Ctenophryne aterrima

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Ctenophryne aterrima
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae
Genus: Ctenophryne
Species: C. aterrima
Binomial name
Ctenophryne aterrima
(Günther, 1901)

Glossostoma aterrimum Günther, 1901
Gastrophryne aterrima (Günther, 1901)
Microhyla aterrima (Günther, 1901)
Nelsonophryne aterrima (Günther, 1901)

Ctenophryne aterrima (common name: Costa Rica Nelson frog, reflecting its earlier placement in Nelsonophryne) is a species of frog in the Microhylidae family. It is found in northwestern Ecuador, the Andes of Colombia, and lowland and premontane zones of Panama and Costa Rica to about 1,600 m (5,200 ft) above sea level.[1][2][3][4]


Ctenophryne aterrima are very robust-bodied frogs with short limbs and a small, pointed head. They are moderately sized, with males growing to 61 mm (2.4 in) and females to 67 mm (2.6 in) in snout–vent length. The skin of the dorsum is smooth and uniformly black to very dark grey in color; the ventral surface is dark brown. The eye is black.[4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Ctenophryne aterrima is a secretive and nocturnal leaf-litter species that is rarely seen.[1] Its natural habitats are humid lowland and montane forests.[1][3][4] Adults can be found under fallen logs and other debris. They breed in swamps and shallow pools on the forest floor.[1]

The species is not threatened, but habitat loss caused by agricultural development, plantations, illegal crops, logging, and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops remain possible threats.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q., Bolívar, W., Grant, T., Almendáriz, A. & Bolaños, F. (2008). "Ctenophryne aterrima". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T57900A11697070. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Ctenophryne aterrima (Günther, 1901)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Acosta-Galvis, A.R. (2015). "Ctenophryne aterrima (Günther, 1901)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.05.2015. www.batrachia.com. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c "Nelsonophryne aterrima Gunther 1901". Amphibians of Panama. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 21 December 2015.