Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts
|• Total||12.7 sq mi (32.9 km2)|
|• Land||12.6 sq mi (32.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|Elevation||162 ft (49 m)|
|• Density||2,292.5/sq mi (883.4/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (Eastern)|
02492 / 02494
|GNIS feature ID||0618325|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Media
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References
- 11 Works cited
- 12 External links
Needham was first settled in 1680 with the purchase of a tract of land measuring 4 miles (6.4 km) by 5 miles (8.0 km) from Chief Nehoiden for the sum of 10 pounds, 40 acres (160,000 m2) of land, and 40 shillings worth of corn. It was officially incorporated in 1711. Originally part of the Dedham Grant, Needham split from Dedham and was named after the town of Needham Market in Suffolk, England.
In 1710, 40 residents of what was then known as the "North part of" Dedham suddenly petitioned the Great and General Court for permission to break away and form a separate community. They cited the usual concerns about being far from the church and distant from town government, but also, to preempt any objections, also listed "reasons why we desire to be a township rather than a precinct." Dedham officials asked for a delay of one year. In 1711, when the General Court took up the matter, they agreed to let that part of town break away but asked for a different boundary line that would have greatly reduced the amount of land the separatists were seeking. The General Court rejected this and granted autonomy with the border originally proposed.
By the 1770s settlers in the western part of the town who had to travel a long distance to the meeting house on what is now Central Avenue sought to form a second parish in the town. Opposition to this desire created conflict, and in 1774 a mysterious fire destroyed the extant meeting house. Some time afterwards the West Parish was formed.
Growth and industry
In 1857 the City of Boston began a project to fill in the Back Bay with landfill by filling the tidewater flats of the Charles River. The fill to reclaim the bay from the water was obtained from Needham, Massachusetts from the area of present-day Route 128. The firm of Goss and Munson, railroad contractors, built 6 miles (9.7 km) of railroad from Needham and their 35-car trains made 16 trips a day to Back Bay. The filling of present-day Back Bay was completed by 1882; filling reached Kenmore Square in 1890, and finished in the Fens in 1900. The project was the largest of a number of land reclamation projects, beginning in 1820, which, over the course of time, more than doubled the size of the original Boston peninsula.
In 1865, William Carter established a knitting mill company in Needham Heights that would eventually become a major manufacturer and leading brand of children's apparel in the United States. The site of Mill #1 currently houses the Avery Manor assisted living center, while Mill #2 stood along the shores of Rosemary Lake. By the 1960s, the company owned seven mills in Massachusetts and the south. The Carter family sold the business in 1990, after which Carter's, Inc. moved its headquarters to Atlanta, Georgia.
In the late 1860s William Emerson Baker moved to Needham. A notably wealthy man due to his having improved the mechanical sewing machine, Baker assembled a parcel of land exceeding 800 acres (3.2 km2) and named it Ridge Hill Farm. He built two man made lakes on his property, including Sabrina lake near present-day Locust Lane. Baker turned part of his property into an amusement park with exotic animals, subterranean tunnels, trick floors and mirrors. In 1888 he built a sizable hotel, near the intersection of present-day Whitman Road and Charles River Street, called the Hotel Wellesley which had a capacity of over 300 guests. The hotel burned to the ground on December 19, 1891.
In 1891, George Walker, Boston owner of a lithograph company, and Gustavos Gordon, scientist, formed Walker-Gordon Laboratories to develop processes for the prevention of contamination of milk and to answer the call by enlightened physicians for better babies' milk formulas. This plant was located in the Charles River Village section of Needham with another large facility in New Jersey. The scientific dairy production facilities of the Walker-Gordon Dairy Farm were widely advertised and utilized modern advancements in the handling of milk products.
Incorporation of Wellesley
In 1881 the West Parish was separately incorporated as the town of Wellesley. The following year, Needham and Wellesley high schools began playing an annual football game on Thanksgiving, now the second-longest running high school football rivalry in the United States (and longest such contest on Thanksgiving). Also the longest running public high school rivalry. In 2013 Wellesley broke a 3-year Thanksgiving game losing streak to the Needham Rockets, defeating them 22-6. The Wellesley Raiders now hold a 60-57-9 advantage in the historic rivalry.
With the loss of the West Parish to Wellesley, the town lost its town hall and plans to build a new one began in 1902 with the selection of a building committee. The cornerstone was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons on September 2, 1902 and the building was dedicated on December 22, 1903. The total cost for the hall was $57,500 including furnishings. Because it was located on the town common, the cost did not include land as none was purchased. In 2011, the town hall was extensively refurbished and expanded. In the process, the second-floor meeting hall was restored to its original function and beauty.
Needham's population grew by over 50 percent during the 1930s.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 12.7 square miles (32.9 km²), of which 12.6 square miles (32.7 km²) is land and 0.1 square mile (0.2 km²) is water.
Needham's area is roughly in the shape of an acute, northward-pointing triangle. The Charles River forms nearly all of the southern and northeastern boundaries, the town line with Wellesley forming the third, northwestern one. In addition to Wellesley on the northwest, Needham borders Newton and the West Roxbury section of Boston on the northeast, and Dover, Westwood, and Dedham on the south. The majority of Cutler Park is in Needham and is located along the Charles River and the border with Newton and West Roxbury. Needham is elevated at sea level, but is a very hilly town.
|* = population estimate. |
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.
As of the census of 2010, there were 28,886 people, 10,341 households, and 7,792 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,292.7 people per square mile (885.2/km²). There were 10,846 housing units at an average density of 860.1 per square mile (332.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.3% White, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 7.1% Asian, 0.6% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population.
There were 10,341 households out of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.9% were married couples living together, 6.9% have a female householder with no husband present and 26.7% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the town, the population was laid out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $116,867, and the median income for a family was $144,042. Males had a median income of $76,459 versus $47,092 for females. The per capita income for the town was $56,776. About 1.6% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over.
Needham uses the old style town government, with a representative town meeting. Also, the populace of Needham elects a Board of Selectmen, which is essentially the executive branch of the town government.
The northern side of town beyond the I-95/Route 128 beltway, however, was developed for light industry shortly after World War II. Many companies food and restaurant companies call Needham home  Trader Joe's also operates a packing plant in Needham. More recently, Needham has begun to attract high technology and Internet firms, such as PTC and TripAdvisor, to this part of town.
The Town of Needham operates one high school, Needham High School, which underwent a $62-million renovation that was completed in 2009; two middle schools: William F. Pollard Middle School, for seventh and eighth grade, and High Rock School, for sixth grade only; and five elementary schools for grades K-5: John Eliot Elementary School, Hillside Elementary School, William Mitchell Elementary School, Newman Elementary School, and Broadmeadow Elementary School. Needham is currently in the process of building a new elementary school, Sunita L. Williams Elementary School, to replace the aging Hillside Elementary School, scheduled to open in the fall of 2019 or 2020. Needham is also home to Catholic schools such as St. Joseph's Elementary School, and Monsignor Haddad Middle School. Needham is also home to St. Sebastian's School, a Catholic school for boys in grades 7-12. St. Sebastian's is part of the rigorous Independent School League.
Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering is located in Needham.
Needham is part of the Greater Boston media market.
In addition to the Boston Globe (and its Your Town Needham website) and Boston Herald newspapers, there are two local weekly newspapers, the Needham Times (published by Gatehouse Media, Inc.) and Needham Hometown Weekly (published by Hometown Publications, LLC), and a website owned by AOL called Needham Patch.
The studios of television stations WCVB (5 Boston, ABC) and WUNI (27 Worcester, Univision) are located in Needham, as are the transmitters of WCVB, WBZ-TV (4 Boston, CBS), WGBH-TV (2 Boston, PBS), WGBX-TV (44 Boston, PBS), WBTS-LD/WYCN-CD (8/15 Boston/Nashua, New Hampshire, NBC) WFXT (25 Boston, Fox), WSBK (38 Boston, independent), CW), and WYDN (48 Worcester, Daystar Television). The television towers are also the sites of FM radio stations WBUR-FM, WKLB-FM, and several backup facilities for other stations.
The Needham Channel provides Public-access television to cable TV subscribers in Needham. PEG Public, educational, and government access programming is produced and delivered through three channels - a community channel, a municipal channel and an educational channel. The three channels are available on the channel lineups of each of the three franchised cable TV providers provided - Comcast, RCN, and Verizon. Selected content is also available for streaming through The Needham Channel's web site.
Programming on The Needham Channel includes:
- Municipal meetings - Board of Selectmen, School Committee, Zoning Board of Appeals, Town Meeting
- News, Public Affairs and Education - The Needham Channel News (a weekly live local news program), Needham Schools Spotlight
- Sports - High School sporting events
- Locally produced programs - Inside Talk, Clelia's Cucina Italiana, The Language of Business, What's My House Worth, services from Needham houses of worship
- Programs from other Public Access Stations
- Community Bulletin Board
- Men of Constant Sorrow
Boston radio station WEEI (850 AM) transmits from a three-tower site south of the town recycling transfer station. Needham has one radio station studio location, that of Concord-licensed 1120 WBNW located at 144 Gould Street.
- Ananda Coomaraswamy, art historian, philosopher, and Indologist, died in Needham.
- Nelson Goodman, philosopher, died in Needham.
- Thomas Huckle Weller, a Nobel Prize-winning virologist, died in Needham.
- Edwin McDonough, actor, resided in Needham.
- Harold Russell, actor, lived in Needham.
- Sarah Saltzberg, actress/singer and star of Broadway's The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, is originally from Needham.
- Tom Virtue, actor, attended High Rock Elementary School in Needham.
- Arnold Stang, actor, lived in Needham at time of his death.
- Liz Boston, artist, raised in Needham, and attended Needham Public Schools.
- Edmund H. Garrett, prolific 19th- and 20th-century book illustrator, lived in Needham.
- Pietro Pezzati, portrait artist, lived in Needham for about 30 years.
- Michael John Straub, artist, was born in Needham.
- Walter E. Ware, architect, was born in Needham.
- N.C. Wyeth, artist, was born in Needham.
- Niia Bertino, Columbia recording artist featured on Wyclef Jean's "Sweetest Girl" single, grew up in Needham.
- Robert Freeman, pianist, musicologist, and longtime director of the Eastman School of Music, lived in Needham.
- Joey McIntyre, singer-songwriter and actor, was born in Needham.
- Marissa Nadler, singer, grew up in Needham.
- John Boecklin, drummer/guitarist/songwriter for the metal band Devildriver, grew up in Needham.
- Nick Avila, bassist/frontman of the metal band Powerglove, grew up in Needham.
- Mia Matsumiya, violinist of the avant-rock band Kayo Dot, grew up in Needham.
- Richard Patrick, founder of industrial band Filter and former member of Nine Inch Nails, was born in Needham.
- Tiger Okoshi, jazz trumpet musician, lives in Needham.
- Charlie Baker, governor of Massachusetts, was raised on Cleveland Road in Needham and graduated from Needham High School in 1975.
- Peter DeFazio, a United States congressman from Oregon, was born in Needham and graduated from Needham High School. Also has a park named after DeFazio.
- Cheryl Jacques, first openly lesbian member of the Massachusetts Senate and later president of the Human Rights Campaign, lived in Needham and represented its district as state senator.
- Phil Murphy, governor of New Jersey, was born in Needham and graduated from Needham High School in 1975.
- Edward T. Barry, ice hockey player and coach, lived in Needham until his death.
- Dave Cadigan, offensive lineman in the NFL, was born in Needham.
- Mike Grier, retired player of the NHL, resides in Needham.
- Mike Condon, goaltender in the NHL, was born in Needham.
- Robbie Ftorek, NHL coach and star player in both the NHL an WHA, was born and raised in Needham and attended Needham High School.
- Steven Hauschka, Buffalo Bills kicker, attended Needham High School.
- Eric Johnson, New Orleans Saints tight end, was born and raised in Needham and played football, basketball, and volleyball for Needham High School.
- Mike Lalor, former defenseman and Stanley Cup winner with the Montreal Canadiens, lives in Needham.
- Kristine Lilly, former US women's soccer player, lives in Needham.
- Frank Malzone, former third baseman for the Boston Red Sox, lived in Needham until his death.
- Rachel Mayer, US Olympic figure skater, lived in Needham.
- Mike Milbury, sportscaster and former member of the Boston Bruins, lives in Needham.
- Tom O'Regan, former forward for the Boston University Terriers and the Pittsburgh Penguins, lives in Needham.
- Aly Raisman, US women's artistic gymnast and six-time Olympic medalist, grew up in Needham.
- Karl Ravech, ESPN Baseball Tonight anchor, was born and raised in Needham and attended Needham High School.
- Derek Sanderson, former Boston Bruins player, lives in Needham.
- Noah Hanifin, defenseman with the Calgary Flames and NHL All Star, went to high school at Saint Sebastian's School in Needham.
- Milt Schmidt, ice hockey player and manager for the Boston Bruins, lived in Needham until his death.
- Marsha Bemko, executive producer of "Antiques Roadshow," is a lifelong resident of Needham.
- Lee Eisenberg, writer for The Office, was born in Needham.
- Steve Hely, writer of American Dad!, is a native of Needham.
- Ben Karlin, executive producer of The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report, grew up in Needham.
- Scott Rosenberg, screenwriter, was born and raised in Needham.
- John Slattery, actor on Mad Men, went to high school at Saint Sebastian's School in Needham.
- Janet Tashjian, the author of The Gospel According to Larry and the My Life as a Book series, lived with her family in Needham.
- Khassan Baiev, a Chechen surgeon who treated Russian soldiers and Chechen rebels, most notably Shamil Basayev and Salman Raduyev, author of The Oath: A Surgeon Under Fire, lives in Needham.
- Greg Carter, a theatre director and manager in Seattle, grew up in Needham and graduated from Needham High School.
- James S. Gracey, Commandant of the Coast Guard, lived and attended high school in Needham.
- Jen Kirkman, stand-up comedian, television writer, and actress, grew up in Needham.
- Sunita Williams, NASA astronaut, considers Needham her home. The Sunita L. Williams Elementary School is named for her.
- Chester Nimitz, Jr., a retired United States Navy rear admiral and World War II submarine hero, lived in Needham.
- Fatemeh Haghighatjoo, a reformist member of the Iranian Parliament who teaches women's studies at UMass Boston, lives in Needham.
- William G. Young a United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts judge, lives in Needham.
- Lockridge 1985, p. 106.
- Lockridge 1985, p. 107.
- Antony, Mark; Howe, DeWolfe (1903). Boston: The Place and the People. New York: MacMillan. p. 359.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Little remains of 19th-century eccentric's wondrous estate in Needham – The Boston Globe". Boston.com. April 8, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Clarke, George Kuhn (1912). History of Needham, Massachusetts, 1711–1911. Cambridge, Massachusetts: University Press. pp. 138–139.
- Needham Historical Society, Images of America: Needham, Dover, NH, Arcadia Publishing, pp. 15–17.
- The oldest rivalry is that of New London, Connecticut vs. Norwich Free Academy, dating to 1875. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Clarke p. 192
- Schaeffer, K. H. and Elliott Sclar. Access for All: Transportation and Urban Growth. Columbia University Press, 1980. Accessed on Google Books. 86. Retrieved on January 16, 2010. ISBN 0-231-05165-4, ISBN 978-0-231-05165-1.
- Quinn, Colleen (December 26, 2013). "Nearly a dozen Massachusetts towns raise age for cigarette sales". Boston.com. The Boston Globe. State House News Service. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Needham celebrates high school dedication". The Boston Globe. June 1, 2009.
- Needham Public Schools
- "Edwin McDonough, 72, of Needham, Army vet". Boston Herald. February 12, 2016. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Weber, Bruce (December 22, 2009). "Arnold Stang, Milquetoast Actor, Dies at 91". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Accent on Humor", Boston Globe, November 13, 2010.
- Lockridge, Kenneth (1985). A New England Town. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-95459-3.
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