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Neidlingen lies in the central northern foothills of the Swabian Alps in the upper valley of the Lindach river, east of Randecker Maar (a former volcanic vent). The nearest town is Weilheim an der Teck. Neidlingen is part of the Swabian Alps Biosphere reserve. Nearby are four castles; Reußenstein, Erkenberg, Windeck, and Heimstein.
The place name originates from the family name Nidilo or Neidlinger. The settlement was founded around the year 400 by the Alemanni. In the year 797, Neidlingen was mentioned for the first time, in a document of the 'Lorscher Codex'.