Nellore

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This article is about the city. For district in Andhra Pradesh, see Nellore district.
Nellore
నెల్లూరు
Vikramasimhapuri
City
Nellore Montage Clockwise from top left: Nellore City View, Narayana Colleges, A Ship at IITTM Port, Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Nellore
Nellore Montage Clockwise from top left: Nellore City View, Narayana Colleges, A Ship at IITTM Port, Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Nellore
Nellore is located in Andhra Pradesh
Nellore
Nellore
Nellore
Coordinates: 14°27′N 79°59′E / 14.45°N 79.99°E / 14.45; 79.99Coordinates: 14°27′N 79°59′E / 14.45°N 79.99°E / 14.45; 79.99
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Nellore
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Nellore Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Abdul Aziz
Area[1]
 • Total 150.48 km2 (58.10 sq mi)
Elevation 18 m (59 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 600,869
 • Rank 76th (India)
4th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 524 xxx
Telephone code +91–861
Vehicle registration AP–26
Website Official website

Nellore (Nelluru) is a city in Nellore district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of the Penna River in Nellore mandal of Nellore revenue division.[3] It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Nellore district. The city is the fourth most populous settlement of the state well known for its agriculture and aquaculture.

Etymology[edit]

A mythological story from Sthala Purana depicts, a lingam in the form of a stone under belli tree. The place gradually became Nelli-ooru (Nelli=Tree and ooru=place) and then to present day Nellore.[4]

History[edit]

Nellore existed from the times of the Cholas ruled by Rajendra chola under Tanjavur Mauryan empire and was ruled by Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C. Nellore was conquered by the Rulers of the Pallava Dynasty and it was under their till the 6th century AD, subsequently the Chola rulers ruled Nellore for a long period of time. The Telugu Cholas met their decline in the 13th Century.Tamil inscriptions indicate that it formed part of Cholas kingdom till their decline in the thirteenth century AD[5] It later became a part of Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda, Mughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom. In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India. The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu, who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore. It had been under the rule of Cholas, Pallavas, pandiass, Maurya Dynasty, Kharavela of Chedi dynasty, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Eastern Gangas of Kalinga Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Arcot Nawabs and other dynasties.

Geography[edit]

Nellore is located at 14°26′N 79°59′E / 14.44°N 79.98°E / 14.44; 79.98.[6][7] It has an average elevation of 18 metres (59 ft).[7]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Nellore city is a typical tropical maritime climate, with hot, humid summers and mild winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions generally last until the end of the June, December, January and February are the coolest months. As the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of October and December due to the north-east monsoon. This period gives about 60 percent of the city's annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during this period, causing floods and havoc.[8]

The maximum temperature is 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F) during summer and the minimum temperature is 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F) during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,000 mm (28 to 39 in) through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to droughts and to floods based on the seasons. It is also one of the hottest cities in India with at least 35 super hot days in a year.[9]

Climate data for Nellore (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
39.4
(102.9)
43.9
(111)
45.6
(114.1)
46.7
(116.1)
46.7
(116.1)
42.2
(108)
40.6
(105.1)
41.7
(107.1)
39.4
(102.9)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95)
46.7
(116.1)
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
32.4
(90.3)
35.1
(95.2)
37.8
(100)
39.9
(103.8)
38.2
(100.8)
36.0
(96.8)
35.1
(95.2)
35.1
(95.2)
32.8
(91)
30.1
(86.2)
29.0
(84.2)
34.3
(93.7)
Average low °C (°F) 20.7
(69.3)
22.0
(71.6)
23.9
(75)
26.2
(79.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
27.2
(81)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
25.2
(77.4)
23.2
(73.8)
21.5
(70.7)
25.0
(77)
Record low °C (°F) 15.0
(59)
16.1
(61)
17.2
(63)
20.2
(68.4)
20.2
(68.4)
21.1
(70)
22.2
(72)
21.7
(71.1)
21.5
(70.7)
18.9
(66)
16.7
(62.1)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.0
(1.024)
1.7
(0.067)
3.5
(0.138)
8.7
(0.343)
43.1
(1.697)
28.9
(1.138)
85.9
(3.382)
96.0
(3.78)
97.2
(3.827)
287.1
(11.303)
290.9
(11.453)
100.4
(3.953)
1,069.4
(42.102)
Average precipitation days 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.6 3.0 6.1 6.4 5.4 8.7 9.1 3.7 46.0
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[10][11]

Demographics[edit]

Others include Sikhs, Buddhist, Jains & Parsis
Religion in Nellore[12]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
78.72%
Islam
  
19.03%
Christianity
  
1.59%
Others
  
0.66%

As of 2011 census, Nellore city had a population of 499,575. The average literacy rate stands at 83.59% (male 87.53%; female 79.52%) with 387,192 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 73.00%.[13][14] The expanded city population post merger of 15 gram panchayats into Nellore Municipal Corporation stands at 600,869.[3][15]

Historical population[16]
Year Population Growth Rate
1961 106776 ---
1971 133590 25.1
1981 237065 77.5
1991 316606 33.6
2001 404775 27.8
2011 600869 48.4

Governance[edit]

Tikkana Park in Nellore

Civic administration

Nellore Municipal Corporation was constituted as a municipality on 1 November 1866 by the Madras District Municipality Act.[17] It was upgraded to corporation on 18 October 2004 and has a jurisdictional area of 150.48 km2 (58.10 sq mi) with 54 wards.[1] In 2013, fifteen gram panchayats namely, Allipuram, Ambhapuram, Buja Buja Nellore, Chinthareddypalem, Gudupallipadu, Gundlapalem, Kallurupalli, Kanaparthypadu, Kodurupadu, Narayanareddypeta, Navalakulathota, Nellore Bit-I (Kothuru), Peddacherukuru, Pottipalem, Vavilatepadhu were merged into the municipal corporation.[18] Present mayor of the city is Abdul Aziz.[19]

The city is one among the 31 cities in the state to be a part of water supply and sewerage services mission known as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).[20]

Politics

Nellore is represented by Nellore City assembly constituency and Nellore Rural assembly constituency for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Anil Kumar Poluboina is the present MLA of Nellore City assembly constituency representing YSRCP.[21] Kotamreddy Sridhar Reddy is the present MLA of Nellore Rural assembly constituency representing YSRCP.[22][23]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture in Nellore—rice paddy fields

Certain industries like Nippo batteries factory, Apache leather shoes factory etc. have their presence. Proximity to the sea and fertile land towards the east have led to agriculture and aquaculture to prosper. The most productive is the Shrimp culturing.[24]

Culture[edit]

The annual Rottela Panduga/Rotiyaan ki Eid is an annual urs event celebrated at the Bara Shaheed Dargah(shrine of twelve martyrs) on the banks of Swarnala Cheruvu.[25] The event got its name after the practice of exchanging roti(flat breads) and attracts visitors from all background.[26]

Transport[edit]

National Highway 16 at Nellore
Nellore Railway Station

The city is well connected by road with national and state highways, a major main line of Indian Railways provides rail connections and it even has a sea trade, with very close proximity to Krishnapatnam Port.

Port[edit]

Krishnapatnam Port breakwater with KOLOS armour units

Krishnapatnam Port is a privately built and owned all weather, deep water port on the east coast of India, located in the Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh. It is located about 190 km north of the Chennai Port and 18 km east of the city of Nellore.[27][28] The port is owned and operated by the Krishnapatnam Port Company Limited (KPCL) which is 92% owned by Hyderabad-based CVR Group. The London-based equity firm 3i Group Plc owns the remaining 8% equity in the KPCL.[29]

Establishment and promoters[edit]

Krishnapatnam Port

The Krishnapatnam Port is India's largest private sector port. It was inaugurated on 17 July 2008 by the UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi.[30] The port was built by the Navayuga Engineering Company Limited, the flagship concern of the CVR Group, under a build-operate-share-transfer (BOST) agreement with the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The port covers an area of 4,553 acres.[31] The BOST agreement, valid for 30 years and further extendable to 50 years, requires the promoters to pay 2.6% of the port's gross revenue to the Government of Andhra Pradesh for the first 30 years. From the 30th year, that share increases to 5.4% and from the 40th year to 10.8%.[32] The agreement also requires them to develop the port in three phases with the first phase being completed by January 2008, the second phase by 2012 and the final by 2017.[33][34]

Connectivity and hinterland[edit]

As of 2014, Krishnapatnam Port is capable of handling 75 million tonnes (mt) of cargo per annum and is the deepest port of India with a draft of 18.5 metres.[29] The hinterland of the port includes southern and central Andhra Pradesh, eastern Karnataka, northern Tamil Nadu and Eastern Maharashtra. The Port is linked to the Chennai-Kolkata rail line through a 19 km long line and is also connected with the National Highway 5 which is being upgraded from a 4 lane to a 6 lane highway.[27]

Phases of development[edit]

The first phase of development of the port involved an expenditure of 1400 crores and was completed in 2009. In this phase the Port developed an annual cargo handling capacity of 25 million tonnes.[31] Two mechanized Iron Ore Berths, a mechanized Coal Berth and a mechanized General Cargo Berth were set up in this phase. The second phase of the Port's development entails an investment of $2 billion and the enhancement of cargo handling capacity by 40 million tonnes. By 2020, when the Port is fully developed, it is expected to handle 200 million tonnes of cargo annually. The second phase of expansion will increase the total berths to twelve of which half will handle coal with the rest handling general, bulk and container cargo. The draft of the port is also to be enhanced from the present 18 metres to 21 metres.[31][35]

Container terminal[edit]

Krishnapatnam port Nellore

In September 2012, the Port inaugurated its container terminal capable of handling 1.2 million standard containers a year. This terminal is equipped with 5 Panamax gantry cranes, two berths of 650m and a channel depth of 13.5m allowing large vessels carrying up to 8,000 containers to dock. The second phase of its development will involve the investment of 11,000 crores and the expansion of capacity by another 4.8 million tonnes. KPCL has entered into an agreement with Container Corporation of India (CONCOR) to develop a container freight station at the port and inland container depots in the hinterland to facilitate trade through the port.[36][37][38]

Cargo handled[edit]

When the port was inaugurated in 2008, iron ore constituted its most important cargo which peaked at 10.5 million tonnes in 2009-'10. Since the ban on export of iron ore from the Bellary-Hospet region of Karnataka, its shipments have dwindled forcing the port to diversify its portfolio. Coal is now the primary commodity handled by the port, its volume having expanded from less than 100,000 tonnes in 2008-09 to 11.3 million tonnes in 2011-12. The port now also plans to handle liquefied natural gas cargo, cars meant for exports, edible oils and fertilizers.[29] During 2012-13, the port handled 21.2 million tonnes of cargo, of which three-fourths comprised imported coal. The Port handled 25.16 MT during the year 2013-14 against the target of 28 MT. The port registers very impressive growth of 60% for the year 2014-15 and ended up handling total cargo of 40.72 million tonnes up from 25.16 MT in the previous year.[39]

Special economic zone[edit]

A 12,000 acre Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is being set up in the vicinity of the port by the Krishnapatnam Infratech Private Limited, a special purpose vehicle set up by KPCL. The SEZ entails an investment of 6,000 crores and is expected to create 30,000 direct employments.[40] The SEZ is being designed by Mahindra Engineering and is to be a multi-product SEZ.[41]


Road[edit]

APSRTC operates its bus services to various parts of the state from Nellore bus station.[42] The National Highway 5 passes through the town, which is a part of Golden Quadrilateral connecting Kolkata and Chennai.[43] The city has a total road length of 1189.95 km.[44]

Rail[edit]

Nellore railway station lies on Vijayawada-Chennai section of Howrah-Chennai main line and hence well connected by rail to most parts of India. It is also connected by Chennai Suburban Railway, lying on the North Line which terminates at Bitragunta. It is classified as an A–category station. It is recognised as an Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[45] It is also one amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway.[46] Apart from Nellore, the city has and two small railway stations namely, Nellore south & Vedayapalem.[47][48]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[49][50] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.[51]

Secondary and higher secondary education are handled by SSC board. Although many schools have a choice to pursue school education through Central board (CBSE).Several institutes are offering K.G to P.G in Nellore itself without depending on other states or country's. Prominent institutions include Vikrama Simhapuri University, Rao's Educational Society, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Veda and Sanskrit college, Government Medical College, and Venkatagiri Raja's College (VRC) and high school,Narayana Medical College, Atmakur Engineering college, Thrive School [1].

Media[edit]

Zaminryot[52] newspaper and Lawyar weekly newspaper[53] are based out of Nellore. In addition, Eenadu and Sakshi newspapers are also printing local editions in Nellore.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Integrated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management Project" (PDF). Swachha Andhra Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 20/4. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
  2. ^ "Municipalities, Municipal Corporations & UDAs" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "District Census Handbook – Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore" (PDF). Census of India. p. 12,25–26,56. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Government of Madras Staff; Government of Madras (1942). Gazetteer of the Nellore District: Brought Upto 1938 (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-206-1851-0. 
  5. ^ (1908) The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Volume 19. Nayakanhatti to Parbhani. Clarendon Press. p. 9
  6. ^ "Latitude and Longitude of Nellore, Andhra Pradesh | Nellore Coordinates". www.mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Nellore, India". fallingrain.com. 
  8. ^ "Welcome to Nellore". ap.nic.in. 
  9. ^ "Why India is getting hotter by the year". Rediff. 26 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "Nellore Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  12. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  13. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  14. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  15. ^ "Smart wards: Nellore woos industrialists". The Hindu. Nellore. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  16. ^ "INTEGRATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) MANAGEMENT PROJECT FOR ZONE-IV OF ANDHRA PRADESH" (PDF). Retrieved 10 Nov 2016. 
  17. ^ Ravikiran, G. (1 April 2014). "Fertile lands turning into concrete jungle". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
  18. ^ "SPSR NELLORE-District Panchayat". www.nellorzp.appr.gov.in. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
  19. ^ Ravi Kiran, G (12 April 2015). "Civic body gears up to tackle water woes". Th Hindu. Nellore. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  20. ^ Vadlapatla, Sribala (11 August 2015). "Amaravati among 31 AP cities selected for Amruth development". The Times of India. Hyderabad. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  21. ^ "Nellore City Assembly 2014 Election Results". Elections.in. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "MLA". AP State Portal. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  23. ^ "Nellore City Assembly 2014 Election Results". Elections.in. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  24. ^ "History of Nellore". Nellore Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  25. ^ G. Ravikiran. "'Rottela Panduga' from Nov. 4 in Nellore". The Hindu. 
  26. ^ G. Ravikiran. "2 lakh devotees throng Bara Shahid dargah". The Hindu. 
  27. ^ a b "Chennai port loses out to new facility". The Hindu. June 11, 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  28. ^ "FOCUS: NELLORE DISTRICT". Frontline. 30 (03). 9–22 February 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  29. ^ a b c "New port plan raises viability concerns for Krishnapatnam". November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Andhra to get new port in Krishnapatnam". Economic Times. July 11, 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  31. ^ a b c "Krishnapatnam Port gets Rs4,000 cr for next phase". March 18, 2009. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port plans to set up car terminal by Jun 2013". Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  33. ^ "Krishnapatnam port to give fillip to ore exports". The Economic Times. October 17, 2005. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "3i Fund picks up stake in Krishnapatnam Port for $161 mn". The Economic Times. February 24, 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  35. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port begins operations; to invest $2 billion in 2nd phase". September 27, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port ties up with CONCOR". The Hindu. July 5, 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  37. ^ "Krishnapatnam to Singapore feeder service begins". September 27, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port starts operating container terminal". September 27, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  39. ^ N. Anand. "Chennai Port Trust revival path profit". The Hindu. 
  40. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port plans SEZ". Business Standard. March 2, 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  41. ^ "Krishnapatnam Infratech Private Limited". Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  42. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  43. ^ "National Highways in A.P". AP Online Portal. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  44. ^ "DETAILS OF ROADS IN EACH ULB OF ANDHRA PRADESH". 
  45. ^ "Vijayawada Division – a profile" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  46. ^ "Indian Railways Passenger Reservation Enquiry". Indian Railway Passenger reservation Enquiry. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  47. ^ "Nellore South Railway Station". Indian Railways Trains & Stations – India Rail Info. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  48. ^ "Nellore South Railway Station". Indian Railways Trains & Stations – India Rail Info. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  49. ^ "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  50. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  51. ^ "Nellore Municipal Corporation school outshines corporate". Deccan Chronicle. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  52. ^ "Zaminryot". www.zaminryot.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  53. ^ "హోం పేజి". Lawyer Telugu Weekly. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 

External links[edit]