Nelidovsky District

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Nelidovsky District
Нелидовский район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-Nelidovo.png
Location of Nelidovsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 56°13′N 32°47′E / 56.217°N 32.783°E / 56.217; 32.783Coordinates: 56°13′N 32°47′E / 56.217°N 32.783°E / 56.217; 32.783
Boloto03.JPG
Staroselsky Mokh swamp, Central Forest Nature Reserve
Coat of Arms of Nelidovskii rayon (Tver oblast).jpg.gif
Flag of Nelidovsky rayon (Tver oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2012)
Administrative center town of Nelidovo[1]
Administrative divisions:[citation needed]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 5
Inhabited localities:[citation needed]
Cities/towns 1
Rural localities 169
Municipal structure (as of February 2005)
Municipally incorporated as Nelidovsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 5
Statistics
Area 2,632 km2 (1,016 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 30,731 inhabitants[5]
• Urban 74.5%
• Rural 25.5%
Density 11.68/km2 (30.3/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Official website
Nelidovsky District on WikiCommons

Nelidovsky District (Russian: Нели́довский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Andreapolsky District in the north, Selizharovsky District in the northeast, Oleninsky District in the east, Belsky District in the south, Zharkovsky District in the southwest, and with Zapadnodvinsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,632 square kilometers (1,016 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the town of Nelidovo.[1] Population: 30,731 (2010 Census);[5] 9,144 (2002 Census);[8] 11,829 (1989 Census).[9] The population of Nelidovo accounts for 74.5% of the district's total population.[5]

Geography[edit]

Almost the whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Western Dvina. Its major left tributary, the Mezha, has its source in the district and crosses the district from north to south. Other tributaries of the Wester Dvina which flow through the district include the Belesa and the Turosna. The northern part of the district belongs to the drainage basins of the Zhukopa and the Tudovka, right tributaries of the Volga. Thus, the district is crossed by the divide between the basins of the Atlantic and of the Caspian Sea.

The northern part of the district belongs to the Central Forest Nature Reserve, a protected area created to preserve conifer forest with the corresponding plants and animals, including the Eurasian brown bear, in the upper course of the Western Dvina.[10]

Forest and bush occupy 75.6% of the area of the district.[11]

History[edit]

The area belonged to Principality of Smolensk since the 12th century. Later, Principality of Toropets split off, and the area was a part of it. In the 14th century, it was included into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 16th century, it went to the Grand Duchy of Moscow.[12]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Belsky Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate and remained there until 1929, with the exception of the brief periods between 1713 and 1726, when it belonged to Riga Governorate, and between 1775 and 1796, when Smolensk Governorate was transformed into Smolensk Viceroyalty.

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Nelidovsky District with the administrative center in the settlement of Nelidovo was established. It belonged to Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast.[13][14] On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On 29 January 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Nelidovsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[13][15] During World War II, in 1941—1943, the district was occupied by German troops. On 22 August 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished, and Nelidovsky District was transferred back to Kalinin Oblast. On February 1, 1963, during the abortive Khrushchyov administrative reform, Oleninsky and Belsky Districts were merged into Nelidovsky District, and a part of Nelidovsky District was transferred to Zapadnodvinsky District. In 1964-65 Oleninsky and Belsky Districts were re-established. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.[14]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Originally, Nelidovo was built to serve lignite deposits. The lignite mines are still active. Additionally, there are enterprises of timber, textile, and chemical industries in the district.[11][12]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specialization of the district is cattle breeding with meat and milk production.[11]

Transportation[edit]

Nelidovo railway station

The railway which connects Moscow and Riga via Rzhev, crosses the district from east to west. There is passenger railway traffic. Nelidovo is the biggest railway station in the district. A side railroad connects the station of Zemtsy with Zharkovsky railway station. There is infrequent passenger traffic, two times per week as of 2015. The branch is not electrified.

The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the district, passing just north of Nelidovo. Another paved road connects Nelidovo with Dukhovshchina via Bely. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Nelidovo.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The district contains fifty-five cultural heritage monuments of local significance (four of them in Nelidovo). The vast majority of these monuments are graves of soldiers fallen in the World War II, there are also several 18th century churches.[16]

In 2009, the mining museum was opened in Nelidovo.[17]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 243», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 243, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b Law #4-ZO
  3. ^ Law #38-ZO
  4. ^ a b "Нелидовский район" (in Russian). Legislation Assembly of Tver Oblast. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Центрально-Лесной Биосферный резерват (in Russian). Особо охраняемые природные территории России. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c "Паспорт Нелидовского района Тверской области в сфере АПК" (PDF) (in Russian). ГКУ ТО «Центр развития АПК Тверской области». Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "История" (in Russian). Nelidovsky District Administration. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133. 
  14. ^ a b Малыгин, П. Д.; Смирнов, С. Н. (2007). История административно-территориального деления Тверской Области (PDF). Tver. pp. 14–15. OCLC 540329541. 
  15. ^ Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  16. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  17. ^ "В Тверской области откроется Музей шахтерской славы" (in Russian). Interfax. 22 August 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №38-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Нелидовский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #38-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Nelidovsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).