Necrophilia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Necrophila, a genus of beetles.

Necrophilia, also called thanatophilia, is a sexual attraction or sexual act involving corpses. The attraction is classified as a paraphilia by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. The term was coined by the Belgian alienist Joseph Guislain, who first used it in a lecture in 1850. It derives from the Greek words νεκρός (nekros; "dead") and φιλία (philia; "love").[1]

Rosman and Resnick (1989) reviewed information from 34 cases of necrophilia describing the individuals' motivations for their behaviors: these individuals reported the desire to possess a non-resisting and non-rejecting partner (68%), reunions with a romantic partner (21%), sexual attraction to corpses (15%), comfort or overcoming feelings of isolation (15%), or seeking self-esteem by expressing power over a homicide victim (12%).[2]

History[edit]

Singular accounts of necrophilia in history are sporadic, though written records suggest the practice was present within Ancient Egypt. Herodotus writes in The Histories that, to discourage intercourse with a corpse, ancient Egyptians left deceased beautiful women to decay for "three or four days" before giving them to the embalmers.[3][4][5] Herodotus also alluded to suggestions that Greek tyrant Periander had defiled the corpse of his wife, employing a metaphor: "Periander baked his bread in a cold oven."[6] Acts of necrophilia are depicted on ceramics from the Moche culture, which reigned in northern Peru from the first to eighth century CE.[7] A common theme in these artifacts is the masturbation of a male skeleton by a living woman.[8] Hittite law from the 16th century BC through to the 13th century BC explicitly permitted sex with the dead.[9]

Around 1850, Belgian physician Joseph Guislain coined the word nécrophiles in a lecture about mental illness, with reference to infamous contemporary necrophile François Bertrand. The term was popularized about a decade later by psychiatrist Bénédict Morel, who also discussed Bertrand.[1] Richard von Krafft-Ebing included necrophilia in his 1886 Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing based his conclusions on the cases of Bertrand and Victor Ardisson, and suggested that Bertrand's necrophilia was caused by congenital feeble-mindedness and early masturbation.[10]

In a modern example, Jeffrey Dahmer was a serial killer who suffered from necrophilia. In order to be aroused, he had to murder his victims before performing sexual intercourse with them. Dahmer stated that he only killed his victims because they wanted to leave after having sex, and would be angry with him for drugging them.[11] British serial killer Dennis Nilsen is considered to have been a necrophiliac.[12]

Classification[edit]

In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), recurrent, intense sexual interest in corpses can be diagnosed under Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder (necrophilia) when it causes marked distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.[13] A ten-tier classification of necrophilia exists:[14]

  1. Role players: People who get aroused from pretending their live partner is dead during sexual activity.
  2. Romantic necrophiliacs: Bereaved people who remain attached to their dead lover's body.
  3. Necrophilic fantasizers: People who fantasize about necrophilia, but never actually have sex with a corpse.
  4. Tactile necrophiliacs: People who are aroused by touching or stroking a corpse, without engaging in intercourse.
  5. Fetishistic necrophiliacs: People who remove objects (e.g., panties or a tampon) or body parts (e.g., a finger or genitalia) from a corpse for sexual purposes, without engaging in intercourse.
  6. Necromutilomaniacs: People who derive pleasure from mutilating a corpse while masturbating, without engaging in intercourse.
  7. Opportunistic necrophiliacs: People who normally have no interest in necrophilia, but take the opportunity when it arises.
  8. Regular necrophiliacs: People who preferentially have intercourse with the dead.
  9. Homicidal necrophiliacs: People who commit murder in order to have sex with the dead.
  10. Exclusive necrophiliacs: People who have an exclusive interest in sex with the dead, and cannot perform at all for living partners.

Research[edit]

Humans[edit]

Necrophilia is often assumed to be rare, but no data for its prevalence in the general population exists.[15] Some necrophiles only fantasize about the act, without carrying it out.[2] In 1958, Klaf and Brown commented that, although rarely described, necrophiliac fantasies may occur more often than is generally supposed.[5]

Rosman and Resnick (1989) reviewed 122 cases of necrophilia. The sample was divided into genuine necrophiles, who had a persistent attraction to corpses, and pseudo-necrophiles, who acted out of opportunity, sadism, or transient interest. Of the total, 92% were male and 8% were female. 57% of the genuine necrophiles had occupational access to corpses, with morgue attendant, hospital orderly, and cemetery employee being the most common jobs. The researchers theorized that either of the following situations could be antecedents to necrophilia:[2]

  1. The necrophile develops poor self-esteem, perhaps due in part to a significant loss;
    (a) They are very fearful of rejection by others and they desire a sexual partner who is incapable of rejecting them; and/or
    (b) They are fearful of the dead, and transform their fear — by means of reaction formation — into a desire.
  2. They develop an exciting fantasy of sex with a corpse, sometimes after exposure to a corpse.

The authors reported that, of their sample of genuine necrophiles:[2]

  • 68% were motivated by a desire for an unresisting and unrejecting partner;
  • 21% by a want for reunion with a lost partner;
  • 15% by sexual attraction to dead people;
  • 15% by a desire for comfort or to overcome feelings of isolation; and
  • 12% by a desire to remedy low self-esteem by expressing power over a corpse .

IQ data was limited, but not abnormally low. About half of the sample had a personality disorder, and 11% of true necrophiles were psychotic. Rosman and Resnick concluded that their data challenged the conventional view of necrophiles as generally psychotic, mentally deficient, or unable to obtain a consenting partner.[2]

Other animals[edit]

A male black and white tegu mounts a female that has been dead for two days and attempts to mate. Photo by Ivan Sazima.[16]

Necrophilia has been observed in mammals, birds, reptiles and frogs.[17] In 1960, Robert Dickerman described necrophilia in ground squirrels, which he termed "Davian behavior" in reference to a limerick about a necrophiliac miner named Dave. The label is still used for necrophilia in animals.[18] Certain species of arachnids and insects practice sexual cannibalism, in which the female cannibalizes her male mate prior to, during, or after copulation.

Kees Moeliker made one observation while he was sitting in his office at the Natural History Museum Rotterdam, when he heard the distinctive thud of a bird hitting the glass facade of the building. Upon inspection, he discovered a drake (male) mallard lying dead outside the building. Next to the downed bird there was a second drake mallard standing close by. As Moeliker observed the couple, the living drake pecked at the corpse of the dead one for a few minutes then mounted the corpse and began copulating with it. The act of necrophilia lasted for about 75 minutes, in which time, according to Moeliker, the living drake took two short breaks before resuming with copulating behavior. Moeliker surmised that at the time of the collision with the window the two mallards were engaged in a common pattern in duck behavior called "attempted rape flight". "When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback — well, didn't get any feedback," according to Moeliker.[19][20] Necrophilia had previously only been reported in heterosexual mallard pairs.[19]

In a short paper known as "Sexual Habits of the Adélie Penguin", George Murray Levick described mating with dead females in the Cape Adare rookery, the largest group of Adélie penguins, in 1911 and 1912.[21][22] This is nowadays ascribed to lack of experience of young penguins.[23] A gentoo penguin was observed attempting to have intercourse with a dead penguin in 1921.[24]

A male New Zealand sea lion was once observed attempting to copulate with a dead female New Zealand fur seal in the wild. The sea lion nudged the seal repeatedly, then mounted her and made several pelvic thrusts. Approximately ten minutes later, the sea lion became disturbed by the researcher's presence, dragged the corpse of the seal into the water and swam away while holding it.[25] A male sea otter was observed holding a female sea otter underwater until she drowned, and then repeatedly copulating with her carcass. Several months later, the same sea otter was again observed copulating with the carcass of a different female.[26] Copulation with a dead female pilot whale by a captive male pilot whale has been observed,[27] and possible sexual behavior between two male humpback whales, one dead, has also been reported.[28]

In 1983, a male rock dove was observed copulating with the corpse of a dove that had shortly before had its head crushed by a car.[29][30] In 2001, a researcher laid out sand martin corpses to attract flocks of other sand martins. In each of six trials, 1-5 individuals from flocks of 50-500 were observed attempting to copulate with the dead sand martins. This occurred one to two months after the breeding season; since copulation outside the breeding season is uncommon among birds, the researcher speculated that the lack of resistance by the corpses stimulated the behavior.[31] Charles Brown observed at least ten cliff swallows attempt to copulate with a road-killed cliff swallow in the space of 15 minutes. He commented, "This isn't the first time I've seen cliff swallows do this; the bright orange rump sticking up seems to be all the stimulus these birds need."[32] Necrophilia has also been reported in the European swallow, grey-backed sparrow-lark, Stark's lark,[22] and the snow goose.[33] A Norwegian television report showed a male hybrid between a black grouse and western capercaillie kill a male black grouse before attempting to copulate with it.[31]

A male giant ameiva mounts a dead female and attempts to pair cloacae. Photos by E. T. da Silva.[18]

Necrophilia has been documented in various lizard species, including the giant ameiva,[18][34] the leopard lizard,[35] and Holbrookia maculata.[36] There are two reports of necrophilic behavior in the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa). In one, the partner of a male lizard got caught in fencing wire and died. The male continued to display courtship behavior towards his partner two days after her death. This lizard's necrophilia was believed to stem from its strong monogamous bond.[37] In one study of black and white tegu lizards, two different males were observed attempting to court and copulate with a single female corpse on two consecutive days. On the first day, the corpse was freshly dead, but by the second day it was bloating and emitting a strong putrefying odor. The researcher attributed the behavior to sex pheromones still acting on the carcass.[16]

Male garter snakes often copulate with dead females.[38][39] One case has been reported in the Bothrops jararaca snake with a dead South American rattlesnake.[40][41] A male prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was once seen attempting to mate with a decapitated female.[41] Male crayfish sometimes copulate with dead crayfish of either sex, and in one observation even with a dead crayfish of a different species.[42][43]

In frogs, it has been observed in the foothill yellow-legged frog,[44] the yellow fire-bellied toad,[45] the common frog,[46] the Oregon spotted frog,[47] Dendropsophus columbianus,[48] and Rhinella jimi.[17] The film Cane Toads: An Unnatural History shows a male toad copulating with a female toad that had been run over by a car. It goes on to do this for eight hours.[49] Necrophilic amplexus in frogs may occur because males will mount any pliable object the size of an adult female. If the mounted object is a live frog not appropriate for mating, it will vibrate its body or vocalize a call to be released. Dead frogs cannot do this, so they may be held for hours.[46] The Amazonian frog species Rhinella proboscidea sometimes practices what has been termed "functional necrophilia". Males grasp the corpse of a dead female and squeeze it until oocytes are ejected, and then fertilize them.[50]

Legality[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Under Section 150 of the New Zealand Crimes Act 1961, it is an offence for there to be "misconduct in respect to human remains." Subsection (b) elaborates that this applies if someone "improperly or indecently interferes with or offers indignity to any dead human body or human remains, whether buried or not." This statute is therefore applicable to sex with corpses and carries a potential two-year prison sentence, although it should be noted that there is no case law as yet that would apply the aforementioned statute.[51]

India[edit]

Section 297 of the Indian Penal Code entitled "Trespassing on burial places, etc", states as follows:[52]

Whoever, with the intention of wounding the feelings of any person, or of insulting the religion of any person, or with the knowledge that the feelings of any person are likely to be wounded, or that the religion of any person is likely to be insulted thereby,

commits any trespass in any place of worship or on any place of sculpture, or any place set apart from the performance of funeral rites or as a depository for the remains of the dead, or offers any indignity to any human corpse, or causes disturbance to any persons assembled for the performance of funeral ceremonies,

shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Although sex with a corpse is not explicitly mentioned, a person who has sex with a corpse may be convicted under the above section. Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code could also be invoked.

South Africa[edit]

Section 14 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007 prohibits the commission of a sexual act with a corpse.[53] Until codified by the act it was a common law offence.

United Kingdom[edit]

Sexual penetration with a corpse was made illegal under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. This is defined as depictions of "sexual interference with a human corpse" as well as actual scenes (see also extreme pornography). As of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008, it is also illegal to possess explicit and realistic depictions of sexual interference with a human corpse, electronic or otherwise.

United States[edit]

There is no federal legislation specifically barring sex with a corpse. Multiple states have their own laws:[54][55]

State Severity Statute
Alabama Felony (Class C) § 13A-11-13
Alaska Misdemeanor (Class A) § 11-61-130
Arizona Felony (Class 4) § 32-1364
Arkansas Felony (Class D) § 5-60-101
California Felony Health and Safety Code § 7052
Colorado Misdemeanor (Class 2) § 18-13-101
Connecticut Misdemeanor (Class A) § 53a-73a
Delaware Misdemeanor (Class A) § 11-5-1332
Florida Felony (second degree) § 872.06
Georgia Felony § 16-6-7
Hawaii Misdemeanor § 711-1108
Indiana Felony (Level 6) § 35-45-11-2
Iowa Felony (Class D) § 709.18
Kentucky Felony (Class D) § 525.120
Minnesota Misdemeanor § 609.294
Mississippi Felony § 97-29-25
Nevada Felony (Class A) NRS § 201.450
New York Misdemeanor (Class A) § 130.20
North Dakota Misdemeanor (Class A) § 12.1-20-12 and § 12.1-20-02
Ohio Felony (fifth degree) § 2927.01
Oregon Felony ORS § 166.085
Pennsylvania Misdemeanor (second degree) 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 5510
Rhode Island Felony § 11-20-1.2
Tennessee Felony (Class E) § 39-17-312
Texas Misdemeanor (Class A) § 9.42.08[56]
Utah Felony (third degree) § 76-9-704
Washington Felony (Class C) RCW § 9A.44.105
Wisconsin Felony (Class G) § 940.225 (7)[57]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Robin Goodwin; Duncan Cramer (2002). Inappropriate Relationships: The Unconventional, the Disapproved, and the Forbidden. Psychology Press. pp. 174–176. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Rosman, J. P.; Resnick, P. J. (1 June 1989). "Sexual attraction to corpses: A psychiatric review of necrophilia" (PDF/HTML). Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 17 (2): 153–163. PMID 2667656. 
  3. ^ Herodotus (c. 440 BC). The Histories (Book 2). The wives of men of rank when they die are not given at once to be embalmed, nor such women as are very beautiful or of greater regard than others, but on the third or fourth day after their death (and not before) they are delivered to the embalmers. They do so about this matter in order that the embalmers may not abuse their women, for they say that one of them was taken once doing so to the corpse of a woman lately dead, and his fellow-craftsman gave information. 
  4. ^ Brill, Abraham A. (1941). "Necrophilia". Journal of Criminal Psychopathology 2 (4): 433–443. 
  5. ^ a b Klaf, Franklin S., and Brown, William (1958). "Necrophilia: Brief Review and Case Report". Psychiatric Quarterly 32 (4): 645–652. Inhibited forms of necrophilia and necrophiliac fantasies may occur more commonly then is generally realized. 
  6. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2010). Necrophilia: Forensic and Medico-legal Aspects. CRC Press. pp. 6–7.  The primary source is Histories, Book V, 92.
  7. ^ Finbow, Steve (2014). Grave Desire: A Cultural History of Necrophilia. John Hunt Publishing. 
  8. ^ Weismantel, M. (2004). "Moche sex pots: Reproduction and temporality in ancient South America" (PDF). American Anthropologist 106 (3): 495–496. 
  9. ^ Boer, Roland (2014). "From Horse Kissing to Beastly Emissions: Paraphilias in the Ancient Near East". In Masterson, Mark. Sex in Antiquity: Exploring Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World. Routledge. p. 69. 
  10. ^ Burg, B. R. (1982). "The sick and the dead: The development of psychological theory on necrophilia from Krafft‐Ebing to the present". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 18 (3): 242–254. 
  11. ^ "Psychiatric Testimony of Jeffrey Dahmer". Court Transcripts. Criminal Profiling. 8 June 2001. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  12. ^ Masters, Brian (1985). Killing For Company. Arrow. ISBN 978-0099552611. 
  13. ^ American Psychiatric Association, ed. (2013). "Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder, 302.89 (F65.89)". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 705. 
  14. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2009). "A new classification of necrophilia". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 16 (6): 316–20. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2008.12.023. PMID 19573840.  (subscription required)
  15. ^ Milner, J. S., Dopke, C. A., & Crouch, J. L. (2008). "Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified: Psychopathology and Theory". In Laws, D. Richard. Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment, 2nd edition. The Guilford Press. p. 399. 
  16. ^ a b Sazima, I. (2015). "Corpse bride irresistible: a dead female tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) courted by males for two days at an urban park in South-eastern Brazil". Herpetology Notes 8: 15–18. 
  17. ^ a b de Mattos Brito, L. B., Joventino, I. R., Ribeiro, S. C., & Cascon, P. (2012). "Necrophiliac behavior in the "cururu" toad, Rhinella jimi Steuvax, 2002, (Anura, Bufonidae) from Northeastern Brazil" (PDF). North-Western Journal of Zoology 8 (2): 365. 
  18. ^ a b c Costa, H. C., da Silva, E. T., Campos, P. S., da Cunha Oliveira, M. P., Nunes, A. V., & da Silva Santos, P. (2010). "The corpse bride: a case of Davian behaviour in the green ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) in southeastern Brazil" (PDF). Herpetology Notes 3: 79–83. 
  19. ^ a b C.W. Moeliker (2001). "The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the Anas platyrhynchos (Aves:Anatidae)" (PDF). Deinsea - Annual of the Natural History Museum Rotterdam 8: 243–247. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  20. ^ Donald MacLeod (8 March 2005). "Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers". London: Guardian Unlimited. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  21. ^ McKie, Robin (9 June 2012). "'Sexual depravity' of penguins that Antarctic scientist dared not reveal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  22. ^ a b Russell, D. G. D.; Sladen, W. J. L.; Ainley, D. G. (2012). "Dr. George Murray Levick (1876–1956): Unpublished notes on the sexual habits of the Adélie penguin". Polar Record 48 (4): 1. doi:10.1017/S0032247412000216. 
  23. ^ McKie, Robin (9 June 2012). "'Sexual depravity' of penguins that Antarctic scientist dared not reveal". Guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. 
  24. ^ Bagshawe, T. W. (1938). "Notes on the Habits of the Gentoo and Ringed or Antarctic Penguins". The Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 24 (3): 209. 
  25. ^ Wilson, G. J. (1979). "Hooker's sea lions in southern New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 13 (3): 373–375. 
  26. ^ Harris, H. S., Oates, S. C., Staedler, M. M., Tinker, M. T., Jessup, D. A., Harvey, J. T., & Miller, M. A. (2010). "Lesions and behavior associated with forced copulation of juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals 36 (4): 338. 
  27. ^ Brown, D. H. (1962). "Further observations on the pilot whale in captivity". Zoologica 47 (1): 59–64. 
  28. ^ Pack, A. A., Salden, D. R., Ferrari, M. J., Glockner‐Ferrari, D. A., Herman, L. M., Stubbs, H. A., & Straley, J. M. (1998). "Male humpback whale dies in competitive group". Marine Mammal Science 14 (4): 861–873. 
  29. ^ Slavid, Evelyn; Taylor, Julie (1987). "Feral Rock Dove displaying to and attempting to copulate with corpse of another" (PDF). British Birds 8 (10): 497. 
  30. ^ "Randy rock doves join party with the dead". The Guardian (London). 14 March 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  31. ^ a b Dale, S. (2001). "Necrophilic behaviour, corpses as nuclei of resting flock formation, and road-kills of Sand Martins Riparia riparia" (PDF). Ardea 89 (3): 545–547. 
  32. ^ Charles Robert Brown (1998). Swallow Summer. University of Nebraska Press. p. 143. 
  33. ^ McKinney, F., & Evarts, S. (1998). "Sexual coercion in waterfowl and other birds". Ornithological Monographs: 163–195.  The primary source (Gauthier & Tardif, 1991) states that "a paired male attempted to mount a recently shot bird used to attract other geese."
  34. ^ Vitt, L.J. (2003). "Life versus sex: the ultimate choice". Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press. p. 103. 
  35. ^ Fallahpour, K. (2005). "Gambelia wislizenii. Necrophilia.". Herpetological Review 36: 177–178.  Cited in Sazima (2015).
  36. ^ Brinker, A.M, Bucklin, S.E. (2006). "Holbrookia maculata. Necrophilia.". Herpetological Review 37: 466.  Cited in Sazima (2015).
  37. ^ Bull, C. Michael. "Monogamy in lizards" (PDF). Behavioural Processes 51 (1): 12. 
  38. ^ Shine, R., O’Connor, D., & Mason, R. T. (2000). "Sexual conflict in the snake den" (PDF). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (5): 397. 
  39. ^ Joy, J. E., & Crews, D. (1985). "Social dynamics of group courtship behavior in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis)" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Psychology 99 (2): 148. 
  40. ^ Amaral. A. (1932). "Contribuição à biologia dos ophidios do Brasil. IV. Sobre um caso de necrophilia heterologa na jararaca (Bothrops jararaca)". Memórias do Instituto de Butantan 7: 93–94.  Cited in Costa et al. (2010).
  41. ^ a b Klauber, Laurence Monroe (1972). Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind, Volume 1. University of California Press. p. 718. 
  42. ^ Pearse, A. S. (1909). "Observations on copulation among crawfishes with special reference to sex recognition". American Naturalist: 752. 
  43. ^ Andrews, E. A. (1910). "Conjugation in the crayfish, Cambarus affinis". Journal of Experimental Zoology 9 (2): 235–264. 
  44. ^ Bettaso, J., Haggarthy, A., Russel, E. (2008). "Rana boylii (Foothill Yellow-legged Frog). Necrogamy.". Herpetological Review 39: 462.  Cited in Costa et al. (2010).
  45. ^ Sinovas, P. (2009). "Bombina variegata (Yellow Fire-bellied Toad). Mating Behaviour". Herpetological Review 40: 199.  Cited in Costa et al. (2010).
  46. ^ a b Mollov, I. A., Popgeorgiev, G. S., Naumov, B. Y., Tzankov, N. D., & Stoyanov, A. Y. (2010). "Cases of abnormal amplexus in anurans (Amphibia: Anura) from Bulgaria and Greece." (PDF). Biharean Biologist 4 (2): 121–125. 
  47. ^ Pearl, C. A., Hayes, M. P., Haycock, R., Engler, J. D., & Bowerman, J. (2005). "Observations of interspecific amplexus between western North American ranid frogs and the introduced American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and an hypothesis concerning breeding interference". The American Midland Naturalist 154 (1): 126–134. 
  48. ^ Bedoya, S. C., Mantilla-Castaño, J. C., & Pareja-Márquez, I. M. (2014). "Necrophiliac and interspecific amplexus in Dendropsophus columbianus (Anura: Hylidae) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia" (PDF). Herpetology Notes 7: 515–516. 
  49. ^ Lewis, Stephanie (1989). Cane Toads: an Unnatural History. New York: Doubleday. 
  50. ^ Izzo, T. J., Rodrigues, D. J., Menin, M., Lima, A. P., & Magnusson, W. E. (2012). "Functional necrophilia: a profitable anuran reproductive strategy?". Journal of Natural History 46 (47-48): 2961–2967. 
  51. ^ Butterworths Crimes Act 1961: Wellington: Butterworths: 2003
  52. ^ "The Indian Penal Code (IPC): Dowry Law Misuse (IPC 448) By Indian Women". Mynation.net. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  53. ^ "Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007" (PDF). December 2007. sec. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-05-23. 
  54. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2010). Necrophilia: Forensic and Medico-legal Aspects. CRC Press. pp. 201–210. 
  55. ^ Posner, Richard A.; Silbaugh, Katharine B. (1996). A Guide to America's Sex Laws. University of Chicago Press. pp. 213–216. 
  56. ^ "Texas Penal Code Chapter 42. Disorderly Conduct And Related Offenses". Archived from the original on 2014-04-28. 
  57. ^ Although the wording is somewhat ambiguous, the Supreme Court of Wisconsin determined this statute applied to "sexual contact or sexual intercourse with a victim already dead at the time of the sexual activity when the accused did not cause the death of the victim" in State v. Grunke.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lisa Downing, Desiring the Dead: Necrophilia and Nineteenth-Century French Literature. Oxford: Legenda, 2003
  • Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis. New York: Stein & Day, 1965. Originally published in 1886.
  • Mary Roach, Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2003.
  • Hucker, Stephen J. (2003). "Necrophilia". ForensicPsychiatry.ca. 

In literature[edit]