John Crowley Little, Big Bantam Books [21]
Julian May The Many-Colored Land Houghton Mifflin [21]
A. A. Attanasio Radix William Morrow and Company [21]
Russell Hoban Riddley Walker Summit Books [21]
Suzy McKee Charnas The Vampire Tapestry Simon & Schuster [21]
1983 Michael Bishop* No Enemy But Time Timescape Books [22]
Isaac Asimov Foundation's Edge Doubleday [22]
Robert A. Heinlein Friday Holt, Rinehart & Winston [22]
Brian Aldiss Helliconia Spring Atheneum Books [22]
Gene Wolfe The Sword of the Lictor Timescape Books [22]
Philip K. Dick The Transmigration of Timothy Archer Timescape Books [22]
1984 David Brin* Startide Rising Bantam Books [23]
Gregory Benford Against Infinity Timescape Books [23]
Gene Wolfe The Citadel of the Autarch Timescape Books [23]
Jack Vance Lyonesse Berkley Books [23]
R. A. MacAvoy Tea with the Black Dragon Bantam Books [23]
Norman Spinrad The Void Captain's Tale Timescape Books [23]
1985 William Gibson* Neuromancer Ace Books [24]
Lewis Shiner Frontera Baen Books [24]
Larry Niven The Integral Trees Del Rey Books [24]
Robert A. Heinlein Job: A Comedy of Justice Del Rey Books [24]
Jack Dann The Man Who Melted Bluejay Books [24]
Kim Stanley Robinson The Wild Shore Ace Books [24]
1986 Orson Scott Card* Ender's Game Tor Books [25]
Greg Bear Blood Music Arbor House [25]
Tim Powers Dinner at Deviant's Palace Ace Books [25]
Brian Aldiss Helliconia Winter Atheneum Books [25]
David Brin The Postman Bantam Spectra [25]
Barry N. Malzberg The Remaking of Sigmund Freud Del Rey Books [25]
Bruce Sterling Schismatrix Arbor House [25]
1987 Orson Scott Card* Speaker for the Dead Tor Books [26]
William Gibson Count Zero Asimov's Science Fiction [26]
Gene Wolfe Free Live Free Tor Books [26]
Margaret Atwood The Handmaid's Tale Houghton Mifflin [26]
Leigh Kennedy The Journal of Nicholas the American Atlantic Monthly Press [26]
James K. Morrow This is the Way the World Ends Henry Holt and Company [26]
1988 Pat Murphy* The Falling Woman Tor Books [27]
Greg Bear The Forge of God Tor Books [27]
Gene Wolfe Soldier of the Mist Tor Books [27]
David Brin The Uplift War Bantam Spectra [27]
Avram Davidson Vergil in Averno Doubleday [27]
George Alec Effinger When Gravity Fails Arbor House [27]
1989 Lois McMaster Bujold* Falling Free Analog Science Fact & Fiction [28]
Lewis Shiner Deserted Cities of the Heart Doubleday Foundation [28]
George Turner Drowning Towers Arbor House [28]
Gregory Benford Great Sky River Bantam Spectra [28]
William Gibson Mona Lisa Overdrive Bantam Spectra [28]
Orson Scott Card Red Prophet Tor Books [28]
Gene Wolfe The Urth of the New Sun Tor Books [28]
1990 Elizabeth Ann Scarborough* The Healer's War Doubleday Foundation [29]
Poul Anderson The Boat of a Million Years Tor Books [29]
Orson Scott Card Prentice Alvin Tor Books [29]
John Kessel Good News From Outer Space Tor Books [29]
Mike Resnick Ivory: A Legend of Past and Future Tor Books [29]
Jane Yolen Sister Light, Sister Dark Tor Books [29]
1991 Ursula K. Le Guin* Tehanu: The Last Book of Earthsea Macmillan Publishers [30]
Valerie Martin Mary Reilly Doubleday Foundation [30]
James K. Morrow Only Begotten Daughter Doubleday [30]
Dan Simmons The Fall of Hyperion William Morrow and Company [30]
John E. Stith Redshift Rendezvous Ace Books [30]
Jane Yolen White Jenna Tor Books [30]
1992 Michael Swanwick* Stations of the Tide Asimov's Science Fiction [31]
John Barnes Orbital Resonance Tor Books [31]
Lois McMaster Bujold Barrayar Analog Science Fact & Fiction [31]
Emma Bull Bone Dance Ace Books [31]
Pat Cadigan Synners Bantam Spectra [31]
Bruce Sterling The Difference Engine Bantam Spectra [31]
William Gibson
1993 Connie Willis* Doomsday Book Bantam Spectra [32]
John Barnes A Million Open Doors Tor Books [32]
Karen Joy Fowler Sarah Canary Henry Holt and Company [32]
Maureen F. McHugh China Mountain Zhang Tor Books [32]
Vernor Vinge A Fire Upon the Deep Tor Books [32]
Jane Yolen Briar Rose Tor Books [32]
1994 Kim Stanley Robinson* Red Mars Bantam Spectra [33]
Kevin J. Anderson Assemblers of Infinity Analog Science Fiction and Fact [33]
Doug Beason
Algis Budrys Hard Landing Fantasy & Science Fiction [33]
Nancy Kress Beggars in Spain Morrow AvoNova [33]
Gene Wolfe Nightside the Long Sun Tor Books [33]
1995 Greg Bear* Moving Mars Tor Books [34]
Octavia E. Butler Parable of the Sower Four Walls Eight Windows [34]
Jonathan Lethem Gun, with Occasional Music Harcourt Brace [34]
James K. Morrow Towing Jehovah Harcourt Brace [34]
Rachel Pollack Temporary Agency St. Martin's Press [34]
Kim Stanley Robinson Green Mars Bantam Spectra [34]
Roger Zelazny A Night in the Lonesome October Morrow AvoNova [34]
1996 Robert J. Sawyer* The Terminal Experiment HarperPrism [35]
John Barnes Mother of Storms Tor Books [35]
Nancy Kress Beggars and Choosers Tor Books [35]
Paul Park Celestis Tor Books [35]
Walter Jon Williams Metropolitan HarperPrism [35]
Gene Wolfe Calde of the Long Sun Tor Books [35]
1997 Nicola Griffith* Slow River Del Rey Books [36]
Nina Kiriki Hoffman The Silent Strength of Stones AvoNova [36]
Patricia A. McKillip Winter Rose Ace Books [36]
Tim Powers Expiration Date Tor Books [36]
Robert J. Sawyer Starplex Analog Science Fiction and Fact [36]
Neal Stephenson The Diamond Age Bantam Spectra [36]
1998 Vonda N. McIntyre* The Moon and the Sun Pocket Books [37]
Lois McMaster Bujold Memory Baen Books [37]
Kate Elliott King's Dragon DAW Books [37]
George R. R. Martin A Game of Thrones Bantam Spectra [37]
Jack McDevitt Ancient Shores HarperPrism [37]
Walter Jon Williams City on Fire HarperPrism [37]
Connie Willis Bellwether Bantam Spectra [37]
1999 Joe Haldeman* Forever Peace Ace Books [38]
Catherine Asaro The Last Hawk Tor Books [38]
Jack McDevitt Moonfall HarperPrism [38]
Harry Turtledove How Few Remain Del Rey Books [38]
Martha Wells The Death of the Necromancer Avon [38]
Connie Willis To Say Nothing of the Dog Bantam Spectra [38]
2000 Octavia E. Butler* Parable of the Talents Seven Stories Press [39]
Ken MacLeod The Cassini Division Tor Books [39]
George R. R. Martin A Clash of Kings Bantam Spectra [39]
Maureen F. McHugh Mission Child Avon Eos [39]
Sean Stewart Mockingbird Ace Books [39]
Vernor Vinge A Deepness in the Sky Tor Books [39]
2001 Greg Bear* Darwin's Radio Del Rey Books [40]
Lois McMaster Bujold A Civil Campaign Baen Books [40]
Kathleen Ann Goonan Crescent City Rhapsody Avon Eos [40]
Nalo Hopkinson Midnight Robber Warner Aspect [40]
Jack McDevitt Infinity Beach HarperPrism [40]
Charles de Lint Forests of the Heart Tor Books [40]
2002 Catherine Asaro* The Quantum Rose Tor Books [41]
Jeffrey Carver Eternity's End Tor Books [41]
Geoffrey A. Landis Mars Crossing Tor Books [41]
George R. R. Martin A Storm of Swords Bantam Spectra [41]
Wil McCarthy The Collapsium Del Rey Books [41]
Patricia A. McKillip The Tower at Stony Wood Ace Books [41]
Tim Powers Declare Subterranean Press [41]
Connie Willis Passage Bantam Books [41]
2003 Neil Gaiman* American Gods William Morrow and Company [42]
Kelley Eskridge Solitaire Eos [42]
Ursula K. Le Guin The Other Wind Harcourt [42]
Robert A. Metzger Picoverse Ace Books [42]
China Miéville Perdido Street Station Del Rey Books [42]
Michael Swanwick Bones of the Earth Eos [42]
2004 Elizabeth Moon* The Speed of Dark Ballantine Books [43]
Lois McMaster Bujold Diplomatic Immunity Baen Books [43]
Carol Emshwiller The Mount Small Beer Press [43]
Kathleen Ann Goonan Light Music Eos [43]
Nalo Hopkinson The Salt Roads Warner [43]
Jack McDevitt Chindi Ace Books [43]
2005 Lois McMaster Bujold* Paladin of Souls Eos [44]
Cory Doctorow Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom Tor Books [44]
Jack McDevitt Omega Ace Books [44]
David Mitchell Cloud Atlas Random House [44]
Sean Stewart Perfect Circle Small Beer Press [44]
Gene Wolfe The Knight Tor Books [44]
2006 Joe Haldeman* Camouflage Analog Science Fiction and Fact [45]
Susanna Clarke Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell Bloomsbury Publishing [45]
Jack McDevitt Polaris Ace Books [45]
Terry Pratchett Going Postal HarperCollins [45]
Geoff Ryman Air St. Martin's Press [45]
John C. Wright Orphans of Chaos Tor Books [45]
2007 Jack McDevitt* Seeker Ace Books [46]
Ellen Kushner The Privilege of the Sword Bantam Spectra [46]
Jeffrey Ford The Girl in the Glass HarperCollins [46]
Jo Walton Farthing Tor Books [46]
Richard Bowes From the Files of the Time Rangers Golden Gryphon Press [46]
Wil McCarthy To Crush the Moon Bantam Spectra [46]
2008 Michael Chabon* The Yiddish Policemen's Union HarperCollins [47]
Jack McDevitt Odyssey Ace Books [47]
Joe Haldeman The Accidental Time Machine Ace Books [47]
Nalo Hopkinson The New Moon's Arms Warner [47]
Tobias S. Buckell Ragamuffin Tor Books [47]
2009 Ursula K. Le Guin* Powers Harcourt [48]
Cory Doctorow Little Brother Tor Books [48]
Jack McDevitt Cauldron Ace Books [48]
Ian McDonald Brasyl Pyr Books [48]
Terry Pratchett Making Money Harper [48]
David J. Schwartz Superpowers Three Rivers Press [48]
2010 Paolo Bacigalupi* The Windup Girl Night Shade Books [49]
Christopher Barzak The Love We Share Without Knowing Bantam Books [49]
Laura Anne Gilman Flesh and Fire Pocket Books [49]
China Miéville The City & the City Del Rey Books [49]
Cherie Priest Boneshaker Tor Books [49]
Jeff VanderMeer Finch Underland Press [49]
2011 Connie Willis* Blackout/All Clear Bantam Spectra [50]
M. K. Hobson The Native Star Bantam Spectra [50]
N. K. Jemisin The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms Orbit Books [50]
Mary Robinette Kowal Shades of Milk and Honey Tor Books [50]
Jack McDevitt Echo Ace Books [50]
Nnedi Okorafor Who Fears Death DAW Books [50]
2012 Jo Walton* Among Others Tor Books [51]
China Miéville Embassytown Subterranean Press [51]
Jack McDevitt Firebird Ace Books [51]
Kameron Hurley God's War Night Shade Books [51]
Genevieve Valentine Mechanique: a Tale of the Circus Tresaulti Prime Books [51]
N. K. Jemisin The Kingdom of Gods Orbit Books [51]
2013 Kim Stanley Robinson* 2312 Orbit Books [52]
Saladin Ahmed Throne of the Crescent Moon DAW Books [52]
Tina Connolly Ironskin Tor Books [52]
N. K. Jemisin The Killing Moon Orbit Books [52]
Caitlín R. Kiernan The Drowning Girl Roc Books [52]
Mary Robinette Kowal Glamour in Glass Tor Books [52]
2014 Ann Leckie* Ancillary Justice Orbit Books [53]
Karen Joy Fowler We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves Marian Wood Books [53]
Neil Gaiman The Ocean at the End of the Lane William Morrow and Company [53]
Charles E. Gannon Fire with Fire Baen Books [53]
Nicola Griffith Hild Farrar, Straus and Giroux [53]
Linda Nagata The Red: First Light Mythic Island Press [53]
Sofia Samatar A Stranger in Olondria Small Beer Press [53]
Helene Wecker The Golem and the Jinni Harper [53]
2015 Jeff VanderMeer* Annihilation Farrar, Straus and Giroux [54]
Katherine Addison The Goblin Emperor Tor Books [54]
Charles E. Gannon Trial by Fire Baen Books [54]
Ann Leckie Ancillary Sword Orbit Books [54]
Cixin Liu The Three-Body Problem Tor Books [54]
Jack McDevitt Coming Home Ace Books [54]
2016 Naomi Novik* Uprooted Del Rey Books [55]
Ann Leckie Ancillary Mercy Orbit Books [55]
Lawrence M. Schoen Barsk: The Elephants' Graveyard Tor Books [55]
N. K. Jemisin The Fifth Season Orbit Books [55]
Ken Liu The Grace of Kings Saga Press [55]
Charles E. Gannon Raising Caine Baen Books [55]
Fran Wilde Updraft Tor Books [55]
2017 Charlie Jane Anders* All the Birds in the Sky Tor Books, Titan Books [56]
Mishell Baker Borderline Saga Press [56]
N. K. Jemisin The Obelisk Gate Orbit Books [56]
Yoon Ha Lee Ninefox Gambit Solaris Books [56]
Nisi Shawl Everfair Tor Books [56]
2018 N. K. Jemisin* The Stone Sky Orbit Books [57]
Lara Elena Donnelly Amberlough Tor Books [57]
Theodora Goss The Strange Case of the Alchemist's Daughter Saga Press [57]
Daryl Gregory Spoonbenders Alfred A. Knopf, Riverrun Books [57]
Mur Lafferty Six Wakes Orbit Books [57]
Fonda Lee Jade City Orbit Books [57]
Annalee Newitz Autonomous Tor Books, Orbit Books [57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]