Nellie massacre

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Nellie Massacre
Assam is located in India
Assam
Assam
Assam (India)
LocationAssam, India
Coordinates26°06′41″N 92°19′02″E / 26.111483°N 92.317253°E / 26.111483; 92.317253
Date18 February 1983
TargetBengali Muslims
Attack type
Deportation, mass murder
Deaths2,191+

The Nellie massacre took place in central Assam during a six-hour period in the morning of 18 February 1983.[1][2][3] The massacre claimed the lives of 2,191 people (unofficial figures run at more than 10,000)[4] from 14 villages—Alisingha, Khulapathar, Basundhari, Bugduba Beel, Bugduba Habi, Borjola, Butuni, Dongabori,Indurmari, Mati Parbat, Muladhari, Mati Parbat no. 8, Silbheta, Borburi and Nellie—of Nagaon district.[5][6] The victims were Muslim immigrants from East Bengal (present day Bangladesh).[7][8][9] Three media personnel — Hemendra Narayan of Indian Express, Bedabrata Lahkar of Assam Tribune and Sharma of ABC — were witnesses to the massacre.[10]

The violence that took place in Nellie by natives - mostly rural peasants was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial state elections in 1983 in the midst of the Assam Agitation, after Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million immigrants from Bangladesh the right to vote.[5][11] It has been described as one of the worst pogroms since World War II.[12]

A documentary, What the Fields Remember, has been produced by Public Service Broadcasting Trust.[13]

Context[edit]

In 1978, Lok Sabha member Hiralal Patwari died, necessitating a by-election in the Mangaldoi Lok Sabha Constituency. During the process of the election it was noticed that the electorate had grown phenomenally. Investigation revealed that there had been mass inclusion of alleged illegal migrants.[14][15] The All Assam Students Union (AASU) demanded that the elections be postponed until the names of "foreign nationals" were deleted from the electoral rolls. The AASU subsequently launched an agitation to compel the government to identify and expel allegedly illegal immigrants.[16]

The ethnic clash that took place in Nellie was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial Assembly elections in 1983 (boycotted by the AASU) despite stiff opposition from several elements in the state.[5] Police officials had suggested to hold the polls in phases in order to avoid violence. According to then Assam Inspector General of Police, KPS Gill, there were 63 constituencies, where elections could have been held without any trouble. Among the rest, the Assam police had declared there were 23 constituencies where it was "impossible to hold any election." Nellie was cited as one of the "troubled" spots before the elections.[5]

400 companies of Central paramilitary force and 11 brigades of the Indian Army were deployed to guard Assam while the polls were scheduled to take place in phases.[5]

Result[edit]

Press clips from 1983

The official Tiwari Commission report on the Nellie massacre is still a closely guarded secret (only three copies exist).[5] The 600-page report was submitted to the Assam Government in 1984 and the Congress Government (headed by Hiteswar Saikia) decided not to make it public, and subsequent Governments followed suit.[17] Assam United Democratic Front and others are making legal efforts to make Tiwari Commission report public, so that reasonable justice is delivered to victims, at least after 25 years after the incident.[18]

Police filed 688 criminal cases, of which 378 cases were closed due to "lack of evidence" and 310 cases were slated to be charged. However, all these cases were dropped by the Government of India as a part of the 1985 Assam Accord; and, as a result, not a single person received punishment.[19]

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi signed the Assam Accord with the leaders of the AASU to formally end the Assam Agitation in 1985.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "...the majority of the participants were rural peasants belonging to mainstream communities, or from the lower strata of the caste system categorized as Scheduled Castes or Other Backward Classes." (Kimura 2013, p. 5)
  2. ^ Austin, Granville (1999). Working a Democratic Constitution - A History of the Indian Experience. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 541. ISBN 019565610-5.
  3. ^ Kokrajhar; Dhubri (24 August 2012). "Killing for a homeland". The Economist Banyan blog. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ Genesis of nellie massacre and assam agitation, Indilens news team, Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "83 polls were a mistake: KPS Gill". Assam Tribune. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  6. ^ Rehman, Teresa (30 September 2006), "Nellie Revisited: The Horror's Nagging Shadow", Tehelka, archived from the original on 11 November 2006, retrieved 19 February 2008
  7. ^ Kimura, Makiko (2013), "The Nellie Massacre", in Meghna Guhathakurta; Willem van Schendel (eds.), The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics, Duke University Press, p. 481, ISBN 0-8223-5318-0: "In this incident, the local people, including the Assamese and tribes... attacked the Muslim immigrants from East Bengal."
  8. ^ Kokrajhar; Dhubri (24 August 2012). "Killing for a homeland". The Economist Banyan blog. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012.: "In one day, 1,800 Muslims of Bengali origin were slaughtered by Lalung tribespeople (also known as Tiwa) at a village called Nellie."
  9. ^ Mander, Harsh (14 December 2008). "Nellie : India's forgotten massacre". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2012.: "A crowd quickly gathered: the older men with checked lungis and beards could easily be distinguished as people of East Bengali Muslim origin."
  10. ^ Main Uddin. "Genesis of nellie massacre and assam agitation". Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  11. ^ Goel, Rekha. "25 years on...Nellie still haunts". The Statesman. Retrieved 8 December 2011.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ Hussain, Monirul (1 February 2009). Sibaji Pratim Basu (ed.). The Fleeing People of South Asia: Selections from Refugee Watch. Anthem. p. 261. ISBN 978-8190583572.
  13. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/features/magazine/baradwaj-rangan-on-what-the-fields-remember/article7641365.ece?homepage=true
  14. ^ Gupta, Kanchan (2019), Beyond the poll rhetoric of BJP’s contentious Citizenship Amendment Bill, Observer Research Foundation "A close scrutiny of the electoral rolls indicated that there had been mass inclusion of names of illegal immigrants, prompting AASU to demand that the by-election be called off..."
  15. ^ Main Uddin. "Genesis of nellie massacre and assam agitation". Retrieved 5 April 2016.: "Significantly the Election Commission reviewed the list and found 68.28 percent of the allegations to be true. After Election Commission‟s assessment it came to light that 45 thousand illegal foreigners are listed in the voter‟s list."
  16. ^ a b "Tripartite talks to review the implementation of the Assam Accord held in New Delhi on 31.05.2000". SATP. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  17. ^ Rehman, Teresa. "An Untold Shame". Tehelka Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  18. ^ Reporter, Staff (19 February 2008). "Flashback to Nellie Horror:AUDF to move court for probe report". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  19. ^ Mander, Harsh (14 December 2008). "Nellie : India's forgotten massacre". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2012.

Further reading[edit]

News sources
Books

Tirakhir Sahid lakhi Deka, (2017) Shristi publication.

  • Chadha, Vivek, Low Intensity Conflicts in India. Sage Publications, 2005.
  • Kimura, Makiko (2013). The Nellie Massacre of 1983: Agency of Rioters. Sage Publications India. ISBN 9788132111665.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Saksena, N.S. "Police and Politicians" in Alexander, P.J. (ed.) Policing India in the New Millennium. Allied Publishers, 2002.

External links[edit]