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Nehruism is the name given to the political ideology of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. It was a liberal and idealistic type of fabianist socialism. It basically ended as a de facto political system after Nehru's death, since even his descendants in politics did not follow this model. The authoritarian (Indira Gandhi) or liberal (Rajiv Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi) had various deviations from Nehru's ideology.

Nehruism is constantly under criticism from proponents of the rightist and conservative Hindutva ideology largely professed by Hindu nationalists in India. Commonly criticised are Nehruvian idea of secularism, which is often termed as "pseudo-secularism" by critics, and Nehru's support and use of Soviet ideas of central planning.[citation needed]