List of minor Old Testament figures, L–Z
This list contains persons named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.
Lahmi, according to 1 Chronicles 20:5, was the brother of Goliath, killed by David's warrior Elhanan. See also Elhanan son of Jair.
This entry is about the individual named Laish. For the city Dan, known also as Laish, see Dan (ancient city).
Laish is a name which appears in 1 Samuel 25:44 and 2 Samuel 3:15, where it is the name of the father of Palti, or Paltiel, the man who was married to Saul's daughter Michal before she was returned to David.
Letushim appears as a son of Dedan according to Genesis 25:3.
Lo-Ammi (Hebrew for "not my people") was the youngest son of Hosea and Gomer. He had an older brother named Jezreel and an older sister named Lo-Ruhamah. God commanded Hosea to name him "Lo-Ammi" to symbolize his anger with the people of Israel (see Hosea 1:1–9).
Lo-Ruhamah (Hebrew for "not loved") was the daughter of Hosea and Gomer. She had an older brother named Jezreel and a younger brother named Lo-Ammi. Her name was chosen by God to symbolize his displeasure with the people of Israel (see Hosea 1:1–9).
Maadai son of Bani is found in Ezra 10:34, in a list of men recorded as having married foreign women.
Maadiah appears in a list of priests and Levites said to have accompanied Zerubbabel in Nehemiah 12:5.
Maai (Hebrew: מָעַי) was a musician who was a relative of Zechariah, a descendant of Asaph. He is mentioned once, as part of the ceremony for the dedication of the rebuilt Jerusalem wall (Nehemiah 12:36), where he was part of the group that processed southwards behind Ezra. His name is omitted in the Septuagint translation of the passage, as are the names of five other relatives of Zechariah mentioned in the same verse. The name is otherwise unattested. Blenkinsopp suggests that Maai is a diminutive nickname. Mandel proposes its Hebrew origin means "sympathetic."
Maaseiah (Hebrew מַעֲשֵׂיָה or מַעֲשֵׂיָהוּ maaseyah(u) "Work of God") is the name of several men in the Hebrew Bible:
- One of the Levites whom David appointed as porter for the ark 1 Chronicles 15:18, 1 Chronicles 15:20
- One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne 2 Chronicles 23:1
- The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel 2 Chronicles 28:7
- One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple 2 Chr. 34:8. He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of Jerusalem.
- The father of the priest Zephaniah Jer. 21:1,Jer. 37:3
- The father of the false prophet Zedekiah Jer. 29:21
- a priest, the father of Neriah Jer. 32:12, Jer. 51:59
- The son of Shallum, "the keeper of the threshold" (Jeremiah 35:4) "may be the father of the priest Zephaniah mentioned in [Jeremiah] 21:1; 29:25; 37:3." 
- Head of the twenty-fourth priestly course in David's reign. 1 Chronicles 24:18
- Also, A priest Neh. 10:8
Machbena or Machbenah, according to the only mention of him, in 1 Chronicles 2:49, was the son of Sheva the son of Caleb.
Magpiash, according to Nehemiah 10:20, was one of the men who signed a covenant between God and the people of Yehud Medinata.
- Mahalath, one of the wives of Esau, and a daughter of Ishmael (Genesis 28:6–9). Thought to be the same as Basemath of Genesis 36.
- Mahalath, a daughter of Jerimoth and Abihail; the wife of king Rehoboam. (2 Chronicles 11:18)
Hebrew for "Grasping"
- A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah 1 Chronicles 6:35
- Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah 2 Chronicles 29:12
Maher-shalal-hash-baz ("Hurry to spoil!" or "He has made haste to the plunder!") was the second mentioned son of the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 8.1–4). The name is a reference to the impending plunder of Samaria and Damascus by the king of Assyria. The name is the longest personal name in the bible.
Mahlah is the name of two biblical persons:
- One of the daughters of Zelophehad, who with her four sisters brought a claim regarding inheritance before Moses. (Numbers 26:33, 27:1–11, 36; Jo. 17:3–6)
- A child of Gilead's sister Hammolecheth and great-granddaughter of Manasseh. She had two siblings, Ishhod and Abiezer. (1 Chr. 7:18–6)
For the deity sometimes called Malcam, Malcham, or Milcom, see Moloch.
Malchiel (Hebrew מַלְכִּיאֵל "my king is God") was a son of Beriah the son of Asher, according to Genesis 46:17 and Numbers 26:45. He was one of the 70 persons to migrate to Egypt with Jacob. According to 1 Chronicles 7:31, he was the ancestor of the Malchielites, a group within the Tribe of Asher.
Malchiah (Hebrew: מלכיהו malkiyahu "God is my king") son of the king (Jeremiah 38:6), owner of the pit into which Jeremiah was thrown
- A Levite of the family of Merari 1 Chronicles 6:44
- A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. NIV),(Ezra 10:29),(Ezra 10:32)
According to 1 Chronicles 2:45, Maon was a member of the clan of Caleb, the son of Shammai and the father of Beth Zur.
Marsena is listed by Esther 1:14 as one of seven Persian officials working for king Ahasuerus.
Matred, according to Genesis 36:39 and 1 Chronicles 1:50, was the mother-in-law of the Edomite king Hadad II.
Matri, of the Tribe of Benjamin, was an ancestor of Saul according to I Samuel 10:21. Matri's clan, or the family of the Matrites, was chosen, and, from them, Saul the son of Kish was chosen to be king. The family of the Matrites is nowhere else mentioned in the Hebrew Bible; the conjecture, therefore, is that Matri is probably a corruption of Bikri, i.e. a descendant of Becher (Genesis 46:21).
Mattan (Mathan in the Douai-Rheims translation) was a priest of the temple of Baal in Jerusalem who was killed during the uprising against Athaliah when King Azariah's remaining son, Jehoash, was appointed king of Judah (2 Kings 11:18).
Mehir son of Chelub appears in a genealogy of the Tribe of Judah in 1 Chronicles 4:11.
In Genesis 4:18, Mehujael (Hebrew: מְחוּיָאֵל – Məḥūyāʾēl or מְחִיּיָאֵל; Greek: Μαιηλ – Maiēl) is a descendant of Cain, the son of Irad and the father of Methushael. The name means "El (or) the god enlivens." 
Melatiah the Gibeonite is a person who, according to Nehemiah 3:7, was responsible for rebuilding a portion of the wall of Jerusalem after the end of the Babylonian captivity.
Merab was the eldest of Saul's two daughters (1 Samuel 14:49). She was offered in marriage to David after his victory over Goliath, but does not seem to have entered heartily into this arrangement (1 Samuel 18:17–19). She was at length, however, married to Adriel of Abel-Meholah, a town in the Jordan valley, about 10 miles south of Bethshean (Beit She'an), with whom the house of Saul maintained an alliance. She had five sons, who were all put to death by the Gibeonites on the hill of Gibeah (2 Samuel 21:8). Merab is also a common feminine name in Israel.
A chief priest, a contemporary of the high priest Joiakim (Neh 12:12).
- Father of Amariah, a priest of the line of Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:6–7), (1 Chronicles 6:52). It is uncertain if he ever was the high priest.
- A priest who went to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:15). He is called Meremoth in Neh 12:3.
A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:3), to whom were sent the sacred vessels (Ezra 8:33) belonging to the temple. He took part in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 3:4).
Meres is listed in Esther 1:14 as one of seven officials in the service of Ahasuerus.
- The father of Berechiah, a member of the Tribe of Ephraim during the time when Pekah was king.
- A priest, the son of Immer. He is called "Meshillemoth" in 1 Chronicles 9:12.
Meshullam was the name of eleven biblical individuals. (See Meshullam.)
- One of Ishmael's twelve sons, and head of an Arab tribe (Gen 25:13).
- A son of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:25).
Michael (is the masculine given name that comes from Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל / מיכאל (Mīkhāʼēl, pronounced [miχaˈʔel]), derived from the question מי כאל mī kāʼēl, meaning "Who is like God?") of the house of Asher was the father of Sethur, a scout sent to Canaan prior to the crossing of the Jordan River according to Numbers 13:13.
Michaiah (Hebrew: מיכיה Mikayah "Who is like Yah?") is the name of at least two biblical figures:
- Michaiah (or Micaiah), son of Imri (q.v.)
- Michaiah, the son of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan (Jeremiah 36:11), who heard Baruch's reading of the oracles of YHVH to Jeremiah, and reported to king Johoiakim
Mijamin (also spelled Miamin, Miniamin, Minjamin) ("from the right hand") is the name of three persons mentioned in the Bible:
- The head of the sixth of twenty four priestly divisions set up by King David. (1 Chronicles 24:9)
- A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh 12:5), who signed the renewed covenant with God. (Neh 10:8) In the time of Joiakim his family had joined with that of Moadiah, and was led by Piltai. He was also called Miniamin. (Neh 12:17)
- A non-priestly Mijamin son of Parosh is mentioned in Ezra 10:25 as one of those who divorced a gentile wife, and sacrificed a ram in atonement.
- An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:4).
- A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:32),(1 Chronicles 9:37), (1 Chronicles 9:38).
Hebrew (מִישָׁאֵל ‘Who is like Yahweh’) This was the name of two biblical men.
Mishael was a son of Uzziel of the house of Levi according to Exodus 6:22, born in Egypt. He was a nephew of Amram and a cousin of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses. He and Elzaphan were asked by Moses to carry away Nadab’s and Abihu’s bodies to a place outside the camp. (Leviticus 10:4)
Mishael was one of the three Hebrew youths who were trained with Daniel in Babylon (Dan. 1:11, 19). He and his companions were cast into and miraculously delivered from the fiery furnace for refusing to worship the king's idol (3:13–30). Mishael's Babylonian name was Meshach.
Misma, son of Simeon
- One of the sons of Caleb (1 Chronicles 2:46).
- The son of Zimri, of the posterity of Saul (1 Chronicles 8:36–37),(1 Chronicles 9:42–43).
Muppim (Hebrew מֻפִּים) or Shuphim was the eighth son of Benjamin in Genesis 46:21 and Numbers 26:39.
Naboth was a minor figure known for owning a vineyard that king Ahab wished to have for himself. When Naboth was unwilling to give up the vineyard, Ahab's wife Jezebel instigated a plot to have Naboth killed. See 1 Kings 21.
- Nahath, son of Reuel, son of Esau appears in a genealogy of the Edomites, found in Genesis 36:13 and repeated in 1 Chronicles 1:37. According to the Encyclopaedia Biblica', this Nahath is probably the same figure as the Naham of 1 Chronicles 4:19 and the Naam of 1 Chronicles 4:15.
- A Nahath appears in the ancestry of Samuel according to 1 Chronicles 6:26 (verse 11 in some Bibles).
- A Nahath appears in a list of Levite supervisors in the time of Hezekiah, in 2 Chronicles 31:13
Narcissus is mentioned briefly in Romans 16:11, which sends greetings to "Those of the household of Narcissus who are in the Lord." Beyond this brief reference, nothing more is known for certain of the person referred to.
"Neariah" is the name of two biblical individuals. Neariah the son of Shemaiah, was a descendant of David, and father of Elionenai (1 Chronicles 3:22). The other Neariah was, according to Chronicles, a leader in the Tribe of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:42).
Nebuzaradan (the biblical form of his name, derived from the Babylonian form Nabu-zar-iddin, meaning "Nabu has given a seed") was the captain of Nebuchadnezzar's bodyguard, according to the Bible. He is mentioned in 2 Kings 25:8, 11, 20; Jeremiah 52:30; Jeremiah 39:11, 40:2, 5.
Nedabiah, according to 1 Chronicles 3:18, was one of the sons of king Jeconiah.
Nekoda was the ancestor of 652 Jews who returned from Babylonia with Ezra, but were declared ineligible to serve as Kohanim (priests) because they could not prove that their ancestors had been Kohanim. This is recounted in Ezra 2:48,60 and in Nehemiah 7:50, 62, where the number of men is given as 642.
Nemuel was the name of two individuals mentioned in the Bible:
Nepheg was the name of two men mentioned in the Bible:
- A son of Izhar of the house of Levi according to Exodus 6:21, born in Egypt. He was a nephew of Amram and a cousin of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses.
- A son of David according to 2 Samuel 5:15.
Nogah, a son of David, appears in two lists of David's sons: 1 Chronicles 3:7 and 1 Chronicles 14:6.
"Obadiah" was a descendant of David, father of Sheconiah, and son of Arnan
Obil was an Ishmaelite, a keeper of camels in the time of David, according to 1 Chronicles 27:30.
On, the son of Peleth, of the Tribe of Reuben, was a participant in Korah's rebellion against Moses according to Numbers 16:1. On is referred to as "Hon" in the Douai Bible translation. He is mentioned alongside Korah, Dathan and Abiram as the instigators of the rebellion, but not referred to later when Korah, Dathan and Abiram were challenged and punished for their rebellion.
Ozem is a Hebrew name which applies to two people in the Bible.
- A brother of David, and the sixth son of Jesse (1 Chronicles 2:15).
- A son of Jerahmeel (1 Chronicles 2:25).
See Ezbon above.
This is about the Palti mentioned in Numbers. For the other biblical Palti, see Palti, son of Laish.
This is about the Paltiel in the Book of Numbers. For the other Paltiel, see Palti, son of Laish.
Paruah is the name of a figure indirectly mentioned once in the Bible, in 1 Kings 4:17. In a passage which gives names of governors working under Solomon, a "Jehoshaphat son of Peruah" is credited with governing the territory of the Tribe of Issachar.
Paseah is the name of two figures in the Hebrew Bible. In a genealogy of Judah, a Paseah appears (1 Chronicles 4:12) as the son of Eshton, the son of Mehir, the son of Chelub. Another Paseah is mentioned indirectly (Nehemiah 3:6) by way of his son Jehoiada, a repairer of a section of the wall of Jerusalem.
Pelaiah is the name of two biblical figures. In 1 Chronicles 3:23, a Pelaiah appears in a genealogy. He is listed as one of the sons of Elioenai, the son of Neariah, the son of Shemaiah, the son of Shechaniah. The other Pelaiah appears in Nehemiah (8:7; 10:10) as a Levite who helped to explain biblical law to the inhabitants of Yehud Medinata and signed a document against intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews.
Pelaliah (Hebrew Pĕlalyāh) is a figure mentioned only indirectly and in passing in Nehemiah 11:12, which lists a descendant of his as a priestly leader in Jerusalem. The descendant is specified as "Adaiah son of Jeroham son of Pelaliah son of Amzi son of Zechariah son of Pashhur son of Malchiah."
Pelatiah (Hebrew: פלטיהו Pelatyahu Ezekiel 11:1) son of Benaiah, a prince of the people, among the 25 Ezekiel saw at the East Gate; he fell dead upon hearing the prophecy regarding Jerusalem.
According to 1 Chronicles 7:16, Peresh was the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh.
Pethahiah is the name of two individuals named in the Bible.
- A levite, mentioned in Nehemiah 10:23 and Nehemiah 9:5.
- Pethahiah ben Meshezabel, who was one of the "sons of Zerah" of the Tribe of Judah.
In addition to these individuals, Pethahiah was the eponym of one of the biblical priestly divisions.
Peulthai, according to 1 Chronicles 26:5, was the eighth of Obed-edom's eight sons. The passage in which they are listed records gatekeepers of the temple at Jerusalem.
For the individual called "Phalti" in the King James Bible, see Palti, son of Laish.
For the individual called "Paltiel" in the King James Bible, see Palti, son of Laish.
Pinon is listed as one of the "chiefs" of Edom, in Genesis 36:41, and, in a copy of the same list, in 1 Chronicles 1:52.
Piram, according to Judges 10:3, was the king of Jarmuth.
Poratha, according to Esther 9:8, was one of the ten sons of Haman, the antagonist of the Book of Esther who attempted to wipe out the Jewish people.
Pul was an abbreviation for the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III. Pul attacked Israel in the reign of Menahem and extracted tribute. II Kings 15:19
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Rabmag (Hebrew רַב־מָג) is the name of two figures in the Bible:
- The Assyrian "Rab-mugi" — a "chief physician" who was attached to the king of Babylon (Jeremiah 39:3,13).
- The title of one of Sennacherib's officers sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem demanding the surrender of the city. He was accompanied by a "great army;" but his mission was unsuccessful (II Kings 18:17–19:13 and Isaiah 36:12–37:13).
Raddai, according to 1 Chronicles 2:14, was one of the brother of King David.
Ramiah, according to Ezra 10:25, was an Israelite layperson, a member of the group named "sons of Parosh", who was guilty of marrying a foreign woman.
Rapha, according to the Septuagint version of 2 Samuel 21:16, was the parent of Jesbi, the name in that version for the giant referred to in the Massoretic text as Ishbi-benob. In the Latin Vulgate he is referred to as Arapha or Arafa.
Regem is named in 1 Chronicles 2:47 as one of the sons of Jahdai, a figure who appears in a genealogy associated with Caleb.
A figure called Regem-melech, along with a "Sharezer", came, according to some interpretations of Zechariah 7:2, to Bethel to ask a question about fasts. It is unclear whether the name is intended as a title or as a proper name. The grammar of the verse is difficult and several interpretations have been proposed.
Rehabiah is a figure mentioned three times in the Hebrew Bible, as the ancestor of a group of Levites. He is identified as the son of Eliezer the son of Moses (1 Chronicles 23:17; 26:25). Chronicles identifies his as the father of a person named Isshiah (Hebrew Yiššiyāh, 1 Chronicles 24:21) or Jeshaiah (Hebrew Yĕshaʿyāhû, 1 Chronicles 26:25).
Rehum is the name of four or five biblical figures.
- A Rehum is mentioned in Ezra 2:2, who is called Nehum in Nehemiah 7:7. He appears in passing, in two copies of a list of people said to have come from Persia to Yehud Medinata under the leadership of Nehemiah. He may be the same individual mentioned in Nehemiah 12:3.
- A Rehum is mentioned in Nehemiah 12:3, where he is listed as part of a group of priests associated with Zerubbabel.
- Rehum son of Bani, a Levite, appears in a list of people who contributed to building Nehemiah's wall in Nehemiah 3:17.
- Rehum, a member of a group of priests associated with Zerubbabel according to Nehemiah 12:3.
- Rehum was an official, according to Ezra 4:8–23, who along with collaborators opposed the Jewish attempt to rebuild Jerusalem.
Rephaiah (Hebrew רְפָיָה "the Lord has healed"), a descendant of David was the father of Arnan and the son of Jeshaiah.
This is about individuals in the Bible named Rekem. For the city by that name, see List of minor biblical places § Rekem.
Rekem is a personal name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, for more than one individual.
- Rekem was one of five Midianite kings killed during the time of Moses by an Israelite expedition led by Phinehas, son of Eleazar according to Numbers 31:8 and Joshua 13:21.
- According to 1 Chronicles 2:43–44, Hebron, a figure associated with the biblical Caleb, was the father of a person named Rekem.
- According to 1 Chronicles 7:16, Machir the son of Manasseh was the ancestor of a figure named Rekem. In this last passage, the King James Version spells the name as Rakem.
In 1 Chronicles 26:7–8, Rephael (Hebrew: רְפָאֵל, Modern: Refaʾel, Tiberian: Rəp̄āʾēl, "healed of God") was one of Shemaiah's sons. He and his brethren, on account of their "strength for service," formed one of the divisions of the temple porters.
Reumah, according to Genesis 22:24, was the concubine of Abraham's brother Nahor, and the mother of his children Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maachah.
According to I Kings 11:23– Rezon (Hebrew: רזון Rezon) became regent in Damascus and was an adversary of Solomon.
Rinnah appears once in the Bible, as the son of a man named Shimon (1 Chronicles 4:20) in a genealogy of Tribe of Judah. Neither Shimon's origin nor precise relationship to Judah is given.
Rohgah or Rohagah is a name which appears in 1 Chronicles 7:34, where Rohgah is named as one of the sons of Shamer (the vocalization found in v. 34) or Shomer (the vocalization found in v. 32), who is identified as the son of Heber, the son of Beriah, the son of the tribal patriarch Asher.
Romamti-ezer is the name of a figure who appears twice in the Hebrew Bible, both times in 1 Chronicles 25. In verse 4 he is identified as one of the fourteen sons of Heman, one of three men who according to Chronicles were assigned to be in charge of musical worship in the Temple of Jerusalem. Later in the chapter, 288 assigned to the musical service are divided into twenty-four groups of twelve. The twenty-fourth group is assigned to Romamti-ezer (verse 31).
Hebrew: ראש rosh "Head"
A nation named Rosh is also possibly mentioned in Ezekiel 38:2–3, 39:1 "Son of man, set your face toward Gog, the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal; and prophesy concerning him." This translation "Rosh" is found in NASB but not in KJV and most modern versions. Also in a variant reading of Isaiah 66:19 (MT) and the Septuagint Jeremiah 32:23. Most scholars see this as a mistranslation of נְשִׂ֕יא רֹ֖אשׁ, nesi ro’š ("chief prince"), rather than a toponym.
Sachar (sometimes spelled Sacar or Sakar) was the name of two individuals mentioned in the Bible:
- One of David's heroes 1 Chronicles 11:35; also called Sharar 2 Samuel 23:33.
- A son of Obed-Edom the Gittite, and a temple porter 1 Chronicles 26:4.
Sachia (also Sakia) appears only in 1 Chronicles 8:10, where he is listed as one of the "sons" of Shaharaim. The King James Version spells the name Shachia.
Saph is a figure briefly mentioned in a section of 2 Samuel which discusses four yelide haraphah killed by Israelites. According to 2 Samuel 21:18, a war broke out between Israel and the Philistines. During the battle, Sibbecai the Hushathite, one of David's Mighty Warriors, killed Saph, who was one of the four. The expression yelide haraphah is rendered several different ways in translations of the Bible: "the descendants of Rapha" (NIV, NLT), "the descendants of the giants" (ESV, NLT), "the descendants of the giant" (NASB, Holman), and "the sons of the giant" (KJV, ASV). While most interpreters the phrase as a statement about the ancestry of the four people killed, describing them as descended from giants, another interpretation takes the phrase as meaning "votaries of Rapha," in reference to a deity by that name to which a group of warriors would have been associated.
Sarsekim or Sarsechim is a name or title, or a portion of a name or title, which appears in Jeremiah 39:3. Jeremiah describes Babylonian officials, some named and the rest unnamed, who according to the text sat down "in the middle gate" of Jerusalem during its destruction in 587 or 586 BCE. The portion which explicitly gives the names and/or titles of the officials reads, in Hebrew, nrgl śr ʾṣr smgr nbw śr skym rb srys nrgl śr ʾṣr rb-mg. Various interpretations have divided the names in various ways. The King James Version, sticking closely to the grammatical indicators added to the text by the Masoretes during the Middle Ages, reads this as indicating six figures: "Nergalsharezer, Samgarnebo, Sarsechim, Rabsaris, Nergalsharezer, Rabmag". The New International Version sees three characters "Nergal-Sharezer of Samgar, Nebo-Sarsekim a chief officer, Nergal-Sharezer a high official." Versions featuring these three figures, with variations in the exact details of translations, include NLT and ESV. Four figures appear in the New American Standard Bible, "Nergal-sar-ezer, Samgar-nebu, Sar-sekim the Rab-saris, Nergal-sar-ezer the Rab-mag."
Segub is the name of two biblical figures.
According to 1 Chronicles 2:1–30, in the genealogical section which begins the book of Chronicles, Seled, who died childless, was the brother of Appaim and son of Nadab, the son of Shammai, the son of Onam, the son of Jerahmeel, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, the eponymous founder of the Tribe of Judah.
Semachiah (or Semakiah) is the name of a figure who appears in 1 Chronicles 26:7, in a genealogical passage concerning gatekeepers of the Jerusalem Temple. Semachiah is described as a son of Shemaiah, a son of Obed-Edom.
Sered was a son of Zebulun according to Genesis 46:14 and Numbers 26:26. He was one of the 70 souls to migrate to Egypt with Jacob. According to the verse in Numbers, he was the eponymous forefather of the clan of Sardites.
Shaaph is a name which appears in the second chapter of 1 Chronicles. In one translation, these verses read as follows: "And the sons of Jahdai: Regem, and Jotham, and Geshan, and Pelet, and Ephah, and Shaaph. Maacah, Caleb's concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah. And [the wife of] Shaaph the father of Madmannah bore Sheva the father of Machbenah and the father of Gibea. And the daughter of Caleb was Achsah" (1 Chronicles 2:47–49).
The words [the wife of] do not occur in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, as Sara Japhet translates it, "And Shaaph the father of Madmannah bore Sheva . . ." but with a feminine form (watteled) of the verb "bore," rather than the expected masculine form wayyoled. Japhet outlines several possibilities as to how the text may originally have read.
Shaashgaz is a name which appears in the Hebrew Bible only in Esther 2:14, where it is given as the name of the eunuch who was in charge of the "second house of the women."
Shabbethai, a Levite who helped Ezra in the matter of the foreign marriages (Ezra 10:15), probably the one present at Ezra's reading of the law (Nehemiah 8:7), and possibly the Levite chief and overseer (Nehemiah 11:16). The name might mean "one born on Sabbath", but more probably is a modification of the ethnic Zephathi (Zephathite), from Zarephathi (Zarephathite). Meshullam and Jozabad, with which Shabbethai's name is combined, both originate in ethnic names. (Encyclopaedia Biblica)
Shagee (also spelled Shage or Shageh) is a figure who appears, indirectly, in one version of the list of David's Mighty Warriors.
In 1 Chronicles 11:34, a figure appears who is called "Jonathan the son of Shagee the Hararite." In 2 Samuel 23:32–33, the name "Jonathan" appears directly before the name "Shammah the Harodite," while in 2 Samuel 23:11 is found "Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite," who is the subject of a very brief story in which he fights with Philistines. The exact sort of copying error or deliberate abbreviation that may have led to this state of affairs is uncertain.
Shamhuth the Izrahite (Hebrew, Shamhut ha-Yizrah) is a figure mentioned in passing in 1 Chronicles 27:8. The 27th chapter of 1 Chronicles gives the names of people who, according to the Chronicler, were in charge of 24,000-man divisions of David's military, each of which was on active duty for a month. Shamhuth was the commander for the fifth month of each year.
This is about the individual named Shamir. For the biblical place-name Shamir, see List of minor biblical places § Shamir.
Shamir is the name of an individual who appears in a list of Levite names (1 Chronicles 24:24).
See Shammah for several figures by this name.
- Shammua, the son of Zaccur of the house of Reuben, was a scout sent to Canaan prior to the crossing of the Jordan River according to Numbers 13:4.
- A son of David, mentioned in 2 Samuel 5:14 and 1 Chronicles 14:4.
- A Levite in the time of Nehemiah (11:17).
- A Levite in the time of Nehemiah (12:18).
Shamsherai is mentioned once, in passing, in a long list of the "sons of Elpaal" within a genealogy of the Tribe of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:26).
A figure named Shapham is mentioned in passing once in the Hebrew Bible, in a list of Gadites (1 Chronicles 5:12).
Also the name of one of King David's sons by Bathsheba.
A Sharai is mentioned once in the Bible, in passing, in a list of the "sons of Bani" (Ezra 10:40).
A Sharar is mentioned indirectly in 2 Samuel 23:33, where "Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite" is listed as one of David's Mighty Warriors. In 1 Chronicles 11:35, the same figure is referred to as Sacar (sometimes spelled Sakar or Sachar).
A Shashai is listed in the Book of Ezra as a man who married a foreign wife (Ezra 10:40).
Sheariah, according to 1 Chronicles 8, was a descendant of King Saul, specifically one of the six sons of Azel (1 Chronicles 8:38), the son of Eleasah, the son of Raphah, the son of Binea, the son of Moza (v. 37), the son of Zimri, the son of Jehoaddah, the son of Ahaz (36), the son of Micah (35), the son of Merib-baal, the son of Jonathan (34), the son of Saul (33). He is also mentioned 1 Chronicles 9, which substantially repeats the same genealogy, except that chapter 9 reads Rephaiah instead of Raphah (v. 43) and Jadah instead of Jehoaddah (42).
Shearjashub was the first-mentioned son of Isaiah according to Isaiah 7:3. His name means "the remnant shall return" and was prophetic; offering hope to the people of Israel, that although they were going to be sent into exile, and their temple destroyed, God remained faithful and would deliver "a remnant" from Babylon and bring them back to their land.
Shechem was the name of two individuals mentioned in the Bible:
- A prince of Shechem who defiled Dinah according to Genesis 34
- A son of Manasseh according to Numbers 26:31, Joshua 17:2, and 1 Chronicles 7:19.
Shelemiah (Hebrew: שלמיהו) the son of Abdeel, along with two others, was commanded by king Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah the prophet Jeremiah (36:25).
Shelumiel (Hebrew: שלמיאל) was a son of Zurishaddai, a prince of the tribe of Simeon and one of the leaders of the tribes of Israel, according to Numbers 1:6. Yiddish schlemiel, a term for a "hapless loser", is said to be derived from the name.
Shelomith was a daughter of Dibri of the house of Dan, according to Leviticus 24:11. She was married to an Egyptian and her son (unnamed) was stoned to death by the people of Israel for blasphemy, following Moses' issue of a ruling on the penalty to be applied for blasphemy.
Shemariah is the name of four biblical figures.
In 1 Chronicles 12:5, Shemariah is a Benjamite, one of David's soldiers.
In 2 Chronicles 11:19, Shemariah is one of the sons of Rehoboam, spelled Shamariah in the King James Version.
In Ezra 10:32, Shemariah is one of the "sons of Harim," in a list of men who took foreign wives. Another Shemariah, one of the "descendants of Bani", appears in verse 41.
Shemed, spelled Shamed in the King James Version, is a figure briefly listed in 1 Chronicles 8:12 as one of the sons of Elpaal, the son of Shaharaim. He and his two brothers are referred to as "Eber, and Misham, and Shamed, who built Ono, and Lod, with the towns thereof" (1 Chronicles 8:12).
Shemer (Hebrew: שמר Shemer "guardian") is the name of three biblical figures.
According to Kings, Shemer was the name of the man from whom Omri, King of Israel, bought Samaria (Hebrew Shomron), which he named after Shemer.
According to 1 Chronicles, one of the Levites involved in the musical ministry of the Jerusalem temple was "Ethan the son of Kishi, the son of Abdi, the son of Malluch, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Amaziah, the son of Hilkiah, the son of Amzi, the son of Bani, the son of Shemer, the son of Mahli, the son of Mushi, the son of Merari, the son of Levi" (1 Chronicles 6:44–47). In this passage, the King James Version spells the name Shamer.
1 Chronicles 7:34 mentions a Shemer as one of the descendants of the Tribe of Asher. In verse 32, this figure is called Shomer, and is the son of Heber, the son of Beriah, the son of Asher.
Shephatiah (Hebrew שפטיה) is the name of at least two Hebrew Bible men:
- Shephatiah the son of David and Abital, David's fifth son, according to II Samuel 3:4.
- Shephatiah the son of Mattan (Jeremiah 38:1) who was among the officers who denounced Jeremiah to king Zedekiah.
Sheshan is the name of one, or possibly two, biblical characters mentioned in the first book of Chronicles:
- "The son of Ishi was Sheshan, and Sheshan’s son was Ahlai ... Now Sheshan had no sons, only daughters. And Sheshan had an Egyptian servant whose name was Jarha. Sheshan gave his daughter to Jarha his servant as wife, and she bore him Attai."
The name Shimeah is used for two figures in the Hebrew Bible.
- Shimeah or Shammah was a third son of Jesse, a brother of David (1 Samuel 16:9), and the father of Jonadab (2 Samuel 13:3).
- A figure named Mikloth is the father of Shimeah according to 1 Chronicles 8:32, which gives no further information about either of them but places them in a genealogy of the Tribe of Benjamin. In a parallel passage, 1 Chronicles 9:38 calls this son of Mikloth Shimeam, and presents Mikloth as a son of "Jehiel the father of Gibeon," making Mikloth a great-uncle of the Israelite king Saul.
Shimshai was a scribe who was represented the peoples listed in Ezra 4:9–10 in a letter to King Artaxerxes.
Shisha (Hebrew – שישא) was the father of Elihoreph and Ahijah, who were scribes of King Solomon (1 Kings 4:3).
Shobab is the name of two figures in the Hebrew Bible.
- Shobab was one of the children born to King David after he took up residence in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:14), whose mother is named in 1 Chronicles 3:5 as Bathshua or Bathsheba, the daughter of Ammiel. In Brenton's Septuagint Translation, his name is translated as "Sobab" and his mother's name is given as "Bersabee". Each reference to him mentions him briefly, in a list along with at least three other sons of David born in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:14; 1 Chronicles 3:5, 14:4).
- Shobab is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:18 as one of the children of Caleb, son of Hezron (not to be confused with the more famous Caleb son of Jephunneh).
Shobal was a Horite chief in the hill country of Seir during the days of Esau. He was a son of Seir the Horite, and his sons were Alvas, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho and Onam. He is mentioned in Genesis 36:20–29.
Taphath (Hebrew טפת, "Drop") was a daughter of Solomon and wife of one of her father's twelve regional administrators, the son of Abinadab (First Kings 4:11).
- A son of Issachar according to Genesis 46:13, Numbers 26:23 and 1 Chronicles 7:1. He was one of the 70 souls to migrate to Egypt with Jacob.
- Tola (biblical figure), also of the tribe of Issachar, one of the judges of Israel (Judges 10:1–2).
Ulam is a name that appears twice in the Hebrew Bible. In 1 Chronicles 7:16–17, an Ulam appears in a genealogical passage as the son of Peresh, the son of Machir, the son of the patriarch Manasseh. In 1 Chronicles 8:39, an Ulam appears in a genealogy as the son of Eshek, the brother of Azel, the son of Eleasah, the son of Raphah, the son of Binea, the son of Moza, the son of Zimri, the son of Jehoadah, the son of Ahaz, the son of Micah, the son of Meribbaal.
Uri is mentioned 7 times, 6 of which indicate that another figure is the "son of Uri". The meaning of the name in English is "my light", "my flame" or "illumination".
- Uri (Hebrew: אוּרִי) is mentioned in Exodus 31 and 1 Chronicles 2 as a member of the Tribe of Judah. He is the son of Hur (Hebrew: חור) and the father of Bezalel (Hebrew: בצלאל).
- Another Uri (Hebrew: אוּרִי) is mentioned in Ezra 10 as one of those who have taken "strange wives."
Uriah ben Shemaiah
Uriah ben Shemaiah is mentioned in Jeremiah 26:20–23 as a minor prophet from Kiriath-Jearim who 'spoke in the name of the Lord against this city and nation just as Jeremiah did'. King Jehoiakim heard about his activities, and tried to kill him, but Uriah fled to Egypt 'in terror'. Elnathan son of Achbor was sent to return him, and Jehoiakim had him killed when he was brought back to Judah.
Urijah (Hebrew: אוריה uriyah) a priest in the time of King Ahaz of Judah, built an altar at the temple in Jerusalem on the Damascene model for Tiglathpileser, king of Assyria. II Kings 16:10–16
Vaizatha (or Vajezatha; Hebrew: וַיְזָתָא) is one of the ten sons of Persian vizier Haman, mentioned in Esther 9:9. Haman had planned to kill all the Jews living under the reign of King Ahasuerus, but his plot was foiled. In their defence, the Jews killed 500 men in the citadel of Susa, as well as Vaizatha and his nine brothers: this event is remembered in the Jewish festival Purim. Walther Hinz has proposed that the name is a rendering of an Old Iranian name, Vahyazzāta, which itself is derived from Vahyaz-dāta ("given from the best one"), as found in Aramaic, Elamite, and Akkadian sources.
Zabad is the name of seven men in the Hebrew Bible.
- In 1 Chronicles 2:36–37, Zabad is a member of the Tribe of Judah, the family of Hezron and the house of Jahahmeel. He was the son of Nathan and the father of Ephlal.
- In 1 Chronicles 7:21, Zabad is an Ephraimite of the family of Shuthelah. He was the son of Tanath and the father of Suthelah.
- In 1 Chronicles 11:41, Zabad is one of King David's mighty men. He is the son of Ahlai.
- In 2 Chronicles 24:26, Zabad is one of two servants of King Joash who kill him in his bed. He is the son of Shimeath, an Amonite woman. In 2 Kings 12:21 this same man seems to be called Jozachar (Hebrew: יוֹזָכָר; Latin: Josachar). His fellow conspirator is Jehozabad (Hebrew: יהוֹזָבָד; Latin: Jozabad), the son of Shomer (Hebrew: שֹׁמֵר; Latin: Somer).
- In Ezra 10:27,33,34, three men named Zabad are listed as having taken foreign wives, whom Ezra persuades them to send away.
Zabud (Hebrew – זבוד, zābud, meaning “endowed.”) was a priest and friend of King Solomon, according to 1 Kings 4:5. He is described as the "son of Nathan," but it is unclear whether this is Nathan the prophet or Nathan the son of David. As a "friend" of the king, he probably served the function of a counselor.
Zalmon the Ahohite, according to 2 Samuel 23:28 in the Masoretic Text, is listed as one of David's Mighty Warriors. In the Masoretic Text of 1 Chronicles 11:29, in another copy of the same list of warriors, he is called "Ilai the Ahohite." Where the Masoretic Text has "Zalmon," various manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint have Ellon, Sellom, or Eliman. And where the Masoretic Text has "Ilai," the Septuagint reads Elei, Eli, or Ela.
Zebadiah (cf. Zebedee) may refer to:
- A son of Asahel, Joab's brother (1 Chronicles 27:7).
- A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the system of national education instituted by Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:7–8).
- The son of Ishmael, "the ruler of the house of Judah in all the king's matters" (2 Chronicles 19:8–11).
- A son of Beriah (1 Chronicles 8:15).
- A Korhite porter of the Lord's house (1 Chronicles 26:2). Three or four others of this name are also mentioned.
(Hebrew צִדְקִיָּה tsidqiyah)
- Zedekiah, King of Judah
- Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, a false prophet in the time of Kings Jehoshaphat and Ahab
- Zedekiah, son of Maaseiah, who, according to Jeremiah 29:21, was a false prophet.
- Zedekiah the son of Hananiah, one of the princes to whom Michaiah told of Jeremiah's prophecy – Jeremiah 36:12
Zephaniah (Hebrew צפניה, pronounced TsePhNiYaH) was the name of at least two people in the Bible:
- Zephaniah the prophet (q.v.)
- Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest in Jeremiah 29:25. A member of the deputation sent by King Zedekiah to Jeremiah (Jeremiah 21:1; 37:3). "He is probably the same Zephaniah who is called 'the second priest' in 52:24 ... and was among those executed after the capture of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. In the present situation he is overseer of the temple (vs. 26), occupying the position which had been held earlier by Pashur, who had put Jeremiah in stocks..." 
Zeror, son of Bechorath, of the tribe of Benjamin, was the great-grandfather of King Saul and of his commander Abner. According to Saul, his family was the least of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Samuel 9)
Zichri was a son of Izhar of the house of Levi according to Exodus 6:21, born in Egypt. He was a nephew of Amram and a cousin of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses. Zichri was also the name of the father of Amasiah, one of Jehoshaphat's commanders according to 2 Chron 17:16.
Zidkijah is mentioned in chapter 10 of Nehemiah.
For the Zohar found in a variant reading of 1 Chronicles 4:7, see Izhar.
- List of biblical names
- List of burial places of biblical figures
- List of major biblical figures
- List of minor biblical tribes
- Numbers 3:21 NKJV
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Likhi". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 2, E–K. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- Williams, Nora A. (1992). "Maai (Person)". In Freedman, David Noel (ed.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 4. New York: Doubleday. p. 431. ISBN 9780300140811.
- Fulton, Deirdre N. (2015). Reconsidering Nehemiah's Judah: The Case of MT and LXX Nehemiah 11–12. Mohr Siebeck. p. 156. ISBN 9783161538810.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1988). Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Westminster John Knox. p. 346. ISBN 9780664221867.
- Mandel, David (2010). Who's Who in the Jewish Bible. Jewish Publication Society. p. 250. ISBN 9780827610293.
- The Interpreter's Bible, 1951, volume V, page 1060
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Machnadebai". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- 1 Chronicles 8:9
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Malcham". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Matred". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- Pulpit Commentary on 1 Samuel 10, accessed 1 May 2017
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Matthanias". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- Richard S. Hess (15 October 2007). Israelite Religions: An Archaeological and Biblical Survey. Baker Academic. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4412-0112-6.
- (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 685)
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Meshillemoth". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- 2 Chronicles 28:12
- Neh 11:13
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Naharai". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Nahath". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:31, 5:19
- T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black, eds. (1901) . "Narcissus". Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- 1 Kings 11:26, 16:3
- C. H. W. Johns (1901) . "Nebuzaradan". In T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black (eds.). Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- "2 Samuel 21 Brenton Septuagint Translation". biblehub.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- J. D. Douglas; Merrill C. Tenney (3 May 2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Harper Collins. p. 1219. ISBN 978-0-310-49235-1.
- Rannfrid I. Thelle; Terje Stordalen; Mervyn E. J. Richardson (16 June 2015). New Perspectives on Old Testament Prophecy and History: Essays in Honour of Hans M. Barstad. BRILL. p. 70. ISBN 978-90-04-29327-4.
- Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1901) . "Rehum". In T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black (eds.). Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 3, L–P. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- NLT takes this interpretation, but in slightly different words.
- L'Heureux, Conrad E. "The yelîdê Hārāpā': A Cultic Association of Warriors." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 221, 1976, pp. 83–85. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/1356087.
- Ronald F. Youngblood (7 March 2017). 1 and 2 Samuel. Zondervan. p. 913. ISBN 978-0-310-53179-1.
- Meir Lubetski; Edith Lubetski (11 September 2012). New Inscriptions and Seals Relating to the Biblical World. Society of Biblical Lit. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-58983-557-3.
- Sara Japhet (1 November 1993). I and II Chronicles: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-61164-589-7.
- Sara Japhet (1 November 1993). I and II Chronicles: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-61164-589-7.
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "Shammua."
- Peretz Rodman, "Shelumiel — The First Schlemiel?", The Forward, 26 May 2006. This interpretation has been identified as a folk etymology. Klein in his Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language (1987), s.v. שלומיאל, interprets the term as a corruption of shelo mo'il (שלא מועיל) "useless" (cited after balashon.com, 18 December 2009).
- Leviticus 24:15–16
- I Kings 16:24
- 1 Chron 2:31, 34–35.
- The New International Version notes that "one Hebrew manuscript and Vulgate [have "Bathsheba"]; most Hebrew manuscripts [have] "Bathshua"
- "1 Chronicles 3 Brenton Septuagint Translation". biblehub.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Bedford, Peter (1992). "Vaizatha (Person)". In Freedman, David Noel (ed.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6. New York: Doubleday. p. 781. ISBN 9780300140811.
- Holman Bible Dictionary
- McMillion, Phillip E. (1992). "Zabud (Person)". In Freedman, David Noel (ed.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6. New York: Doubleday. p. 1032. ISBN 9780300140811.
- Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1901) . "Zalmon (second entry)". In T. K. Cheyne; J. Sutherland Black (eds.). Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. 4, Q–Z. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- "Strong's Hebrew: 6667. צִדְקִיָּה (Tsidqiyyahu or Tsidqiyyah) – "Yah is righteousness," six Israelites". biblehub.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- I Kings 22:11
- The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, 1991, pp. 287–88
- The Interpreter's Bible, 1951, volume V, page 1021
- See New International Version, footnote.
- E.g. New International Version.
- See Shlomo ben Aderet: (responsa i., No. 12; quoted in the Jewish Encyclopedia): "one of the sons of Simeon is called Zohar in Gen. xlvi. 10 and Ex. vi. 15, and Zerah in Num. xxvi. 13, but since both names signify 'magnificent,' the double nomenclature is explained."
- For the etymology, see David Mandel (1 January 2010). Who's Who in the Jewish Bible. Jewish Publication Society. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8276-1029-3.