Nellie massacre

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Nellie Massacre
Assam is located in India
Assam (India)
LocationAssam, India
Coordinates26°06′41″N 92°19′02″E / 26.111483°N 92.317253°E / 26.111483; 92.317253
Date18 February 1983
Attack type
Deportation, mass murder

The Nellie massacre took place in central Assam during a six-hour period in the morning of 18 February 1983. [1][2][3] The massacre claimed the lives of 2,191 people (unofficial figures run at more than 10,000)[4] from 14 villages—Alisingha, Khulapathar, Basundhari, Bugduba Beel, Bugduba Habi, Borjola, Butuni, Dongabori,Indurmari, Mati Parbat, Muladhari, Mati Parbat no. 8, Silbheta, Borburi and Nellie—of Nagaon district.[5][6] The victims were Bengal rooted Muslims whose ancestors had relocated in pre-partition British India.[3][7] Three media personnel — Hemendra Narayan of Indian Express, Bedabrata Lahkar of Assam Tribune and Sharma of ABC — were witnesses to the massacre.[citation needed] The victims were descendants of Muslims who came to Assam on the direct patronage of the then Assam Government of British India in the first decade of the 20th century.[8]

The violence that took place in Nellie was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial state elections in 1983 in the midst of the Assam Agitation, after Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million immigrants from Bangladesh the right to vote.[5][9] It has been described as one of the worst pogroms since World War II.[10]

A documentary, What the Fields Remember, has been produced by Public Service Broadcasting Trust.[11]


In 1978, Lok Sabha member Hiralal Patwari died, necessitating a by-election in the Mangaldoi Lok Sabha Constituency. During the process of the election it was noticed that the electorate had grown phenomenally (allegedly due to illegal immigration). The All Assam Students Union (AASU) demanded that the elections be postponed until the names of "foreign nationals" were deleted from the electoral rolls. The AASU subsequently launched an agitation to compel the government to identify and expel illegal immigrants.[12]

The ethnic clash that took place in Nellie was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial Assembly elections in 1983 (boycotted by the AASU) despite stiff opposition from several elements in the state.[5] Police officials had suggested to hold the polls in phases in order to avoid violence. According to then Assam Inspector General of Police, KPS Gill, there were 63 constituencies, where elections could have been held without any trouble. Among the rest, the Assam police had declared there were 23 constituencies where it was "impossible to hold any election." Nellie was cited as one of the "troubled" spots before the elections.[5]

400 companies of Central paramilitary force and 11 brigades of the Indian Army were deployed to guard Assam while the polls were scheduled to take place in phases.[5]


Press clips from 1983

The official Tiwari Commission report on the Nellie massacre is still a closely guarded secret (only three copies exist).[5] The 600-page report was submitted to the Assam Government in 1984 and the Congress Government (headed by Hiteswar Saikia) decided not to make it public, and subsequent Governments followed suit.[13] Assam United Democratic Front and others are making legal efforts to make Tiwari Commission report public, so that reasonable justice is delivered to victims, at least after 25 years after the incident.[14]

Police filed 688 criminal cases, of which 378 cases were closed due to "lack of evidence" and 310 cases were slated to be charged. However, all these cases were dropped by the Government of India as a part of the 1985 Assam Accord; and, as a result, not a single person received punishment.[7]

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi signed the Assam Accord with the leaders of the AASU to formally end the Assam Agitation in 1985.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "...the majority of the participants were rural peasants belonging to mainstream communities, or from the lower strata of the caste system categorized as Scheduled Castes or Other Backward Classes." (Kimura 2013, p. 5)
  2. ^ Austin, Granville (1999). Working a Democratic Constitution - A History of the Indian Experience. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 541. ISBN 019565610-5.
  3. ^ a b "Killing for a homeland". The Economist. 24 August 2012.
  4. ^ Genesis of nellie massacre and assam agitation, Indilens news team, Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "83 polls were a mistake: KPS Gill". Assam Tribune. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ Rehman, Teresa (30 September 2006), "Nellie Revisited: The Horror's Nagging Shadow", Tehelka, retrieved 19 February 2008
  7. ^ a b Mander, Harsh (14 December 2008). "Nellie : India's forgotten massacre". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  8. ^ Main Uddin. "Genesis of nellie massacre and assam agitation". Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  9. ^ Goel, Rekha. "25 years on...Nellie still haunts". The Statesman. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  10. ^ Hussain, Monirul (1 February 2009). Sibaji Pratim Basu (ed.). The Fleeing People of South Asia: Selections from Refugee Watch. Anthem. p. 261. ISBN 978-8190583572.
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b "Tripartite talks to review the implementation of the Assam Accord held in New Delhi on 31.05.2000". SATP. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  13. ^ Rehman, Teresa. "An Untold Shame". Tehelka Magazine. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  14. ^ Reporter, Staff (19 February 2008). "Flashback to Nellie Horror:AUDF to move court for probe report". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 October 2012.

Further reading[edit]

News sources

Tirakhir Sahid lakhi Deka, (2017) Shristi publication.

  • Chadha, Vivek, Low Intensity Conflicts in India. Sage Publications, 2005.
  • Kimura, Makiko (2013). The Nellie Massacre of 1983: Agency of Rioters. Sage Publications India. ISBN 9788132111665.
  • Saksena, N.S. "Police and Politicians" in Alexander, P.J. (ed.) Policing India in the New Millennium. Allied Publishers, 2002.

External links[edit]