Necrotizing fasciitis

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Necrotizing fasciitis
Synonyms Flesh-eating bacteria, flesh-eating bacteria syndrome,[1] necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI),[2] fasciitis necroticans
Necrotizing fasciitis left leg.JPEG
Person with necrotizing fasciitis. The left leg shows extensive redness and tissue death.
Specialty Infectious disease
Symptoms Severe pain, fever, purple colored skin in the affected area[3]
Usual onset Sudden, spreads rapidly[3]
Causes Multiple types of bacteria[4]
Risk factors Poor immune function such as from diabetes or cancer, obesity, alcoholism, intravenous drug use, peripheral vascular disease[2][3]
Diagnostic method Based on symptoms, medical imaging[4]
Prevention Wound care, handwashing[3]
Treatment Surgery to remove the infected tissue, intravenous antibiotics[2][3]
Prognosis ~30% mortality[2]
Frequency 0.7 per 100,000 per year[4]

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.[3] It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly.[3] Symptoms include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.[3] The most commonly affected areas are the limbs and perineum.[2]

Typically the infection enters the body through a break in the skin such as a cut or burn.[3] Risk factors include poor immune function such as from diabetes or cancer, obesity, alcoholism, intravenous drug use, and peripheral vascular disease.[2][3] It is not typically spread between people.[3] The disease is classified into four types, depending on the infecting organism.[4] Between 55% and 80% of cases involve more than one type of bacteria.[4] Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in up to a third of cases.[4] Medical imaging is helpful to confirm the diagnosis.[4]

Necrotizing fasciitis may be prevented with proper wound care and hand washing.[3] It is usually treated with surgery to remove the infected tissue and intravenous antibiotics.[2][3] Often a combination of antibiotics are used such as penicillin G, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin.[2] Delays in surgery are associated with a higher risk of death.[4] Despite high quality treatment, the risk of death is between 25% and 35%.[2]

Necrotizing fasciitis affects 0.4 to 1 person per 100,000 per year.[4] Both sexes are affected equally.[2] It becomes more common among older people and is very rare in children.[4] Necrotizing fasciitis has been described at least since the time of Hippocrates.[2] The term "necrotising fasciitis" first came into use in 1952.[4][5]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The start of necrotizing fasciitis.

Symptoms may include fever, swelling, and complaint of excessive pain when compared to a small, benign swelling on the skin. The initial skin changes are similar to cellulitis and abscess, thus making the diagnosis of necrotising fasciitis at early stages difficult. Induration (hardening of the skin and soft tissue) and swelling beyond the area of skin changes are commonly present in those with early necrotizing changes.[2] The redness and swelling usually blends into surrounding normal tissues. The overlying skin may appear shiny and tense.[6] Other signs which are more suggestive of necrotising changes (but present in later stages in 7% to 44% of the cases) are: formation of bullae, skin ecchymosis which is present before skin necrosis[2] (skin turning from red to purple and black due to thrombosis of blood vessels),[6] presence of gas in tissues and reduced or absent sensation over the skin[2] (due to the necrosis of the underlying nerves).[6] Rapid progression to shock despite antibiotic therapy is another indication of necrotizing fasciiitis. When necrotising changes affects the groin it is known as Fournier gangrene.[2]

However, those who are immunocompromised (malignancy, corticosteroid usage, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS, prior organ or bone marrow transplantation) may not show normal signs and symptoms. Immunocompromised persons also have two fold higher risk of death from necrotising infections. Therefore, higher suspicion should be maintained in this group.[2]


Risk factors[edit]

More than 70% of cases are recorded in people with at least one of the following clinical situations: immunosuppression, diabetes, alcoholism/drug abuse/smoking, malignancies, and chronic systemic diseases. For reasons that are unclear, it occasionally occurs in people with an apparently normal general condition.[7]

Necrotising fasciitis can occur at any part of the body but it is more commonly seen at the extremities, perineum, genitals. Only few of such cases arises from chest and abdomen. Trauma is the usual cause of the infection such as intravenous drug injection, insulin injection, animals and insect bites, catheter insertion over the skin, or a fistula connecting skin to the internal body organs. Skin infections such as abscess, ulcers can also complicates into necrotising fasciitis. Spreading of infection through blood has been suggested for those with Streptococcal pharyngitis. For infection of the perineum and genitals (Fournier gangrene), trauma, surgery, urinary tract infection, stones, and Bartholin gland abscess are the usual causes.[2]


Types of soft tissue necrotising infection can be divided into four classes according to the types of bacteria infecting the soft tissue. This classification system was first described by Giuliano and his colleagues in 1977.[4][2]

Type I infection - This is the most common type of infection which accounts for 70 to 80% of the cases. It is caused by a mixture of bacterial types, usually in abdominal or groin areas.[4] This type of infection is usually inhabited by various species of gram positive cocci,(Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and enterococci) gram negative rods,(Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anaerobes, (Bacteroides and Clostridial species).[4] Population of those affected are typically older with medical co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and immunodeficiency.[4] Usually, trauma is not the cause of such infections. Previous history of abscess infection, gut perforation with bacterial translocation may be elicited. Clostridial infection accounts for 10% of Type I infection. Types of Clostrdium species involved are: Clostridium perfringens (typically causes gas gangrene), Clostridium septicum, and Clostridium sordellii. Clostrodium species produces two types of deadly toxins: alpha-toxin and theta-toxin. Alpha toxins causes excessive platelet aggregation which blocks blood vessels and deprive the vital organs of oxygen supply. This creates an acidic, oxygen deficient environment for the proliferation of bacteria. When alpha-toxin is absorbed by soft tissues, it can inhibits the migration of white blood cells from the blood vessels into the soft tissue, thus impairing phagocyte function. These two toxins together can cause destruction of red blood cells in blood vessels, damages the integrity of the blood vessels and suppress heart function. These species are usually found in the heroin injection users. Those with Clostridial infection typically have severe pain at the wound site; where the wound typically drains foul smelling blood mixing with serum (serosanguinous discharge). Shock can progress rapidly after initial hours injury or infection, and once the state of shock is established, the chance of dying exceeds 50%. Another bacteria with similar rapid progression is Group A streptococcal infection (mostly Streptococcus pyogenes). Meanwhile, other bacterial infections requires two or more days to become symptomatic.[2]

Type II infection - This infection accounts for 20 to 30% of the cases, mainly involving the extremities.[4][8]This infection mainly involves the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria or in combination with Staphylococcal infections. Both types of bacteria can progress rapidly and manifests as toxic shock syndrome. Streptococcus has M protein which acts as superantigen, thus stimulating a massive systemic immune response which is not effective against the bacteria antigen, precipitating shock. Type II infection more commonly infects young, healthy adults with history of injury.[2]

Type III infection - Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterium found in saltwater, is a rare cause of this infection. Infection occurs through a break in the skin. Disease progression can be as rapid as Type II infection without any visible skin changes.[2]

Type IV infection - Some authors have described the Type IV infection as fungal infection.[4]


Necrotising fasciitis producing gas in the soft tissues as seen on CT scan
Necrotizing fasciitis as seen on ultrasound[9]
Micrograph of necrotizing fasciitis, showing necrosis (center of image) of the dense connective tissue, i.e. fascia, interposed between fat lobules (top-right and bottom-left of image). H&E stain

Early diagnosis is difficult as the disease often looks early on like a simple superficial skin infection.[4] While a number of laboratory and imaging modalities can raise the suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis, the gold standard for diagnosis is a surgical exploration in the setting of high suspicion. When in doubt, a small small incision can be made into the affected tissue, and if a finger easily separates the tissue along the fascial plane, the diagnosis is confirmed and an extensive debridement should be performed.[2]

Medical imaging[edit]

Imaging has a limited role in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The time delay in performing imaging is a concern. Plain radiography may show subcutaneous emphysema (gas in the subcutaneous tissue) which is strongly suggestive of necrotising changes, but it is not sensitive enough to detect all the cases. This is because necrotising skin infections caused by the bacteria other than clostridial infections usually do not show subcutaneous emphysema. If the diagnosis is still in doubt, computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more sensitive modalities than plain radiography. However, both the CT scan and MRI are not sensitive enough rule out necrotizing changes completely.[2] CT scan may show fascial thickening, edema, subcutaneous gas, and abscess formation.[2] In MRI,when there is fluid collection with deep fascia involvement, thickening or enhancement with contrast injection, necrotising fasciitis should be strongly suspected. Meanwhile, ultrasonography can show superficial abscess formation but is not sensitive enough to diagnose necrotizing fasciitis.[2] CT scan is able to detect approximately 80% of cases while MRI may pick up slightly more.[10]

Scoring system[edit]

A white blood cell count less than 15,000 cells/mm3 and serum sodium level greater than 135 mmol/L has a sensitivity of 90% in detecting the necrotising soft tissue infection. It also has 99% chance of ruling out necrotising changes if the values has shown otherwise. There are various scoring system being developed to determine the likelihood of getting necrotising fasciitis but a scoring system developed by Wong and colleagues in 2004 is the most commonly used. It is the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score which can be utilized to risk stratify people having signs of severe cellulitis or abscess to determine the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis being present. It uses six labolatory values: C-reactive protein, total white blood cell count, hemoglobin, sodium, creatinine and glucose.[2] A score greater than or equal to 6 indicates that necrotizing fasciitis should be seriously considered.[11] The scoring criteria are as follows:

  • CRP (mg/L) ≥150: 4 points
  • WBC count (×103/mm3)
    • <15: 0 points
    • 15–25: 1 point
    • >25: 2 points
  • Hemoglobin (g/dL)
    • >13.5: 0 points
    • 11–13.5: 1 point
    • <11: 2 points
  • Sodium (mmol/L) <135: 2 points
  • Creatinine (umol/L) >141: 2 points
  • Glucose (mmol/L) >10: 1 point[11][12]

However, the scoring system has not been validated. The values would be falsely positive if there is any other inflammatory conditions present. Therefore, the values derived from this scoring system should be interpreted with caution.[2] 10% of patients with necrotizing fasciitis in the original study still had a LRINEC score <6.[11] A validation study done in 2008 showed that patients with a LRINEC score ≥6 have a higher rate of both death and amputation.[13]


Prevention is by good wound care and handwashing.[3]


Surgical debridement (cutting away affected tissue) is the mainstay of treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. Early medical treatment is often presumptive; thus, antibiotics should be started as soon as this condition is suspected. Given the dangerous nature of the disease, a high index of suspicion is needed. Cultures are taken to determine appropriate antibiotic coverage, and antibiotics may be changed when culture results are obtained. Besides, blood pressure and hydration support should be initiated for those with unstable vital signs with low urine output.[2]

Treatment for necrotizing fasciitis may involve an interdisciplinary care team. For example, in the case of a necrotizing fasciitis involving the head and neck, the team could include otolaryngologists, speech pathologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and plastic surgeons or oral and maxillofacial surgeons.[14] Maintaining strict asepsis during any surgical procedure and regional anaesthesia techniques is vital in preventing the occurrence of the disease.[15]


In necrotizing fasciitis, aggressive wound debridement (removal of unhealthy tissues) is always necessary to keep it from spreading and is the only treatment available. Surgical incisions should extend beyond the area of induration because dermal lymphatic blockage and thrombosis of small veins are the causes of such induration. However, cellulitic soft tissue can be spared from debridement for later skin coverage of the wound. The subcutaneous tissue should be debrided until the healthy, bleeding tissue is seen. A second look operation maybe planned within 24 hours to remove additional necrotic tissue and an average of 3 to 4 operations is required for one person. Sometimes, amputation of the affected limb or the debridement of internal organs may be necessary. After the wound debridement, adequate dressings should be applied to prevent exposure of bones, tendons, and cartilages so that such structures would not dry out and to promote wound healing.[2]

For necrotising infection of the perineal area (Fournier gangrene), wound debridement and wound care in this area can be difficult because of the excretory products that often renders this area dirty and affect the wound healing process. Therefore, regular dressing changes with a faecal management system can help to keep the wound at the perineal area clean. Sometimes, colostomy maybe necessary to divert the excretory products to keep the wound at the perineal area clean.[2]


Broad spectrum antibiotics that covers the gram positive, gram negative and anaerobes should be used with the consideration of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) coverage. Examples of antibiotics used are: penicillin G, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin. Penicillin G is effective against the Streptococcal and Clostridial infections. Clindamycin is effective in reducing the alpha toxins produced by Clostridial species, reducing the production of M protein by Streptococcal species, and reducing the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for MRSA. Meanwhile, gentamicin is useful against many gram negative rods and anaerobic bacteria. Fluoroquinolone may be used instead of gentamicin for those with acute kidney injury for kidney protection. Antibiotics are typically continued until the cultures come back for appropriate narrowing of antibiotic spectrum or until the completion of wound debridement and the person's vital signs are stable with normal white blood cell count.[2]


Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is sometimes used to treat necrotizing soft tissue infection in combination with antibiotics and debridement. A person is placed inside a high pressure chamber where oxygen is delivered a t 2 to 3 times the atmosphereic pressure. This resulted with arterial oxygen tension of 2000 mmHg and tissue oxygen tension of 300 mmHg as compared with 300 mmHg arterial oxygen tension and 75 mmHg tissue oxygen tension when breathing 100% oxygen. Humana and animal studies has shown that high oxygen tension in tissues help to reduces oedema, stimulate fibroblast growth, increasing the killing ability of white blood cells, toxic effects on anoerobes, inhibit bacterial toxin release and increase antibiotics efficacy.[2] However, there is a lack of compelling evidence regarding its efficacy for this purpose.[16][17] Therefore, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is only limited for those with stable vital signs in conditions where surgical debridement will not be delayed.[2]

Intravenous immunoglobulin is considered for the treatment of necrotising soft tissue infection. This is because the immunglobulins can bind to the exotoxins produced by Streptococcal and Staphylococcal infections, which subsequently limits immune response of the human body. However, there is limited data on the efficacy of this therapy. Therefore, such therapy is limited only for those who are critically ill.[2]

Definitive management[edit]

Wound dressings applied on the should allow for ambulation in order to prevent hospital acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and deep vein thrombosis. The use of Mafenide (2.5 or 5% dilution) or Dakin solution, pulse lavage (wound irrigation using pressurised jets of normal saline to remove fibrinous material and bacteria), and negative-pressure wound therapy (vacuum dressing; promotes vascularisation of wound bed). Wound closure should be delayed if there is hypoperfusion of the tissues due to hypotension. Wound closure can be started once the wound bed is clean with good tissue perfusion.[2]

Pain control is another important modality in wound management as pain can affect wound healing. The severity of pain can be assessed by Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale and Numeric Rating Scale according to the age and cultural background of the those in pain. Pain can be divided into three types: background pain, breakthrough pain, and procedural pain. Background pain is relatively constant and may be started before the onset of necrotising fasciitis which can range from mild to moderate pain. Such pain can be treated by methadone. Breakthough pain is the sudden worsening of pain in addition to background pain which is precipitated by movements or emotions. This type of pain can be treated by morphine, or oxycodone with combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Procedural pain the intense burning or stinging pain when procedures are performed such as wound debridement, changing of dressings, or physiotherapy. Morphine or oxycodone, in combination with short acting anxiolytic drugs such as midazolam and lorazepam. Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant, can be used to control neuropathic pain in surgical debridements and ampuatations. Skin graft and tissue rearrangement can be used to achieve wound closure.[2]


Necrotizing fasciitis affects about 0.4 in every 100,000 people per year in the United States.[4] There were about 1,000 cases of necrotising fasciitis cases per year in the United States, however, the rates have been increasing. This could be due to increasing awareness of this condition, leading to increased reporting, or there could be increasing bacterial virulence, or increasing bacterial resistance against antibiotics.[2] In some areas of the world it is as common as 1 in every 100,000 people.[4]

Higher rates of necrotising fasciities are seen in those with obesity, diabetes, immunocompromised, alcholic, or with peripheral vascular disease. However, such disease may also occurs in young healthy adults with no underlying illnesses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) may have increase the rates of necrotising infections due to the modification of immune response in the body. This is because NSAIDs inbihits the cycloxygenase -1 and cycloxygenase-2 enzymes which are important in producing thromboxane and prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandin has been responsible for fever, inflammation, and pain. The inhibition of prostangladin E2 production reduces inflammatory response and leukocyte adhesion, thus reduces immune response against bacterial invasion, giving rise to soft tissue infection.[2]


In the 5th century BC, Hippocrates described necrotising soft tissue infection as a disease which was the complication of Streptococcal infection where those affected would have "erysipelas all over the body while the cause was only a trivial accident. Bones, flesh, and sinew (cord, tendon, or nerve) would fall off from the body and there were many deaths". The first English description for necrotising soft tissue infection was by British surgeon Leonard Gillespie and British physicians Gilbert Blaine and Thomas Trotter in the 18th century. At that time, necrotising soft tissue infection was known as phagedaenic (gnaw - biting or chewing which gradually make a hole or destroying it) ulcer, phagedena gangrenous, gangrenous ulcer, malignant ulcer, putrid ulcer, or hospital gangrene. Later the word "hospital gangrene" become more commonly used. In 1871, Confederate States Army surgeon Joseph Jones reported 2,642 cases of hospital gangrene with mortality rate of 46%. In 1883, Dr Jean-Alfred Fournier described the necrotising infection of the perineum and scrotum which termed as Fournier gangrene today. The term "Necrotising fasciitis" was first coined by Wilson in 1952. The definition of necrotising fasciitis has become broader, to include not only infection of fascia, but also other soft tissue infection.[2]

Notable cases[edit]

  • 1994 Lucien Bouchard, former premier of Québec, Canada, who became infected while leader of the federal official opposition Bloc Québécois party, lost a leg to the illness.[18]
  • 1994 A cluster of cases occurred in Gloucestershire, in the west of England. Of five confirmed and one probable infection, two died. The cases were believed to be connected. The first two had acquired the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria during surgery, the remaining four were community-acquired.[19] The cases generated much newspaper coverage, with lurid headlines such as "Flesh Eating Bug Ate My Face".[20]
  • 1997 Ken Kendrick, former agent and partial owner of the San Diego Padres and Arizona Diamondbacks, contracted the disease. He had seven surgeries in a little more than a week and later fully recovered.[21]
  • 2004 Eric Allin Cornell, winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics, lost his left arm and shoulder to the disease.[22]
  • 2005 Alexandru Marin, an experimental particle physicist, professor at MIT, Boston University and Harvard University, and researcher at CERN and JINR, died from the disease.[23]
  • 2006 Alan Coren, British writer and satirist, announced in his Christmas column for The Times that his long absence as a columnist had been caused by his contracting the disease while on holiday in France.[24]
  • 2009 R. W. Johnson, British journalist and historian, contracted the disease in March after injuring his foot while swimming. His leg was amputated above the knee.[25]
  • 2011 Jeff Hanneman, guitarist for the thrash metal band Slayer, contracted the disease. He died of liver failure two years later, on May 2, 2013, and it was speculated his infection might be the cause of death. However, on May 9, 2013, the official cause of death was announced as alcohol-related cirrhosis. Hanneman and his family had apparently been unaware of the extent of the condition until shortly before his death.[26]
  • 2011 Peter Watts, Canadian science fiction author, contracted the disease. On his blog, Watts reported, "I’m told I was a few hours away from being dead...If there was ever a disease fit for a science fiction writer, flesh-eating disease has got to be it. This...spread across my leg as fast as a Star Trek space disease in time-lapse."[27]
  • 2014 Daniel Gildenlöw, Swedish singer and songwriter for the band Pain of Salvation spent several months in hospital after being diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis on his back in early 2014. After recovering he went to write the album 'In the Passing Light of Day',[28] a concept album about his experience during the hospitalization.[29]
  • 2015 Edgar Savisaar, Estonian politician. His right leg was amputated. He got the disease during a trip to Thailand.[30]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rakel, David; Rakel, Robert E. (2015). Textbook of Family Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 193. ISBN 9780323313087. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Hakkarainen, Timo W.; Kopari, Nicole M.; Pham, Tam N.; Evans, Heather L. (2014). "Necrotizing soft tissue infections: Review and current concepts in treatment, systems of care, and outcomes". Current Problems in Surgery. 51 (8): 344–62. doi:10.1067/j.cpsurg.2014.06.001. PMC 4199388Freely accessible. PMID 25069713. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Rare Disease, Especially for the Healthy". CDC. June 15, 2016. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Paz Maya, S; Dualde Beltrán, D; Lemercier, P; Leiva-Salinas, C (May 2014). "Necrotizing fasciitis: an urgent diagnosis". Skeletal radiology. 43 (5): 577–89. doi:10.1007/s00256-013-1813-2. PMID 24469151. 
  5. ^ Wilson, B (1952). "Necrotizing fasciitis". The American Surgeon. 18 (4): 416–31. PMID 14915014. 
  6. ^ a b c Trent, Jennifer T.; Kirsner, Robert S. (2002). "Necrotizing fasciitis". Wounds. 14 (8): 284–92. 
  7. ^ Pricop M, Urechescu H, Sîrbu A, Urtilă E (Mar 2011). "Fasceita necrozantă cervico-toracică: caz clinic și recenzie a literaturii de specialitate" [Necrotizing cervical fasciitis: clinical case and review of literature]. Revista de chirurgie oro-maxilo-facială și implantologie [Journal of oro-maxillo-facial surgery and implantology] (in Romanian). 2 (1): 1–6. ISSN 2069-3850. Archived from the original on 2016-03-22. 
  8. ^ Sarani, Babak; Strong, Michelle; Pascual, Jose; Schwab, C. William (2009). "Necrotizing Fasciitis: Current Concepts and Review of the Literature". Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 208 (2): 279–88. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2008.10.032. PMID 19228540. 
  9. ^ "UOTW #58 – Ultrasound of the Week". Ultrasound of the Week. 7 September 2015. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  10. ^ Puvanendran, R; Huey, JC; Pasupathy, S (October 2009). "Necrotizing fasciitis". Canadian Family Physician. 55 (10): 981–7. PMC 2762295Freely accessible. PMID 19826154. 
  11. ^ a b c Wong, Chin-Ho; Khin, Lay-Wai; Heng, Kien-Seng; Tan, Kok-Chai; Low, Cheng-Ooi (2004). "The LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score: A tool for distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from other soft tissue infections". Critical Care Medicine. 32 (7): 1535–41. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000129486.35458.7D. PMID 15241098. 
  12. ^ "LRINEC scoring system for necrotising fasciitis". EMT Emergency Medicine Tutorials. Archived from the original on 2011-09-14. 
  13. ^ Su, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hung-Wen; Hong, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Tsung; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Chen, I-Chuan (2008). "Laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score and the outcomes". ANZ Journal of Surgery. 78 (11): 968–72. doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04713.x. PMID 18959694. 
  14. ^ Malik, Vikas; Gadepalli, Chaitanya; Agrawal, Shailesh; Inkster, Claire; Lobo, Christopher (2010). "An algorithm for early diagnosis of cervicofacial necrotising fasciitis". European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 267 (8): 1169–77. doi:10.1007/s00405-010-1248-5. PMID 20396897. 
  15. ^ Dutta, Gautam; Singh, RajKumar (2013). "Fatal necrotising fasciitis after spinal anaesthesia". Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 6 (3): 165–6. doi:10.4103/0974-2077.118429. PMC 3800295Freely accessible. PMID 24163537. 
  16. ^ Escobar SJ, Slade JB, Hunt TK, Cianci P (2005). "Adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) for treatment of necrotizing fasciitis reduces mortality and amputation rate". Undersea Hyperb Med. 32 (6): 437–43. PMID 16509286. Archived from the original on 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  17. ^ Levett, Denny; Bennett, Michael H; Millar, Ian; Levett, Denny (2015). "Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen for necrotizing fasciitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD007937. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007937.pub2. PMID 25879088. 
  18. ^ Seachrist, Lisa (October 7, 1995). "The Once and Future Scourge: Could common anti-inflammatory drugs allow bacteria to take a deadly turn?" (PDF). Science News. 148 (15): 234–5. doi:10.2307/4018245. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2007. 
  19. ^ Cartwright, K; Logan, M; McNulty, C; Harrison, S; George, R; Efstratiou, A; McEvoy, M; Begg, N (1995). "A cluster of cases of streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in Gloucestershire". Epidemiology and Infection. 115 (3): 387–97. doi:10.1017/s0950268800058544. PMC 2271581Freely accessible. PMID 8557070. 
  20. ^ Dixon, Bernhard (11 March 1996). "Microbe of the Month: What became of the flesh-eating bug?". Independent. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  21. ^ "Moorad's life changed by rare disease Archived 2009-09-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Cornell Discusses His Recovery from Necrotizing Fasciitis with Reporters Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "In Memoriam – Alexandru A. Marin (1945–2005) Archived 2007-05-06 at the Wayback Machine.", ATLAS eNews, December 2005 (accessed 5 November 2007).
  24. ^ "Opinion – The Times". Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  25. ^ R. W. Johnson "Diary", London Review of Books Archived 2009-08-03 at the Wayback Machine., 6 August 2009, p41
  26. ^ "Slayer Guitarist Jeff Hanneman: Official Cause Of Death Revealed – May 9, 2013". Roadrunner Records. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  27. ^ "The Plastinated Man". Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  28. ^ "Pain of Salvation To Release 'In The Passing Light Of Day' Album In January". InsideOut Music. Archived from the original on 2017-01-12. Retrieved 10 Jan 2017. 
  29. ^ "Pain of Salvation Frontman Daniel Gildenlöw On Recovering From Flesh-Eating Infection". InsideOut Music. Archived from the original on 2017-01-11. Retrieved 10 Jan 2017. 
  30. ^ News in Estonian about Edgar Savisaars leg amputation. Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine.

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