Nelson Lakes National Park

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Nelson Lakes National Park
Peaks between Hukere Stream and Shift Creek valley, Nelson Lakes National Park, New Zealand.jpg
Peaks between Hukere Stream and Shift Creek valley, Nelson Lakes National Park
LocationTasman District
Nearest cityNelson
Coordinates41°49′9″S 172°50′15″E / 41.81917°S 172.83750°E / -41.81917; 172.83750Coordinates: 41°49′9″S 172°50′15″E / 41.81917°S 172.83750°E / -41.81917; 172.83750
Area1,018.8 km2 (393.4 sq mi)
Established1956
Governing bodyDepartment of Conservation

Nelson Lakes National Park is in the South Island of New Zealand, at the northern end of the Southern Alps. It was formed after the passing of the National Parks Act in 1952. It was created in 1956 (one of four created in the 1950s).[1][2] The park contains beech forests, multiple lakes, snow covered mountains and valleys created by glaciers during the ice ages.[3]

Geography[edit]

Nelson Lakes National Park covers some 1,019 square kilometres (393 sq mi).[4] The park is centered at two large lakes, Rotoiti and Rotoroa. The park also includes the surrounding valleys (including Travers, Sabine, D'Urville and the upper reaches of the Matakitaki).

Mountain ranges include the Ella Range (Mount Magadalene (2187m) and Mount Ella (2253m)), Mahanga Range, Spencer Mountains, Travers Range (which includes Mount Hopeless (2278m), Angelus Peak (2075m) and Mount Robert (1411m)) and the Saint Arnaud Range (including Mount McKay (2300m), the Camel (1889m) and Mount McRae (1878m)).[5]

To the west of the park lies the Victoria Forest Park and to the south lies the Lewis Pass Scenic Reserve and the St James Conservation Area.[5] Northeast of the park is the Mount Richmond Forest Park.[5]

The park is a popular area for camping, tramping and fishing.[6] In 1959, The first park ranger was appointed in 1959. George Lyon, in this role, spent much of the 1960s building huts and making improvements to the tracks.[1]

The park is administered by the Department of Conservation who operate a visitors centre in Saint Arnaud that provides up to date and reliable information on all aspects of the National Park.[7]

Access to the Park[edit]

The main access point to Nelson Lakes National Park is at Lake Rotoiti and the village of Saint Arnaud, on State Highway 63, about 100 kilometres from both Nelson and Blenheim. A secondary access point is at Lake Rotoroa, turning off State Highway 6 at Gowanbridge. Shuttle services operate between St Arnaud, Nelson, Blenheim and Picton.

Activities[edit]

Camping[edit]

The main campgrounds are on the shores of Lake Rotoiti; there is a smaller campground at Lake Rotoroa.

Tramping[edit]

There is a network of tramping tracks throughout the park. Tracks range from short nature walks at Lake Rotoiti and Lake Rotorua, to multi-day backcountry tramps. Day tramps include the Lake Rotoiti circuit, St. Arnaud Range and Mt. Robert. The most popular long-distance tramping routes are the Travers-Sabine Circuit and other loops through Lake Angelus. The Te Araroa trail also passes through the park over Waiau Pass.

Skiing[edit]

Rainbow Ski Area is located on the eastern side of the St Arnaud range, just outside the park on the slopes of Mount McRae.[5]

The skifield on Mount Robert is no longer operational. (Mount Robert was named by Julius von Haast after his son).[8] The ski field was first scouted for potential in 1929 and between 1933 and 1934 the Kea hut was built and the ski field established. In 1944, the Nelson Ski Club was established. In the early days, accessing the ski field was a challenge. One had to row across Lake Rotoiti and then hike to the top of Mount Robert while carrying all of one's ski gear. The ski field was closed in 2003. This was due to a lack of consistent snow and changes to when the school holidays fell during the year. [9]

Other activities include mountaineering, boating, fishing and mountain biking.

Huts[edit]

Nelson Lakes National Park contains 20 Department of Conservation huts, ranging in quality from 'basic hut/bivvy' to 'serviced hut'.[10]

Name Type Coordinates
Angelus Hut Serviced Hut 172.748693 -41.888246
Blue Lake Hut Serviced Hut 172.655727 -42.057953
Bobs Hut Standard Hut 172.486414 -42.224767
Burn Creek Hut Basic Hut/bivvy 172.449249 -42.156507
Bushline Hut Serviced Hut 172.823098 -41.836731
Coldwater Hut Standard Hut 172.81704 -41.870353
Cupola Hut Standard Hut 172.732832 -41.971811
D'Urville Hut Standard Hut 172.645719 -41.905763
East Matakitaki Hut Standard Hut 172.556883 -42.194457
George Lyon (formerly Ella) Hut Standard Hut 172.605047 -42.046982
Hopeless Hut Standard Hut 172.756489 -41.930388
John Tait Hut Serviced Hut 172.768776 -41.974654
Lakehead Hut Serviced Hut 172.821978 -41.875648
Morgan Hut Standard Hut 172.630071 -41.982559
Mount Misery Hut Basic Hut/bivvy 172.669499 -41.933089
Nardoo Hut Basic Hut/bivvy 172.429207 -42.096966
Sabine Hut Serviced Hut 172.680706 -41.901372
Upper D'Urville Hut Basic Hut/bivvy 172.605865 -42.108211
Upper Travers Hut Serviced Hut 172.748747 -42.022114
West Sabine Hut Serviced Hut 172.683954 -42.007795

Mountain safety[edit]

One of the most popular huts in the national park, Angelus Hut can be accessed via Robert Ridge amongst a number of routes. The Robert Ridge route is one of the most dangerous routes in bad weather. Between 2010 and 2019, search and rescue teams have had to rescue 45 trampers and there have been two fatalities. This represents an incidence of 1 search and rescue for every 700 trampers making the trip.[11][12][13]

Snow and poor weather can occur at any time during the year and in combination with easy access to Robert Ridge from St Arnaud and the scenic location of Angelus Hut provide the so called "perfect storm". Angelus Hut lies in an alpine environment at 1650m. During winter months, Lake Angelus (adjacent to Angelus Hut) is generally frozen over and each of the four routes to the hut are usually covered in snow and can be very icy.[14]

The coroner has previously made recommendations that inexperienced trampers should avoid solo trips in alpine conditions or in winter, be aware of the weather forecast and to take an emergency shelter, navigation equipment and an emergency communication device.[15]

Rotoiti Mainland Island[edit]

The Rotoiti Mainland Island consists of 5000 hectares of beech forest around Lake Rotoiti. There is a project which aims to eliminate introduced pests such as stoats, possums, wasps and rodents, and allow recovery of the forests and native wildlife populations.[16]

The Rotoiti Nature Recovery Project has been a success in that it has reduced reduced predator numbers on the eastern side of Lake Rotoiti. It is possible to see great spotted kiwi, robins, bellbirds, fantails, rock wrens, keas and paradise ducks as a result.[17]

Panoramic view of Lake Rotoiti and the Saint Arnaud Range from Robert Ridge

Fauna[edit]

Kereru[edit]

The first record of the New Zealand wood pigeon or kereru in the national park is from Charles Heaphy in 1846 who "obtained" six of them in a day and a half. There is a population of kereru at Lake Rotoroa which is considered stable.[18]

Kakariki[edit]

The yellow-crowned parakeet were very common with "hundreds" near Lake Rotoroa around 1900. Although numbers have declined and considered "rare" they can be spotted in many valleys of the national park. The red-crowned parakeet is "critically rare and possibly extinct in the national park. The orange-fronted parakeet is considered extinct in the national park.[18]

Kakapo[edit]

Kakapo were common in the national park in the 1800s. Mary Thornton described “the kokapaw (kakapo)” as “good eating … all feathers really … you need at least a couple each for a good feed” in the 1890s. She then commented that “the kakapo seemed to vanish about the beginning of World War I”.[18]

Western weka[edit]

The western weka (Gallirallus australis australis) is considered rare in the Nelson Lakes area. They were common when Charles Heaphy visited Lake Rotoroa in 1846. Julius von Haast wrote in 1861 that “no other bird being as numerous as the weka which was everywhere in the grassy plains, forests, as well as near the summits of mountains amongst sub alpine vegetation”.[18] Weka were common throughout the Nelson Lakes before a sudden decline in their numbers between March and April 1909. [18]

Cupola gecko[edit]

The Cupola gecko is so rare that only one live specimen had ever been found in 1968 near Cupola Hut and one further specimen had been found in 2007. Extensive searches in 2006 failed to uncover any further examples of the species.[19] Three scientific trips in 2019 failed to find any evidence of the Cupola gecko. However In 2021, four examples were found in the Sabine valley demonstrating the species is not extinct.[20][21][22]

The Cupola gecko is described as looking similar to other forest geckos, with grey-brown colouration and either darker or lighter W or V shaped bands across its back.[23] The 2021 discoveries confirm that they live in alpine regions.[24]

South Island robin[edit]

The South Island robin (Petroica australis australis) can commonly be seen in Nelson Lakes National Park. They are a small bird that lives on a diet on insects with grey colouring and a white patch on their lower chest area. They are a very inquisitive species and often approach visitors to the national park getting within metres of them. Younger birds have been known to stand on a person’s boot. They live in the forest. They are often seen foraging on the ground. Their nests are at risk of predation from introduced mammalian species.[25][26][27][28]

South Island kaka[edit]

Large populations of kaka existed in the national park in the 1800s with “hundreds” living around Lake Rotoroa by about 1900. The populations declined throughout the 20th century to the point that it was rare to see groups of more than five or six birds by 1991. [18]

The South Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) was rarely seen in the park in 2009. They were most abundant around Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa and have benefited from the extensive stoat trapping which has been carried out by the Rotoiti Nature Recovery Project. Kaka are at risk from predation by stoats and possums.[18]

Long-tailed bat[edit]

The South Island long-tailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) were, in 1900, ‘a common sight’ in the national park. A spot one kilometre to the east of St Arnaud was known as ‘bat cutting’. They were observed to be declining in numbers by 1930 even though a colony of "more than a hundred bats" was observed. By the early 1990s, the species was classified as "rare" and numbers have declined further in the early 2000s in most valleys of the national park.[18][29] They are still very occasionally seen by trampers.[30][31]

Blue duck[edit]

The blue duck or whio (Hymenolaimus malachorhynchos) was common in the Nelson Lakes regions in the 1800s with Julius von Haast noting in 1862 that "It is found in all rivers, and is easily killed”.[18] During the Nelson Lakes National Park survey of 1978-1985 blue duck were only recorded in the Travers, Sabine, Glenroy and Matakitaki valleys with the Matakitaki valley being home to the greatest numbers. By 2009, there were too few birds, especially females remaining in Nelson Lakes National Park to ensure the continuation of the species without human help.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shaun Barnett, Chris MacLean (2014). Tramping A New Zealand History. Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton Publishing.
  2. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "Nelson lakes". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  3. ^ "Nelson Lakes National Park | Nelson, New Zealand". www.newzealand.com. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  4. ^ "Data Table - Protected Areas - LINZ Data Service". Land Information New Zealand. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  5. ^ a b c d Nelson Lakes Parkmap (scale1:100,000). New Zealand: Infomap. 1995.
  6. ^ "Nelson Lakes National Park | national park, New Zealand". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
  7. ^ "Nelson Lakes National Park". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
  8. ^ Wild New Zealand. Surrey Hills, NSW: Readers Digest. 1982. pp. 136–145.
  9. ^ "Skiing at Mt. Robert". www.theprow.org.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  10. ^ "Nelson Lakes National Park". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
  11. ^ "Mountain Safety Council New Zealand — Tramping - Robert Ridge and Angelus Hut". Mountain Safety Council New Zealand. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  12. ^ Safety, NZ Mountain (2020-07-14). "Do you want to contribute to improving tramper safety in Nelson Lakes National Park?". Medium. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  13. ^ "Tramper who died at Nelson Lakes named". Stuff. 2019-06-04. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  14. ^ "Angelus Hut tracks and routes". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  15. ^ "Tourist died of hypothermia while tramping to Angelus Hut in Nelson Lakes". Stuff. 2020-11-21. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  16. ^ Department of Conservation (July 2020). "Nelson Lakes National Park VISITOR INFORMATION" (PDF). Department of Conservation. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  17. ^ "Nelson Lakes National Park". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kate Steffens and Paul Gasson (September 2009). "A history of threatened fauna in Nelson Lakes area" (PDF). NIWA. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  19. ^ "Atlas species information". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  20. ^ "'Similar to having a baby, the euphoria': rediscovery of rare gecko delights experts". the Guardian. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  21. ^ "Critter of the Week: The Cupola Gecko". RNZ. 2021-04-09. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  22. ^ "On the trail of a ghost: The history of the Cupola gecko". Stuff. 2021-04-09. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  23. ^ "Mokopirirakau SPECIES COMPLEX | NZHS". www.reptiles.org.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  24. ^ "N.Z. scientists finally track down geckos so rare, it wasn't clear they still existed". 1 April 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  25. ^ "Large mainland populations of South Island robins retain greater genetic diversity than offshore island refuges" (PDF). Conserv Genet (2007) 8:705–714. 15 May 2006.
  26. ^ "South Island robin Petroica australis australis". Rare Species. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  27. ^ "South Island robin | New Zealand Birds Online". nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  28. ^ May '17, Matthew Winter 18 May 201718 (2017-05-17). "South Island robin". Wilderness Magazine. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  29. ^ "Lesser Short-Tailed Bat | Nelson Lakes National Park". nelsonlakesnationalpark.nz. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  30. ^ "Rare encounters with long-tailed bats in Richmond Ranges". Stuff. 2021-01-14. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  31. ^ "Traps extended to protect Marlborough long-tailed bats". Stuff. 2019-12-11. Retrieved 2021-05-17.

External links[edit]